Chapter 21 Lecture Slides - Tanque Verde Unified School District

Unit 1: What is Biology?
Unit 2: Ecology
Unit 3: The Life of a Cell
Unit 4: Genetics
Unit 5: Change Through Time
Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi
Unit 7: Plants
Unit 8: Invertebrates
Unit 9: Vertebrates
Unit 10: The Human Body
Unit 1: What is Biology?
Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life
Unit 2: Ecology
Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology
Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes
Chapter 4: Population Biology
Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation
Unit 3: The Life of a Cell
Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life
Chapter 7: A View of the Cell
Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle
Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell
Unit 4: Genetics
Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis
Chapter 11: DNA and Genes
Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics
Chapter 13: Genetic Technology
Unit 5: Change Through Time
Chapter 14: The History of Life
Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution
Chapter 16: Primate Evolution
Chapter 17: Organizing Life’s Diversity
Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi
Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria
Chapter 19: Protists
Chapter 20: Fungi
Unit 7: Plants
Chapter 21:
Chapter 22:
Chapter 23:
Chapter 24:
What Is a Plant?
The Diversity of Plants
Plant Structure and Function
Reproduction in Plants
Unit 8: Invertebrates
Chapter 25: What Is an Animal?
Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and
Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms
Chapter 28: Arthropods
Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate
Unit 9: Vertebrates
Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians
Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds
Chapter 32: Mammals
Chapter 33: Animal Behavior
Unit 10: The Human Body
Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion
Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems
Chapter 36: The Nervous System
Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion
Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development
Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease
What Is a Plant?
The Diversity of Plants
Plant Structure and Function
Reproduction in Plants
Chapter 21 What Is a Plant?
21.1: Adapting to Life on Land
21.1: Section Check
21.2: Survey of the Plant Kingdom
21.2: Section Check
Chapter 21 Summary
Chapter 21 Assessment
What You’ll Learn
You will identify and evaluate the
structural adaptations of plants to their
land environments.
You will survey
and identify the
major divisions
of plants.
Section Objectives:
• Compare and contrast characteristics of algae
and plants.
• Identify and evaluate structural adaptations
of plants to their land environments.
• Describe the alternation of generations in
land plants.
Origins of Plants
• A plant is a multicellular eukaryote.
• Most plants can produce their own food in
the form of glucose through the process of
• Plant cells have thick cell walls made of
• The stems and leaves of plants have a waxy
waterproof coating called a cuticle.
Origins of Plants
• Scientists hypothesize that all plants probably
evolved from filamentous green algae that
lived in the ancient oceans.
• Some of the
evidence for
their relationship
can be found in
modern members
of both groups.
Origins of Plants
• Green algae and
plants have cell walls
that contain cellulose.
• Both groups have the
same types of
chlorophyll used in
photosynthesis and
store food in the
form of starch.
Origins of Plants
• The first evidence
of plants in the
fossil record began
to appear over 440
million years ago.
Origins of Plants
• These early plants
were simple in
structure and did
not have leaves.
• They were probably
instrumental in
turning bare rock
into rich soil.
Adaptations in Plants
• All organisms need water to survive.
• For most land plants,
the only available
supply of water and
minerals is in the soil,
and only the portion of
the plant that penetrates
the soil can absorb
these nutrients.
Adaptations in Plants
• Land plants evolved structural and
physiological adaptations that help protect
the gametes from drying out.
• In some plants, the sperm are released near
the egg so they only have to travel a short
Adaptations in Plants
• Other plants have protective structures to
ensure the survival of the gametes.
• Land plants must also withstand the forces
of wind and weather and be able to grow
against the force of gravity.
Preventing water loss
• Most fruits,
leaves, and
stems are
covered with
a protective,
waxy layer
called the
Preventing water loss
• Waxes and oils are lipids, which are
biomolecules that do not dissolve in water.
• The waxy cuticle creates a barrier that
helps prevent the water in the plant’s
tissues from evaporating into the
Carrying out photosynthesis
• The leaf, is a plant
organ that grows from
a stem and usually is
where photosynthesis
• Each plant species has
unique leaves or
leaflike structures.
Putting down roots
• Plants can take in water
and nutrients from the
soil with their roots.
• In most plants, a root
is a plant organ that
absorbs water and
minerals usually from
the soil.
Putting down roots
• Roots
anchor a
plant usually
in the
• Some roots, such as those of radishes or
sweet potatoes, accumulate starch and
function as organs of storage.
Transporting materials
• Water moves from the
roots of a tree to its
leaves, and the sugars
produced in the leaves
move to the roots
through the stem.
• A stem is a plant
organ that provides
support for growth.
Transporting materials
• It contains tissues for transporting food, water,
and other materials from one part of the plant
to another.
• Stems also can serve as organs for food
• In green stems, some cells contain chlorophyll
and can carry out photosynthesis.
Transporting materials
Cambium produces xylem and
phloem as the plant grows.
Xylem transports
water and dissolved
substances other than
sugar throughout the
the plant.
Transporting materials
• Mosses and several other small, less familiar
plants called hornwarts and liverworts are
usually classified as nonvascular plants.
Transporting materials
• Nonvascular plants do not have vascular
• The bodies of nonvascular plants are usually
no more than a few cells thick, and water and
nutrients travel from one cell to another by the
process of osmosis and diffusion.
Transporting materials
• Vascular plants can live farther away from
water than nonvascular plants.
• Also, because vascular tissues include
thickened cells called fibers that help support
growth, vascular plants can grow much larger
than nonvascular plants.
Reproductive strategies
• Adaptations
in some land
include the
evolution of
Reproductive strategies
• A seed is a
plant organ
that contains
an embryo,
along with a
food supply,
and is
covered by a
Reproductive strategies
• A seed
protects the
from drying
out and also
can aid in
its dispersal.
Reproductive strategies
• Land plants reproduce by either spores or
• In non-seed plants,
which include
mosses and ferns,
the sperm require a
film of water on the
gametophyte plant
to reach the egg.
Reproductive strategies
• In seed plants, which include all conifers
and flowering plants, sperm reach the egg
without using a film of water.
• This difference is one reason why nonseed plants require wetter habitats than
most seed plants.
Alternation of
• The lives of all
plants include
two stages, or
Spores (n)
Female gamete (n)
gamete (n)
Gametophyte (n)
Sporophyte (2n)
Mitosis and
cell division
Alternation of
• The gametophyte
generation of a
plant results in the
development of
Spores (n)
Female gamete (n)
gamete (n)
Gametophyte (n)
• All cells of the
including the gametes,
are haploid (n).
Sporophyte (2n)
Mitosis and
cell division
Alternation of
• The sporophyte
generation begins
with fertilization.
All cells of the
sporophyte are
diploid (2n) and
are produced by
mitosis and cell
Spores (n)
Female gamete (n)
gamete (n)
Gametophyte (n)
Sporophyte (2n)
Mitosis and
cell division
Alternation of
• The spores are
produced in the
sporophyte plant
body by meiosis,
and are therefore
haploid (n).
Spores (n)
Female gamete (n)
gamete (n)
Gametophyte (n)
Sporophyte (2n)
Mitosis and
cell division
Alternation of
• In non-seed vascular
plants such as ferns,
spores have hard
outer coverings.
Alternation of generations
• Spores are released directly into the
environment where they can grow into haploid
gametophyte plants.
• These plants produce male and female
• Following fertilization, the sporophyte plant
develops and grows on the gametophyte
Alternation of generations
• In seed plants, such as conifers and flowering
plants, spores develop inside the sporophyte
and become the gametophytes.
Alternation of generations
• The gameotophytes consist of only a few
• Male and female gametes are produced by
these gametophytes.
• After fertilization, a new sporophyte develops
within a seed. The seed eventually is released
and the new sporophyte plant grows.
Question 1
Most plants produce their own food in the form
of _______.
A. cellulose
B. proteins
C. glucose
D. chlorophyll
The answer is C.
Question 2
Which of the following did NOT precede land
A. corals
B. sponges
C. amphibians
D. jellyfish
The answer is C.
Question 3
Which of the following did early plants NOT
A. stems
B. chlorophyll
C. vascular systems
D. leaves
The answer is D.
Question 4
Why are most plant roots not covered in a
The waxy cuticle would prevent the plant’s
roots from absorbing water and nutrients.
Question 5
Which of the following is NOT a function of
most plant roots?
A. absorbing water and nutrients
B. conducting photosynthesis
C. store starch
D. anchoring the plant
The answer is B.
Section Objectives:
• Describe the phylogenic relationships among
divisions of plants.
• Identify the plant kingdom divisions.
Phylogeny of Plants
• Many geological and climate changes have
taken place since the first plants became
adapted to life on land.
• Hundreds of thousands of plant species
evolved, and countless numbers of these
became extinct as conditions continually
Phylogeny of Plants
• These processes of evolution and extinction
continue to be affected by local and global
• As plant species evolved in this changing
landscape, they retained many of their old
characteristics and also developed new ones.
• These processes of evolution and extinction
continue today.
Phylogeny of Plants
• The highlights of plant evolution include
origins of plants from green algae, the
production of a waxy cuticle, the development
of vascular tissue and roots, and the production
of seeds.
• The production of seeds can be used as a
basis to separate the divisions into two
groups—non-seed plants and seed plants.
Non-seed Plants
• Non-seed plants include vascular or
nonvascular organisms.
• Hepaticophytes (heh PAH tih koh fites) include
small plants commonly called liverworts.
• Liverworts are nonvascular plants that grow
only in moist environments. Water and
nutrients move throughout a liverwort by
osmosis and diffusion.
• Studies comparing the biochemistry of
different plant divisions suggest that
liverworts may be the ancestors of all plants.
• There are two kinds of liverworts: thallose
liverworts and leafy liverworts.
• Thallose liverworts have a broad body that
looks like a lobed leaf.
• Leafy liverworts are creeping plants with
three rows of thin leaves attached to a stem.
• Anthocerophytes (an THOH ser oh fites) are
also small thallose plants.
• The sporophytes of these plants, which
resemble the horns of an animal, give the
plants their common name—hornworts.
• These nonvascular plants grow in damp, shady
habitats and rely on osmosis and diffusion to
transport nutrients.
• Bryophytes
(BRI uh fites),
the mosses, are
plants that rely
on osmosis and
diffusion to
• However, some mosses have elongated cells
that conduct water and sugars.
• Moss plants are usually less than 5 cm tall
and have leaflike structures that are usually
only one to two cells thick. Their spores are
formed in capsules.
• Psilophytes, known as whisk ferns, consist of
thin, green stems.
• The psilophytes are unique vascular plants
because they have neither roots nor leaves.
• Small scales that are flat, rigid, overlapping
structures cover each stem.
• The two known genera of psilophytes are
tropical or subtropical.
• Only one genus is found in the southern
United States.
• Lycophytes (LI
koh fites), the
club mosses, are
vascular plants
adapted primarily
to moist
• Lycophytes have stems, roots, and leaves.
• Their leaves, although very small, contain
vascular tissue.
• Ancestors grew as tall as 30 m and formed a
large part of the vegetation of Paleozoic
• The plants of these ancient forests have
become part of the coal that is now used by
people for fuel.
• Arthrophytes
(AR throh fites),
the horsetails,
are vascular
• They have hollow, jointed stems surrounded by
whorls of scalelike leaves.
• The cells covering the stems of some
arthrophytes contain large deposits of silica.
• About 15 species of arthrophytes exist today.
• Pterophytes
(TER oh
fites), ferns,
are the most
and diverse
group of
• They have leaves called fronds that vary in
length from 1 cm to 500 cm.
• The large size and complexity of fronds is one
difference between pterophytes and other
groups of seedless vascular plants.
• Although ferns are found nearly everywhere,
most grow in the tropics.
Seed Plants
• Seed plants produce seeds, which in a dry
environment are a more effective means of
reproduction than spores.
Seed Plants
Food supply
• A seed consists
of an embryonic
plant and a food
supply covered
by a hard
protective seed
• All seed plants
have vascular
• Cycads (SI kuds) were abundant during the
Mesozoic Era. Today, there are about 100
species of cycads.
• They are palmlike trees with scaly trunks and
can be short or more than 20 m in height.
• Cycads produce male and female cones on
separate trees.
• Cones are scaly
structures that
support male or
female reproductive
• Seeds are produced
in female cones.
Male cones produce
clouds of pollen.
• There are three genera of gnetophytes (NEE
toh fites) and each has distinct characteristics.
• Gnetum (Nee tum) includes about 30 species of
tropical trees and climbing vines.
• There are about 35 Ephedra (eh FEH dra)
species that grow as shrubby plants in desert
and arid regions.
• Welwitschia (wel WITCH ee uh) has only one
species, which is found in the deserts of
southwest Africa.
• Its leaves grow from the base of a short stem
that resembles a large, shallow cap.
• This division has only one living species,
Ginkgo biloba, a distinctive tree with small,
fan-shaped leaves.
• Ginkgoes (GING kohs) have male and female
reproductive structures on separate trees.
• The seeds produced on female trees have an
unpleasant smell, so ginkgoes planted in city
parks are usually male trees.
• Ginkgoes are hardy and resistant to insects and
to air pollution.
• These are the
(KAH nuh
furz), conebearing trees
such as pine,
fir, cypress,
and redwood.
• Conifers are vascular seed plants that produce
seeds in cones.
• Species of conifers can be identified by the
characteristics of their cones or leaves that are
needlelike or scaly.
• Bristlecone pines,
the oldest known
living trees in the
world, are members
of this plant division.
• Another type of
conifer, the Pacific
yew, is a source of
cancer-fighting drugs.
• Anthophytes
(AN thoh fites),
commonly called
the flowering
plants, are the
largest, most
diverse group of
seed plants
living on Earth.
• There are approximately 250 000 species of
• Unlike conifers, anthophytes produce flowers
from which fruits develop.
• A fruit usually contains one or more seeds.
• This division has two classes: the
monocotyledons (mah nuh kah tul EE dunz)
and dicotyledons (di kah tul EE dunz).
Question 1
Which of the following characteristics do plants
NOT share with algae?
A. bioluminescent
B. multicellular
C. autotrophic
D. eukaryotic
The answer is A.
Question 2
Which of the following plant products is
made of vascular tissue?
A. nuts
B. seeds
C. wood
D. moss
The answer is C.
Question 3
Plants share alternation of generations with
which of the following?
A. viruses
B. fungi
C. algae
D. bacteria
The answer is C.
Question 4
Which of the following are probably the
ancestors of all plants?
A. liverworts
B. fungi
C. slime molds
D. downy mildews
The answer is A.
Adapting to Life on Land
• Plants are multicellular eukaryotes with cells
that have cell walls containing cellulose. A
waterproof cuticle covers the outer surface of
most plants. Most plants undergo
photosynthesis, which produces glucose, a
form of food.
Adapting to Life on Land
• All plants on Earth probably evolved from
filamentous green algae that lived in ancient
oceans. The first plants to eventually move
from water to land probably were leafless
• Adaptations for life on land include a cuticle;
the development of leaves, roots, stems, and
vascular tissues; alternation of generations;
and the evolution of the seed.
Survey of the Plant Kingdom
• The plant kingdom is grouped into major
categories called divisions.
• Nonvascular plants are in the divisions
Anthocerophyta, Hepaticophyta, and
Bryophyta. They reproduce mainly by using
spores. Nonvascular plants do not produce
Survey of the Plant Kingdom
• Non-seed vascular plants are in the divisions
Psilophyta, Lycophyta, Arthrophyta, and
Pterophyta. These plants have tissues that
conduct water and other materials and
reproduce mainly by spores.
Survey of the Plant Kingdom
• Vascular seed plants in the divisions
Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Ginkgophyta, and
Coniferophyta produce seeds on cones. Male
cones and female cones can be on separate
plants or the same plant.
Survey of the Plant Kingdom
• The division Anthophyta includes vascular,
seed-producing plants that flower. Fruits with
seeds develop from flowers. Anthophytes are
divided into two groups—monocotyledons and
Question 1
Which of the following divisions does not move
water and nutrients by osmosis and diffusion?
A. Hepaticophyta
B. Anthocerophyta
C. Bryophyta
D. Psilophyta
The answer is D.
Question 2
What difference between lycophytes and
psilophytes allowed lycophyte ancestors to
grow so tall?
Lycophytes possess roots that would have
been able to anchor a tall plant in the ground.
Psilophytes do not posses roots, and would
not be able to stand very tall without falling
Question 3
Scaly structures that support male or female
reproductive structures on conifers are called
A. spores
C. cones
B. fronds
D. seeds
The answer is C.
Question 4
Which of the following is the youngest plant
A. Cycadophyta
B. Lycophyta
C. Coniferophyta
D. Anthophyta
The answer is D.
Question 5
Which of the following does not produce seeds
on cones?
A. Cycadophyta
B. Gnetophyta
C. Pterophyta
D. Coniferophyta
The answer is C.
Question 6
Drugs that fight _____ have been derived from
the Madagascar rosy periwinkle and the Pacific
A. sickle-cell disease
B. Down syndrome
D. cancer
The answer is D.
Question 7
Identify the
following structure
and the parts of the
describing how the
parts contribute to
the structure’s
biological success.
The structure is a seed. Inside the seed is an
embryo plant. The embryo is surrounded by a
food supply that nourishes it until it can get food
from its environment and also by a tough seed
coat that protects the embryo from drying out.
Seed coat
Question 8
The oldest living plants in the world are
members of the division _______.
A. Cycadophyta
B. Coniferophyta
C. Anthophyta
D. Ginkgophyta
The answer is B.
Question 9
Nearly ____ of the world’s population relies on
medications derived from plants.
A. 10%
B. 50%
C. 80%
D. 20%
The answer is C.
Question 10
Which of these divisions has only one living
A. Gnetophyta
B. Ginkgophyta
C. Cycadophyta
D. Hepaticophyta
The answer is B.
Photo Credits
• PhotoDisc
• Geoff Butler
• Mark Thayer
• Randy Witherspoon
• Aaron Haupt
• David M. Dennis
• Matt Meadows
• Thomas Russell
• Digital Stock
• Chris Klaming
• Doug Martin
• Alton Biggs
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