SUBSAHARAN AFRICA DEFINING THE REALM Topics: • The cradle of humankind • Wildlife conservation and sustainable development • Neocolonial land grabs? • Africa’s complex, fragmented ethnic mosaic • The AIDS scourge • Africa: The latest emerging economy? SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PHYSIOGRAPHY ‒ One-fifth of the Earth’s entire land surface. ‒ Much of region far from maritime sources of moisture. ‒ Large areas lie under Subtropical High Pressure Belt producing arid conditions. ‒ Water supply one of Africa’s great problems. African Genesis • Cradle of humankind! • 7 million years of archeological research. • Predominant “Out-of-Africa Theory” based on findings. African Rift Valley • Great Lakes, Waterways, Volcanoes created by tectonic forces. ‒ Rift Valleys—formed as parallel faults appear and the crust between them sinks, forming great steep-sided, linear valleys. • Unusual river courses ‒ Inland and coastal deltas, long distance flows, valley waterfalls. • Plateau continent ‒ No large mountain range. Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics • Continental drift ‒ All continents once part of one giant landmass called Pangaea. • Plate tectonics created Rift Valleys. • Oldest human remains found here. AFRICA’S HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY Early States and Trade • West Africa Origins • Regional complementarity ‒ Trade between forest and dryland people. • Markets and urban centers in savanna belt. ‒ Timbuktu (Mali)—once a thriving center of commerce and learning and one of the leading urban centers in the world. • Cultural Hearths ‒ Ghana—Oldest and best known (9-12th centuries AD). ‒ Kush—irrigation systems, iron tools, impressive structures (Egyptian influences). ‒ Axum—richest market, controlled Red Sea trade. Great Bantu Migration • Nigeria and Cameroon south and eastward. ‒ Zulu Empire in South Africa • Rich and varied cultures (precolonization). • Highly fragmented groups— weak security, little cooperation. European Slave Trade • Africans forced migration to Brazil, Caribbean Basin, and USA. • Largest in volume (30 million poeple). • Ravaged interior populations. • Major cruelty (Christopher Columbus and Portuguese trading ships). SUBSAHARAN AFRICA AFRICA’S HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY The Colonial Transformation Colonization of Africa •1884—Berlin Conference •After 1900, European powers control of acquired areas. •Government with differing political, social, and cultural impacts. ‒ British—indirect rule with local rulers representatives of the British Crown. ‒ Portuguese—harsh and direct control. ‒ French—created culturally assimilated elites. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA Natural Environments Animals Fairing Poorly • Shrinking rainforest and savanna habitats—last refuges for wildlife. • Species threatened and extinct. ‒ European colonizers and hunting as a “sport.” ‒ Farmers killing wildlife ‒ Poaching in protected areas. • Game reserves and conservation areas— inadequate and poorly connected for migration and food/water sources. • Climatic region distribution: ‒ Congo Basin (Equatorial Africa) – warm and wet. ‒ Cape Good Hope (South Africa) – moderate and dry. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA Natural Environments Wildlife Management and Tourism •Recognize importance of nature conservation. •Tourism generates important revenues. ‒ Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa •Challenge of meeting needs of: ‒ Sedentary people ‒ Migratory animals ‒ Tourist facilities People, Farmlands, and Environments •Major population clusters in West Africa, East Africa, and the Horn. •Dependence on subsistence agriculture (government policies and exports, 75% women’s work, few green crops). •African farming challenges: ‒ Climatic variability. ‒ Economic policies of national governments—prices are kept artificially low. ‒ Difficulties in reaching world markets. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA AFRICANS AND THEIR LAND Political and economic factors • Land tenure—the way people own, occupy, and use land. ‒ African communal land ownership, not individual. Stolen Lands • Colonialism/land alienation. • Unequal distribution of land ownership (ex. Bushmen and Khoisan nomadic peoples). • Governments sell public lands to agrobusiness-investors. • Rapid population growth has led to land/resource overuse. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH Types of Infectious Disease: • Endemic—disease that infects many people in a kind of equilibrium without causing rapid or widespread deaths. ‒ Examples: hepatitis, venereal diseases, and hookworm. • Epidemic—disease outbreak of local or regional dimensions. ‒ Example: “Sleeping Sickness” vectored by the tsetse fly. • Pandemic—disease spread worldwide. ‒ Example: “Malaria” transmitted by mosquitoes. The AIDS Scourge • “AIDS Belt”—Democratic Republic of Congo to Kenya. ‒ Worst-afflicted areas in South/Western Africa. • South Africa, Nigeria, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. • 60% of those infected are women. • Impacts life expectancies, children, and economy. South African Orphanage – mostly HIV+ children. • AIDs Epidemic Poorly Treated ‒ Originated in tropical Africa and spread throughout. ‒ Social stigma. ‒ Expensive medications. ‒ Government leadership is inconsistent. • Example: Orphan children. © Alexander B. Murphy SUBSAHARAN AFRICA CULTURAL PATTERNS African Languages • More than 1,000 languages. • Many without written tradition. • Geographic realm and AfroAsiatic language family. ‒ Niger-Congo family—dominant native language family. • Common modern languages = ‒ Hausa, Yoruba, Swahili. ‒ English, French (lingua franca) • Some languages on the verge of extinction, many already gone. Language and Culture • Multilingualism—society with a mosaic of local languages. ‒ African federal governments decide. • Colonial language vs. dominant local language. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA CULTURAL PATTERNS Religion in Africa • Indigenous African belief systems ‒ Spiritual forces in natural environment. • Christianity ‒ Christian denominations spread through colonialism. • Roman Catholicism, Anglican, Presbyterian, Evangelical. • Islam ‒ Out of Arabia across the Sahara and along the north coasts of Africa. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA URBANIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE • Least urbanized world realm. ‒ Rural population issues. • Formal sector— governmental control and regulations affecting civil service, business, industry, and their workers. • Informal sector—areas where activities are beyond governmental control. ‒ Migrants/refugees in squatter settlements. • Example: Rwanda and warfare. ‒ Black market animal trading. • Example: Ivory poaching in protected wildlife areas. ‒ Piracy in Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean. Zaire-Rwanda border – Hutu Refugees heading home (1996) SUBSAHARAN AFRICA A POSTCOLONIAL REALM African Governments Problematic • Geographic territory and ethnic identity discrepancies. • Authoritarian rule, unstable political systems, exploitation. • Colonial infrastructure to ports for European economic benefit. • Modern conflicts (ex. Southern Sudan and independence). Supranational Organizations to Overcome Disadvantages • ECOWAS in 1975 (15 countries), SADC in 1990s, AU in 2001 ‒ Promote trade, transportation, industry, and social affairs. Fast-Growing African Economies • Stereotype—realm made up of dysfunctional government, economic underperformers, famines, and violence. ‒ 6 countries with fastest economic growth worldwide! (2001-2010) • Angola, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Chad, Mozambique, Rwanda. • World’s newest emerging market. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA REGIONS OF THE REALM Topics: • South Africa after apartheid • Madagascar’s unique wildlife • Oil and blood in the Niger Delta • The shadow of Islam • The unforgiving Sahel • Pirates in the Gulf of Aden SUBSAHARAN AFRICA Regions of the Realm Southern Africa East Africa Equatorial Africa West Africa African Transition Zone SOUTH AFRICA • Largest economy - SUBSAHARAN AFRICA SOUTHERN AFRICA ‒ Produces 45% of GDP. ‒ Minerals, farmland, cities, ports, transportation, stability. • Zulu and Xhosa nations. • Gateway from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. • Dutch and British colonies ‒ East India Trading Company founded Cape Town—1652. ‒ Boers—Dutch descendants ‒ Afrikaners (later descendants) • Apartheid—1950-1990 ‒ Strict racial segregation. ‒ Separate development—racially based entities whose inhabitants would be citizens of those ethnic domains. • First democratic election—1994 in Republic of South Africa. • Nelson Mandela (of African descent) became president – ANC, “A Long Walk to Freedom” and hero status. Population = 50 million. • • • • 79% black 9% white 9% coloured 3% asian SOUTH AFRICA Soweto shantytown The Ethnic Mosaic •Regionalism of ethnic groups Ecologically Protected Areas • Kalahari National Park, Kruger National Park, Cape Ranges, Marine Protected Areas. Ongoing Challenges • Economy dependent on minerals exports, weak manufacturing sector. • High unemployment and low income among blacks. • Scourge of AIDS and governmental failure to solve the crisis. • Democracy has prevailed ‒ ANC presidents elected ‒ 1999—Thabo Mbeki ‒ 2007/2009—Jacob Zuma (Zulu ancestry). ‒ Zulu nation—Kwazulu‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ Natal Province. Xhosa—Eastern Cape. Tswana—border with Botswana. Coloured—Cape Town. South Asian—Durban. THE MIDDLE TIER • Botswana ‒ Diamond-exporting. ‒ Kalahari Desert, Central Game Reserve, Chobe NP. ‒ Okavango River and Wildlife. ‒ Most severely AIDS afflicted country. • Lesotho and Swaziland ‒ Traditional kingdoms. ‒ Dependent on remittances Zimbabwe • Good farmlands, cool uplands, mineral resources, and varied natural environments. • After white-minority rule ended, enormous inequality hindered development. • Ethnic conflict ‒ Shona and Ndebele • President Mugabe ‒ Encouraged squatters to invade from workers in South Africa. • Namibia ‒ Former German colony. ‒ 1919-1990—administered by South Africa. ‒ Namib Desert—one of world’s driest deserts. ‒ Subsistence farming, mining, and ranching. SOUTHERN AFRICA white farms, destroyed agriculture economy and informal settlements, lacking foreign investment. ‒ 80% unemployment. ‒ 4 million refugees (of 12.9M population). ‒ Socio-political tragedy. THE NORTHERN TIER • Zambia ‒ Former British colony. ‒ Copperbelt—mineral wealth. ‒ Chinese influence and expansion of mining operations. • Malawi ‒ Agricultural economy, cycles of boom and bust (Lake Malawi as eastern border). • Angola ‒ Former Portuguese colony. ‒ Fastest growing economy in the world (oil rich). ‒ Exclave (outlier)—Cabinda. ‒ Victim of Cold War (communism vs. rebel mvt.). • Mozambique ‒ Former Portuguese colony. ‒ Bauxite deposits. ‒ Good relative location— Port traffic and trade. ‒ Poverty reigns. SOUTHERN AFRICA SUBSAHARAN AFRICA EAST AFRICA • Great Lakes ‒ Rift valley and high-plateau basins. ‒ Lakes Albert, Edward, Kivu, and Tanganyika. • Highlands ‒ East African Plateau. ‒ Fertile soils and abundant precipitation. ‒ Towering volcanoes. ‒ Lake Victoria. • Bantu population ‒ Ancient ways. Tanzania EAST AFRICA • Largest and most populous state. Kenya ‒ Dar es Salaam—capital city. • Dominant state of the region. ‒ 100 ethnic groups ‒ Nairobi—region’s largest city. ‒ Mombasa—East Africa’s busiest ‒ 30% of population are Muslims port. • Agricultural exports—coffee and tea. • Tourist industry – Serengeti plains and safari. • Problems of past decades. ‒ High population growth and ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ pressure on resources. Poaching and terrorism. Natural disasters—El Niño. Government corruption and ethnic divisions. AIDS epidemic Uganda • • • • • • Serengeti National Park—tourism, wildlife, and preservation. • Mt. Kilimanjaro (19,240 ft.) • Massive Lake Victoria to north. British colony. Kampala—capital city. Landlocked state. Lake Albert, Nile River. Economy ‒ Agriculture—coffee, cotton, farm exports. ‒ Mining—copper. • Idi Amin—dictator ‒ Ousted Asians. ‒ Destroyed economy. • AIDS epidemic • Lord’s Resistance Army EAST AFRICA Rwanda and Burundi • Belgian territories. • Africa’s mostly densely populated countries. • Tutsi—pastoralists. • Hutu—farmers. • Twa—pygmy. • 1994—Rwandan genocide and refugee migration. Ethiopia • Adis Abeba—capital. • Coptic Christian population. • 1993—yielded independence to Eritrea. • Chinese investment in Ethiopian infrastructure projects. Madagascar • World’s 4th-largest island. • Southeast Asian— Malay influence. ‒ Rice is the staple food. ‒ Malagasy—language. • French colony. ‒ French—lingua franca. • Unique wildlife (large tropical island south east of continent) ‒ Forests and Primates. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA EQUATORIAL AFRICA • Equatorial—locational warm/wet conditions and significant biodiversity. • Low-elevation western tropics. • Dominated by Congo Basin. ‒ The Congo—largest in territory and population. • Atlantic coastal and landlocked states. EQUATORIAL AFRICA The Congo—Democratic Republic of Congo • Centrifugal forces pull the country apart. • Forested basin creates communication and transportation barriers. ‒ Amazing fauna: Great Apes. • Productive areas in the periphery. • Areas tend to look across the border for outlets, markets, and ethnic kinship. • Civil war spillover from Rwanda. ‒ One of world’s largest refugee flows in The Congo. ‒ Civil unrest erupted in 2007 and continues intermittently. Across the Congo/Ubangi Rivers • Chad—landlocked, remote, oil discoveries, assistance from China. • Central African Republic— landlocked, chronically unstable, and mired in poverty. • São Tomé and Príncipe– densely forested volcanic islands. ‒ Ministate transformed by recent oil discoveries. EQUATORIAL AFRICA Coastal States—petroleum and timber important for states’ economy. • Gabon—upper-middle-income economy with largest proven mineral resources. • Cameroon—strongest agricultural sector because of its higher-latitude location and higher-relief topography. • Congo—recovers from civil war, potential transit hub for the region. • Equatorial Guinea—mainland territory and island of Bioko, Spanish colony, one Africa’s leastdeveloped territories, potential to be transformed by oil production. ‒ Cabinda—Angolan exclave. South Sudan • Africa’s newest country—2011 independence. • Religious divide between Islam and Christianity-animism. • Oil revenue potential. • Grinding poverty, lack of good governance and infrastructure. SUBSAHARAN AFRICA WEST AFRICA • Extends from margins of Sahara to Gulf of Guinea and from Lake Chad west to Senegal. • Steppe-desert North to wet coastal south. • British and French colonial legacy. • Realm’s most populous region. Nigeria • • • • Africa’s most populous state. 1960—independence from Britain. Muslim North/Christian South. Niger Delta—large oilfields discovered in 1950s. • Misguided development plans. ‒ 80% population earn less than U.S. $2 a day. • Islam Ascendant • Sharia law (strict Islamic) ‒ Persecution of non-believers. ‒ Riots between Christians and Muslims (suicide bombing attacks). ‒ Christians fled northern states. WEST AFRICA WEST AFRICA Coast and Interior • Desert and steppe environments. • Burkina Faso ‒ Muslim majority. ‒ Poor, landlocked, • Ivory Coast—Côte d’Ivoire ‒ 1960—independence from France. ‒ Muslim North/Christian South. ‒ Turbulent history. undeveloped gold reserves, • Senegal relies on cotton exports. ‒ Dakar—capital • Ghana—Gold Coast ‒ 95% Muslim population. ‒ Democratic government. ‒ Wolof—dominant ethnic ‒ Sound economy based on group. cocoa exports. ‒ Lacks valuable resources. ‒ Discovery of coastal oil reserves. ‒ Subsistence-farming. ‒ Democratic and stable. • Gambia ‒ English-speaking enclave. ‒ Surrounded by Senegal. ‒ Democratic and independent. • Liberia ‒ 1822—founded by freed American slaves. ‒ Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Africa’s first female president (elected 2006). • Nobel Peace Prize • Democratic and stable state. • Sierra Leone—Diamond Coast ‒ Dictator/rebel havoc to free elections. • Guinea ‒ Potential economic opportunities in both agriculture and mining. ‒ Violent power struggle. • Periodic markets—village markets open every three or four days, ensuring that all villages get a share in the exchange network (tradition). SUBSAHARAN AFRICA AFRICAN TRANSITION ZONE • Between northern arid Sahara and southern humid savanna zone. • Sahel—steppe region. • Intersection of Subsaharan cultures and Muslim world. • Islamic Front— religious frontier through Africa. ‒ Marked by conflict. AFRICAN TRANSITION ZONE The Horn of Africa Volatile subregion. • Djibouti ‒ 95% Muslim. ‒ Ministate. ‒ Choke point—Bab el Mandeb Strait and entry to the Red Sea (oceanic shipping lane). • Eritrea ‒ 1993—split from Ethiopia. ‒ Ongoing boundary conflicts with Ethiopia have damaged both economies. Ethiopia AFRICAN TRANSITION ZONE • Highlands—core area. ‒ Adis Abeba—capital. • Christian heartland. • Encircled by Muslim societies. ‒ 34% of population Muslim. • Landlocked and fragmented. • Weak political and economic systems. Somalia • Desert-dominated climate. • Muslim population. • Failed state—fragmentation. ‒ Somaliland—independent, most stable, not recognized by “international community.” ‒ Puntland—degree of autonomy, warlords, and Islamic militia. • Mogadishu—official capital Somalian Pirates Homework 1. Read Textbook Chapter 6a/b 2. Homework: • Choose one “@from the Field Notes” subsection topic in Ch.6 textbook; research and summarize (1 page). OR • Choose a realm/region within or adjacent to South Africa to review in detail (1 page). Use Chapter 6b for ideas and information, research and summarize.