Ch. 2 The Body in Health and Disease

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Medical Language
Second Edition
CHAPTER
2
The Body in Health and
Disease
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Chapter 2 - Part A: The Body In Health
-There are seven different ways the human
body can be studied.
-Health is defined as all the body parts
functioning correctly.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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1. Body Planes and Body
Directions:
Anatomical Position
Body Planes: coronal plane
sagittal plane
transverse plane
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Figure 2-1 Human body in anatomical
position
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Figure 2-3 Coronal and sagittal sutures of the
cranium
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Coronal plane
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Sagittal plane
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Transverse plane
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The Coronal Plane and Body
Directions:
Coronal Plane Directions:
Anterior or Ventral or Prone
Posterior or Dorsal or Supine
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Figure 2-5 Posteroanterior direction
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The Sagittal Plane and Body
Directions:
Sagittal Plane Directions:
Midsagittal- is used when
dividing the body into
equal left and right sides.
Parasagittal- is used when
the body is divided
anywhere to the left or
right of the midline.
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Figure 2-7 Midsagittal view of the head on an MRI scan
(DR Unique/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.) MRI Video Clip?
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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The Sagittal Plane and Body
Directions:
Sagittal Directions:
Medial- moving towards
the midline of the body.
Lateral- moving away
from the midline.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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The Transverse Plane and Body
Directions:
Transverse Directions:
Superior- upper half of the
body.
Inferior- lower half of the
body.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Figure 2-10 Superior and inferior parts
Medical Language, Second Edition
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The Transverse Plane and Body
Directions:
Transverse Directions:
Cephalad- moving
superiorly.
Caudad- moving
inferiorly.
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Other Body Directions and
Positions:
Distal vs. Proximal
Superficial vs. Deep
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2. Body Cavities
-A cavity is a hollow space that is
surrounded by bones or muscles.
1. Cranial
2. Spinal
3. Thoracic
4. Abdominal & Pelvic
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Figure 2-14 Body cavities
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3. Quadrants and Regions
-The anterior surface of the abdominopelvic area can
be divided into four quadrants or nine regions.
-The four quadrants include:
Right upper quadrant (RUQ).
Left upper quadrant (LUQ).
Left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Right lower quadrant (RLQ).
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Quadrants and Regions:
-The nine regions include the:
Right and left hypochondriac regions.
Epigastric region.
Right and left lumbar regions.
Umbilical region.
Right and left inguinal or iliac regions.
Hypogastric region.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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4. Anatomy and Physiology
-Anatomy is the study of the structures of
the human body.
-Physiology is the study of the function of
those structures.
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5. Microscopic-to-Macroscopic
-Microscopic Diagnosis: using a microscope
to study cells and cellular structures to test
and diagnose what is occurring.
-Macroscopic Diagnosis: using the naked
eye to study tissues, organs, and body
systems to test and diagnose what is
occurring.
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Susan Turley
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6. Body Systems
-Studying the various organs and how they
function together in a body system:
Gastrointestinal (Gl) system
Respiratory system
Cardiovascular (CV) system
Blood
Lymphatic system
Integumentary system
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Body Systems:
Skeletal system
Muscular system
Nervous system
Urinary system
Male genital and reproductive system
Female genital and reproductive system
Endocrine system
Eyes
Ears, nose, and throat (ENT) system
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7. Medical Specialties
1.
2.
3.
4.
Gastroenterology
Pulmonology
Cardiology
Hematology
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7. Medical Specialties Cont.
5. Immunology
6. Dermatology
7. Orthopedics – Skeletal
8. Orthopedics – Muscular
9. Neurology
10. Urology
11. Male Reproductive
12. Gynecology and Obstetrics
13. Endocrinology
14. Ophthalmology
15. Otolaryngology (ENT)
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Other Medical Specialties:
-Other medical specialties that are not directly
related to a body system include the following:
Medical Specialty
Description
psychiatry
study and treatment of the mind
oncology
study and treatment of cancer
radiology and nuclear
medicine
use of x-rays, sound waves, and other
forms of radiation and energy to
diagnose and treat disease
dentistry
study and treatment of the teeth and
gums
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Other Medical Specialties
Medical Specialty
Description
dietetics
study and use of nutrition, nutrients, and
diet
pharmacology
study of drugs used as medicines
neonatology
study and treatment of newborn infants
pediatrics
study and treatment of infants and children
geriatrics
study and treatment of the elderly
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Chapter 2 – Part B: The Body in Disease
-Preventive Medicine is the healthcare specialty
that focuses on keeping a person healthy and
preventing disease.
-Disease: any change in the normal structure or
function of the body.
-Etiology is the cause or origin of a disease.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Disease Categories:
Congenital
Degenerative
Environmental
Hereditary
Iatrogenic
Idiopathic
Infectious
Neoplastic
Nosocomial
Nutritional
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Onset, Course, and Outcome of
Disease
Patients will experience:
Symptoms- any deviation from health
that is perceived or felt.
Signs- physical appearance that is able
to be seen or detected by others.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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-Syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs associated with,
and characteristic of, one particular disease.
-Asymptomatic patients can still have a disease, but it can
only be detected by medical tests.
-Symptoms and Signs Classification:
– Acute (sudden and severe)
– Subacute (less severe in intensity), or
– Chronic (continuing for 3 months or more)
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Course and Outcome of Disease
To fully understand the patient’s symptoms
and signs, the physician does the following:
-Medical history and physical examination.
-Techniques used(as needed) during the physical
examination: inspection, palpation, auscultation, and
percussion.
-Diagnosis is made that identifies the nature and
cause of the disease or condition.
-If the physician cannot make a diagnosis, the patient
undergoes further diagnostic tests or is referred to a
specialist.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Figure 2-18 Inspection
(S. O’Brien/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Figure 2-19 Palpation
(Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College)
Medical Language, Second Edition
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Figure 2-20 Auscultation
(Corbis RF)
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Figure 2-21 Percussion
(Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College)
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-Exacerbation is a sudden worsening in the severity of the
symptoms or signs.
-Sequela is an abnormal condition or complication that
arises because of the original disease and remains after the
original disease has resolved.
-Remission is a temporary improvement in the symptoms
and signs of a disease without the underlying disease being
cured.
-Relapse is a return of the original symptoms and signs of
the disease.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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-Therapeutic is defined as when treatment
causes the symptoms or signs of the
disease to disappear.
-Refractory is defined as when the disease
does not respond to treatment.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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-Diagnosis is the act of identifying a disease from its
signs and symptoms.
-Prognosis is the predicted course or outcome of a
disease.
-The course of a disease can have one of three
outcomes:
– Recuperation or recovery
– Disability
– Terminal Illness
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Healthcare Professionals and
Healthcare Settings
Physician
-The leader of the healthcare team who examines the
patient, orders tests, diagnoses diseases, and treats
diseases by prescribing drugs or therapy.
-Surgeons are physicians who complete additional
training in surgery.
-Primary care physicians (PCPs) specialize in family
practice or pediatrics.
-A physician who is on the medical staff of a hospital
and admits a patient to the hospital is known as the
attending physician.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Physician Extenders
-PEs are healthcare professionals who work
under the supervision of a physician.
-PEs examine, diagnose, and treat patients and
prescribe medications.
-Physician extenders include: physician’s
assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs),
certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and certified
registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs).
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Nurse
-Examines patients, makes nursing diagnoses,
and administers treatments or drugs ordered by
the physician.
-Gives hands-on care and focuses on the
physical and emotional needs of the patient and
the family.
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Susan Turley
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Allied Health Professionals:
-Technologists
-Technicians
-Therapists
-Dietitians
-Medical assistants
-Phlebotomists
-Dental hygienists
-Audiologists
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Healthcare Settings
1. Hospital
-provides care patients who require medical or surgical care
for longer than 24 hours.
-physicians must write an order in the patient’s medical
record to admit or discharge the patient.
-a patient who stays overnight in a room/bed within the
hospital is an inpatient.
-ancillary departments
-hospital types: general, specialty, government, university or
college.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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2. Physician’s Office (Medical Office)
-A single or group of physicians that maintain
an office.
-Services: examinations, diagnostic, tests,
diagnosis, rx.
-Seriously ill patients who cannot be quickly
diagnosed or adequately treated in the office
are sent to a hospital.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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3.Clinic
-Provides general or specific healthcare
services.
-Convenience factors and drawbacks.
-Example: well-baby clinic provides care to
newborn infants.
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Susan Turley
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4. Ambulatory Surgery Center (ASC)
-An ASC is a facility where minor surgery is
performed and the patient does not stay
overnight.
-Known as Outpatient Surgery Centers
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5. Long-Term-Care Facility
-A residential facility for elderly or disabled
persons who are unable to care for themselves.
-Provides 24-hour nursing care.
-Persons in long-term care facilities are
residents rather than patients.
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6. Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF)
-Long-term care facility that provides a high
level of medical and nursing care for patients
recently discharged from the hospital.
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Susan Turley
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7. Home Health Agency
-Provides a range of healthcare services to
people in their homes.
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8. Hospice
-A facility (or in-home) for patients who are
dying from a terminal illness.
-Their physicians have certified that they have
less than 6 months to live.
-Hospice services include:
 Patient care (quality of life)
 Counseling
 Emotional support for the patient and family
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Susan Turley
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9. School Health Services
-Generally staffed by nurses or athletic trainers.
-Will treat minor injuries such as cuts, bruises,
headaches, upset stomachs…ect.
-Oversees school physicals to make sure
students are ok to attend school and participate
in extra-curricular events and sports.
-Administer speech, hearing, and vision tests.
-Flu shots
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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10. Dental & Optometry Offices
-Provide care for the teeth such as cleanings
and repair of cavities; treatment of gum
disease.
-Provide care for the eyes such as exams and
minor injuries; glasses, contacts…ect.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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11. Emergency Care Services
-Provide quick, on-site emergency care for victims of
accidents or sudden illness.
-Examples include: ambulance services, fire
departments, clinics and centers, helicopter or
airplane transport services.
-Nurses, Doctors, & Emergency Medical Technicians
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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12. Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO)
-Act as both health care delivery systems and types
of health insurance.
-Provide total health care directed toward
preventative health care for a fee that is usually
fixed or prepaid in addition to treating all medical
needs.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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13. Assisted-Living Facilities
-Allow individuals who can care for themselves
to rent or purchase an apartment in a facility.
-Provide meals; house-keeping and laundry
services; transportation; social events; basic onsite medical care.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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14. Mental Health Facilities
-Treat patients with mental disorders and
substance abuse issues.
-Inpatient and Outpatient services.
-Examples include guidance and counseling;
psychiatric; chemical abuse treatment; physical
abuse.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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15. Rehabilitation Facilities
-Provide care to help patients with physical or
mental disabilities obtain maximum self-care
and function.
-Services include: physical, occupational,
recreation, speech, and hearing therapy.
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Susan Turley
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16. Laboratory Services
-Perform special diagnostic tests such as blood
or urine tests.
-Can be part of a hospital or separate private
companies.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Government Agencies
-World Health Organization (WHO)
-US Dept. of Health and Human Services (USDHHS)
-National Institutes of Health (NIH)
-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
-Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
-Indian Health Service (IHS)
-Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Part of the Dept. of Labor
-State and Local Health Departments
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
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Voluntary or Non-Profit Agencies
-American Cancer Society
-American Heart Association
-American Diabetes Association
-March of Dimes
-American Red Cross
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Health Insurance Terms:
Premium- fee an individual pays for health insurance coverage;
Example: your work will deduct the premium due to the insurance
company each paycheck.
Deductible- amounts in addition to the premium that must be paid by
the individual before the insurance policy begins to pay.
Co-Insurance- specific percentages of expenses are shared by the
patients and the insurance company; Example: insurance company
pays 80% and the patient pays 20%.
Co-Payment- specific amount of money a patient must pay for a
service; Example: you go to the doctor and pay a flat $10 at the time of
service in addition to any amount insurance does not pay after the
claim is filed.
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Health Insurance Plans
Types:
Employer Sponsored Insurance (Aetna, United, BCBS, Humana,
Wellpoint, Cigna)
HMO (option)
PPO (Preferred Provider Organization)
Medicare (63 or older)
Medigap Insurance (pays what Medicare does not.)
Medicaid (low income)
State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)…IL- All Kids
Workers’ Compensation (hurt on the job.)
TRICARE (military and their families)
Affordable Care Act
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and
Accountability Act (1996)
Five main components:
1. Health Care Access within Group Plans
2. Preventing Health Care Fraud and Abuse; Administrative
Simplification and Medical Liability Reform; strict guidelines
for maintaining confidentiality of medical records.
3. Tax-Related Health Provisions (MSA, Flex Plans)
4. Application and Enforcement of Group Health Plan
Requirements
5. Revenue Offsets
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Abbreviations
Medical Language, Second Edition
Susan Turley
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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