Exercise

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Chap. 7. Cases where extended transactions are recommended:
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ERP systems
E-commerce
Mobile-commerce
Patient records/Elektronisk patientjournal
Airline reservation systems
CSCW systemer
Distributed calender systems
Mobile applications
Supply chain management
Library systems
Banking systems
Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)
A distributed modular ERP system have relaxed
ACID properties across the autonomous
databases of the ERP modules.
The sales module
Customers
Exercise:
How would you
implement relaxed
ACID properties
between the
modules?
Orders
Orderlines
Stocks per product
per location
Products
The account module offer
services with relaxed ACID
properties. (That is read-only,
compensatable, and retriable
subtransactions).
Account
items
Accounts
A distributed modular ERP system have relaxed
ACID properties across the autonomous
databases of the ERP modules.
The sales module
Customers
Departments
Exercise:
How would
you replicate
the
department
table?
The account module offer
services with relaxed ACID
properties. (That is at least
read, compensatable, and
retriable services).
Orders
Account
items
Orderlines
Accounts
Products
Stocks per
product per
location
Departments
A data model
for an
integrated Ecommerce/ERP
system:
Exercise.
Suppose a
distributed modular
ERP system has
Sale, Accounting,
Procurement, and
CRM modules.
What tables/table
fragments should
these modules own?
Product
Product#
ProductName
Price
Order-Detail
Product#
Order#
Qty
Price
Timestamp
Order-DetailHistory
Inv-Item#
Order#
Seq#
State
Timestamp
InvoyceHistory
Invoice#
Timestamp
State
Notes
Product-Stock
Product#
Location#
Qty
Order
Order#
OrderDate
Balance
State
Shipping
Shipping#
ShipMethod
ShipCharge
State
ShipDate
Address
Address#
Name
Add1
Add2
City
State
Zip
Shipping
Invoice
Invoice#
CreationDate
Location
Location#
Address
Customer
Customer#
Kredit-Limit
Balance
UserSession
Session#
IPaddress
#Click
Timestamp
UserAccount
Salesman#
PassWord
Timestamp
#visits
#trans
Ttl-tr-amount
Payment
Payment#
Ammount
State
Timestamp
Billing
CreditCard
Card#
HolderName
ExpireDate
Exercise: How would you implement relaxed
ACID properties in the E-Government module?
An E-Governance module
Citizens
Case
officers
The account
module offer
services with
relaxed ACID
properties.
Cases
Deparments
Case items
Accounts
Account
items
Item types
Concept definitions used in logistic exercise:
Pallet = wooden skeleton where packages
may be stored in such a way that they all can
be moved by a truck.
Collie = alle the packages that are stored on a
pallet(palle).
Leg = Route or subroute where the
transportation does not have stops
ER-diagram of a logistics management system
Transport Orders
Orderlines
from
Packages, Collies and
Containers
Package- Damage
relationship
Collie
hierarchy
Customers
to
Locations
from
to
Physical
containers
Container-routes
relationships of order 3
Route-leg
hierarchy
Routes
and legs
Transport
operator
Scheduled routes
and legs
Transport medias like ships, airplanes, and trucks.
How should the transport orders and sub-orders to sub-contractors be
replicated in order to optimize the transports?
Global ER-diagram of integrated logistics management
Transport Orders
Orderlines
from
Packages, Collies and
Containers
Package- Damage
relationship
Collie
hierarchy
Customers
to
Locations
from
to
Physical
containers
Container-routes
relationships of order 3
Route-leg
hierarchy
Routes
and legs
Transport
operator
Scheduled routes
and legs
Transport medias like ships, airplanes, and trucks.
Describe the local databases in the central location of the transport
company, the locations of the sub-contractors, and the mobile locations
of the Transport medias. Design a workflow with focus on the
integration of the local database locations.
Start
Petri net:
Work flow
of a global
E-commerce
transactions
where the
stocks are in
the locations
of the
different
suppliers.
Canseled order
1. Put products in the basket
Stock
rejected
order
Non
confirmed
order
2. Confirm order-lines and
update stocks in servers
Sub
orders
3.Suppliers send
products
Confirmed
order
Timer
OR split
5. Send the received
products to the
customer
End
Products
4. Receive products from
suppliers and update
QUANTITY received
All products
are received
6. Send the rest of the
products to the customer
SubPetri net of
activity 2
Non
confirmed
order
AND split
Order
-line
2.1 try to confirm the
next order-line
Order
-line
2.2 Supplier's server
try to confirm
order-line
More order-lines
Order
2.3 Update Order with supplier
answer for each order-line
OR split
AND join
All answers received
Order
Stock
rejected
order
May the suppliers be
transport sub-contractors?
2.4 Send Order with confirm
answers to the Customer. If the
Order was confirmed The Timer
is set and confirming Sub-orders
are send to the involved
suppliers.
Confirmed Order
Timer
Sub-orders
Answer
Global ER-diagram of integrated logistics management
Transport Orders
Orderlines
from
Packages, Collies and
Containers
Package- Damage
relationship
Collie
hierarchy
Customers
to
Locations
from
to
Physical
containers
Container-routes
relationships of order 3
Route-leg
hierarchy
Routes
and legs
Transport
operator
Scheduled routes
and legs
Transport medias like ships, airplanes, and trucks.
How would you recommend to integrate and later merge the
shipping companies Maersk and P&O Nedlloyd if Maersk
had used the logistics architecture above?
Exercise. Suppose a production firm has central planning and de-central
production. How would you recommend to design the planning and
production modules of a distributed modular ERP system that support
the organization of the compamy?
Ressource
types
Logical
processes
Input
Output
Logical
products
Physical
ressources
Physical
processes
Input
Physical
products
Output
Time
Exercise: How would you implement/replicate
the tables Network Branches?
Design a modile distributed calender system!
ER-diagram of an integrated calender and meating system:
RoomLocation
Relationship
Dates
Roles
Rooms
Locations
Meatings/
appointments
Time
Participants
Persons
Exercise: How would you implement relaxed ACID
properties in the Supplier module?
Suppliers
Supplier
orders
Orderllines
Accepted product deliveries
Delivery
locations
Productstocks
Products
Exercise:
Describe and design the local databases for a distributed brewery with
many different production, sale and depot locations.
Can a distributed modular ERP system bee used to integrate the different
locations?
Customers
Orders
Locations
Orderlines
Productstocks
Products
Electronic Health Records (EHR)
Patients
- Patient - ID
- Name
- Address
- Balance
Health
records
EHR records should be craeted by
Hospital service modules that are
exchangable as the modules in a
distributed modular ERP system.
That is, Hospital service modules
should offer and only use reading,
compensatable, and retriable SOA
services from other modules.
…….
Hospital
admissions
Diagnoses
Prescriptions
Surgeries
Hospital
discharges
Electronic Health Records (EHR)
Patients
- Patient - ID
- Name
- Address
- Balance
Health
records
Suppose all Health records are owned by
the ”CRM module”. How would you
recommend to integrate a new module
that make test results that later are used
for making diagnoses?
How would you recommend to integrate
the diagnose module?
How would you recommend to integrate
the Surgery planning module and the
Surgery module itself?
…….
Hospital
admissions
Diagnoses
Prescriptions
Surgeries
Hospital
discharges
Patients
Health
records
Patient ID
Name
Address
Patient
admits
ER-diagram for an EHR system
Health record subtypes
...
Sympthoms
/test results
Diagnoses/
diseases
Treatments
Prescriptions
Patient
discharges
Prescription
lines
Basic Health records are above the dottet line
Conseptual hospital entites in general are below the dottet line
Employees
Patient
admit
types
Sympthom
... types
Medical
Disease
types
Treatment
types
Medicin
types
Patient
discharge
types
Patients
Health
records
Patient ID
Name
Address
Patient
admits
ER-diagram for an EHR system
Health record subtypes
...
Sympthoms
/test results
Diagnoses/
diseases
Prescriptions
Treatments
Patient
discharges
Prescription
lines
Entities with different versions of 0-safe designs
Entities with different versions of 1-safe designs
Employees
Patient
admit
types
Sympthom
... types
Medical
Disease
types
Treatment
types
Medicin
types
Patient
discharge
types
The 0-safe design with local commit:
Client
Nearest location
Remote location
Trans. record
drecord
The 0-safe design with local commit is recommended when it
is possible to implement sufficient local countermeasures
against the isolation anomalies.
Example.
Patients_____
Patient ID
Name
Address
Sympthoms
Symptom
types
The 0-safe design with deferred commit:
Nearest location
Primary location
Client
Compensate?
Trans. record
drecord
Compensate?
The 0-safe design with deferred commit is recommended when
update delays should be minimized, and when it is not possible to
implement sufficient local countermeasures against the isolation
anomalies.
Example.
Patients_____
Patient ID
Name
Address
Diagnoses/
diseases
Disease types
Health Records Database
Patients
Entities with
different
versions of
0-safe design
- Patient - ID
- Name
- Address
- Balance
Health
records
…….
Hospital
admissions
Diagnoses
Prescriptions
Deffered commit
Surgeries
Hospital
discharges
Local commit
Patients_____
Patient ID
Name
Address
Entities with
different
Entities of
versions
of
physical objects
0-safe design
Patient admits
...
Patient records
Doctors
Patient record subtypes
Sympthoms
Diagnoses/
diseases
Ordinations
Treatments
Patient
discharges
Ordination lines
Patient admit
types
Entities of
Entities conceptual
with
the basic objects
1-safe design
...
Sympthom
types
Disease
types
Treatment
types
Medicin types
Medicin products
Medical tests
Patient
discharges
types
Medicin
companies
Overview of the most important EHR integr. architectures
Evaluation criteria
Architectures for integrating
electronic health records
Local
autonomy
Read
performance
Software
costs
Anomaly
problems
1. Integration by using SOA health
services
Best
Worst
Worst
Worst
2. Central database solution
Worst
Best
Best
Best
3. Central database solution mixed
with SAO integration
Average
Above
worst
Average
Above
worst
4. Distributed subscriber solution
Best
Best
Worst
Average
5. Central subscriber offering SOA
services to others
Best
Average
Worst
Average
6. Central database solution with
central subscription and SOA
services to others
Average
Average
Average
Average
Best
Average
Average
7. Central database solution mixed Average
with distributed subscription on top
of central subscription
Architectures for
integrating electronic
health records
Evaluation criteria
Local auto- Read perfor- Software
nomy
mance
costs
Anomaly
problems
1. Integration by using
SOA health services
Best
Worst
Worst
Worst
2. Central database
solution
Worst
Best
Best
Best
3. Central database
solution mixed with
SAO integration
Average
Above worst
Average
Above worst
Any other hospital
Data
Read
Data
Data
Read
Hospital of residence
Hospital of admission
Architectures for
integrating electronic
health records
Local auto- Read perfor- Software
nomy
mance
costs
Anomaly
problems
1. Integration by using
SOA health services
Best
Worst
Worst
Worst
2. Central database
solution
Worst
Best
Best
Best
3. Central database
solution mixed with
SAO integration
Average
worst
Any otherAbove
hospital
Average
Above worst
Hospital of residence
Update Update
Hospital of admission
Read
Data
Central database
with all functions
Architectures for
integrating electronic
health records
Local auto- Read perfor- Software
nomy
mance
costs
Anomaly
problems
1. Integration by using
SOA health services
Best
Worst
Worst
Worst
2. Central database
solution
Worst
Best
Best
Best
Average
Above worst
3. Central database
Average
Above worst
Any
other
hospital
solution mixed with
Data
SAO integration
Read
Data
Hospital of residence
Read
Update Update
Data
Hospital of admission
Read
Data
Central database with only
new develloped functions
Architectures for integrating
electronic health records
Local autonomy
Read perfor- Softwar
mance
e costs
Anomaly
problems
4. Distributed subscriber solution
Best
Best
Worst
Average
5. Central subscriber offering
SOA services to others
Best
Average
Worst
Average
6. Central solution with central
sub-scription and SOA services to
others
Average
Average
Average
Average
Any other hospital
Data
Update
Data
Hospital of residence
Data
Update
Hospital of admission
Architectures for integrating
electronic health records
Local autonomy
Read perfor- Softwar
mance
e costs
Anomaly
problems
4. Distributed subscriber solution
Best
Best
Worst
Average
5. Central subscriber offering
SOA services to others
Best
Average
Worst
Average
6. Central solution with central
sub-scription and SOA services to
others
Average
Average
Average
Average
Any other hospital
Data
Data
Data
Hospital of residence
Hospital of admission
Update Update
Read
Data
Central read distribution
of redundant data
Architectures for integrating
electronic health records
Local autonomy
Read perfor- Softwar
mance
e costs
Anomaly
problems
4. Distributed subscriber solution
Best
Best
Worst
Average
5. Central subscriber offering
SOA services to others
Best
Average
Worst
Average
Average
Average
6. Central solution with central
Average
Average
sub-scription and SOA services to
others
Any other hospital
Data
Data
Hospital of residence
Read
Read
Update Update
Data
Hospital of admission
Read
Data
Central database with
new develloped functions
Architectures for integrating
electronic health records
Local autonomy
Read perfor- Softwar
mance
e costs
Anomaly
problems
5. Central subscriber offering
SOA services to others
Best
Average
Worst
Average
6. Central database solution with
central subscription and SOA
services to others
Average
Average
Average
Average
7. Central solution mixed with
distributed subscription on top of
central subscription
Average
Best
Average
Average
Any other hospital
Data
Data
Hospital of residence
Data
Update Update
Hospital of admission
Update
Update
Data
Central update distribution of
both redundant and central data
Overview of the most important EHR integr. architectures
Evaluation criteria
Architectures for integrating
electronic health records
Local
autonomy
Read
performance
Software
costs
Anomaly
problems
1. Integration by using SOA health
services
Best
Worst
Worst
Worst
2. Central database solution
Worst
Best
Best
Best
3. Central database solution mixed
with SOA integration
Average
Above
worst
Average
Above
worst
4. Distributed subscriber solution
Best
Best
Worst
Average
5. Central subscriber offering SOA
services to others
Best
Average
Worst
Average
6. Central database solution with
central subscription and SOA
services to others
Average
Average
Average
Average
Best
Average
Average
7. Central database solution mixed Average
with distributed subscription on top
of central subscription
Countermeasures against missing isolation property
Patients
-
Patient - ID
Name
Address
Balance
Version file countermeasure
Commutative update countermeasure
Health
records
…….
Hospital
admitments
Diagnoses
Prescriptions
Surgeries
Hospital
discharges
Pessimistic view countermeasure
for related resources
Version file countermeasure
Properties of different EHR database design methods
Evaluation criteria
Database designs for EHR systems.
Traditional
normalized
database design
XML based
storing of
variable health
attributes
Generalized
subtypes are used
for storing variable
health attributes
Flexibility towards new
health record types
Worst
Best
Best
Performance of
overview queries
Worst
Best
Best
Performance of queries
that need variable
health attributes
Best
Average
Worst
Storage consumption
Best
Average
Worst
Development costs for
table driven
applications
Worst
Best
Best
Flexibility towards data
analyses
Average
Worst
Best
Contries
EHR Datawarehouse:
Regions
Hospitals
Departments
EHR event
types
Patients
Time dimension
The most important attributes of Electronic Health Record events
One-to-one relationship
One-to-one relationship
Attributes special for
ERP event type 1
.........
Dimensions for
event type 1
.........
Attributes special for
ERP event type n
Dimensions for
event type n
Properties of different EHR database design methods
Evaluation criteria
Database designs for EHR systems.
Traditional
normalized
database design
XML based
storing of
variable health
attributes
Generalized
subtypes are used
for storing variable
health attributes
Flexibility towards new
health record types
Worst
Best
Best
Performance of
overview queries
Worst
Best
Best
Performance of queries
that need variable
health attributes
Best
Average
Worst
Storage consumption
Best
Average
Worst
Development costs for
table driven
applications
Worst
Best
Best
Flexibility towards data
analyses
Average
Worst
Best
Chap. 7. EHR integration with ERP:
Existing EHR System
Planning Module of ERP
EHR event type
Work flow
processes
EHR Fact table
Common EHR
event subtype
Symptoms/Tests
Accounts
Surgery
Symp/Test
Item
Account item
Surgery item
New Test Module
Accounting Module of ERP
New Suregry Module
Integration of new modules into an existing EHR system
Design a Distributed Airline Database
Design local databases and the
workflow of an integrated
distributed database that integrate
the e-commerce sale of different
airline companies in a way that
optimize performance, availability
and consistency of a common
distributed airline system with
local databases in the airline
companies, airports, and “sale
offices” at e.g. travel agents,
hotels and
e-commerce servers. (Do not use a
GDS in this exercise).
Airline
companies
Flight routes
Airports
Subroutes
Plains
Departures
Plain
types
Tickets
Customers
Travel
arrangement
Exercise:
Design local databases and the
workflow of an integrated distributed
database that integrate the e-commerce
sale of different airline companies, hotel
chains in a way that optimize
performance, availability and
consistency of a common distributed
system with local databases in the
airline companies, hotel chains, airports,
car rental companies, and “sale offices”
at e.g. travel agents, hotels and ecommerce servers. (Do not use a GDS
in this exercise).
Describe the workflow of the integrated
e-commerce system.
Hotel
chains
Hotels
Rooms
Room
reservations
Services/
tours/
car rentals
Customer
groups
Check-in
periods
Customers
Exercise
How would you recommend
integrating two airline
companies?
Does it make any difference
whether the companies are in
alliance or not?
What problems may occur if
travel arrangements are
converted while some of the
flights are not finished yet?
Airline
companies
Flight routes
Airports
Subroutes
Plains
Departures
Plain
types
Tickets
Can the ideas of a distributed
modular ERP system be used?
Customers
Travel
arrangement
Exercise: A GDS (Global Distribution Service) is a worldwide computerized
reservation system for reserving airline tickets, hotel rooms, rental cars, and other
travel related items. The largest GDSs are Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre, and Worldspan.
Design an integrated distributed database that integrate the databases of different
airline companies and hotel chains in a way that optimize performance, availability
and consistency of a common distributed system with local databases in GDSs, the
airline companies, hotel chains, airports, and “sale offices” at e.g. travel agents,
hotels and e-commerce servers.
Suppliers
of travel
products
GDS
Primary
online
reservation
sites
Secondary
online
reservation
sites
The relationships of the diagram illustrate that a travel product stored in one system
may be stored in many other systems from where data are replicated in sequence
from left to right between the different types of systems.
How would you design relaxed ACID properties in the global distributed system?
How would you design a workflow for flexible transactions?
Root transaction
Committing subtransaction
Routing by using flexible transactions.
Question 1. Describe a
Petri net workflow for
flexible transactions.
Question 2. Change the
Petri net workflow in such
a way that it also functions
for recovered transactions.
Syntax for the State
diagram:
Event
[condition]
Action
Workflow
of flexible
transactions
.
Input
Input is supplier
orders or deliveries.
New
Supplier
orders.
Orderlines
are replicated
to the mobile
controllers
Workflow for making mobile
control of supplier deliveries.
Reduced product delivery
Product
Delivery
AND
SPLIT
deliveries
larger than
Accepted product
ordered
Select
deliveries
AND
JOIN
a control
action
Update the
local stock
Delivery
matches an
Orderline
Accepted product
deliveries
Reduced
orderline
Orderlines
What is the most
important part of
the workflow from a
system integration
point of view?
Delivery
less than
ordered
AND
SPLIT
Replicate the mobile
registrations to the
central ERP system
Delivery
is not
ordered
Error reports
End of workflow
Input
Input is supplier
orders or deliveries.
New
Supplier
orders.
Orderlines
are replicated
to the mobile
controllers
Workflow for making mobile
control of supplier deliveries.
Reduced product delivery
Product
Delivery
AND
SPLIT
deliveries
larger than
Accepted product
ordered
Select
deliveries
AND
JOIN
a control
action
Update the
local stock
Delivery
matches an
Orderline
Accepted product
deliveries
Reduced
orderline
Orderlines
How would you
implement the
database of the
workflow?
Delivery
less than
ordered
AND
SPLIT
Replicate the mobile
registrations to the
central ERP system
Delivery
is not
ordered
Error reports
End of workflow
from
Workflow
nodes
A:
to
Activities
Places
Branches from
one workflow
node to another
Colored tokens
Allokation of fragments:
Allocation is the physical placement of fragments in different locations.
Allocated fragments may be redundant.
Exercise:
How are the tables fragmented and allocated in a distributed ERP
system?
Customers
Orders
Locations
Orderlines
Products
Productstocks
Can the Product and Product stock tables be integrated to a single table
locally?
Can a DDBMS allocate fragments from different tables in a single
local table?
End of session
Thank you !!!
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