Effective biodiversity conservation challenges in Africa: A case of

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Sustainable Cultural Tourism Development
towards Poverty alleviation through Heritage
Conservation Trails in western Uganda
By
Raymond Katebaka
African Union of
Conservationists (AUC),
Makerere University
P.O.Box 5068
Kampala Uganda.
The 15th International
Conference of National Trusts
(INTO), Imperial Golf View
Hotel, Entebbe, Uganda 30th
Sept. - 4th Oct. 2013
Together with AUC can advocate & promote conservation of Africa’s common future by:
Clear harmonized legal policies
practiced in sectoral institutional
frameworks under governments
Improved knowledge for
the generation to
conserve
Culture is still important
in conservation
Ethics
Fostering
Political
will
Enable capacity building in research and
technological innovations, environmental
education
Information flow
Economics
Engineering
Collaboration
& mentorship
Environment
A map of World Heritage Sites in
Africa by state party, each
designated by a dot
no sites
1-2 sites
3-4 sites
5-6 sites
7+ sites
UGANDA
Source: UNESCO have designated 129
World Heritage Sites in Africa. These sites
are located in 37 countries
Attractiveness of Heritage Conservation
Tourism Trails (HCTT) location
UGANDA
KAMULI
MUBENDE
3
3
KENYA
3
MBALE
Kampala
Lake
Victoria
5
BOMET
SUBA
5
Nairobi
TANZANIA
INDIAN
OCEAN
KILOSA
4
MGETA
3
3 BWAKIRA
Lake Malawi
MALAWI
Lilongwe
6
DEDZA
2
ZOMBA
Lake Chilwa
Dar es Salaam
• 2 World UNESCO Heritage sites
along the HCTT
• Globally recognised under
several classification schemes
– One of WWF’s ecoregions
– Part of the Eastern
Afromontane biodiversity
‘Hotspot’ (Conservation
International)
– An endemic bird area
(Birdlife International)
• Compilation of species lists from
around the World show how
important this area is for global
conservation
Sustainable Cultural Tourism Development
(SCTD)
SCTD in W.
Uganda is
endowed with
abundant unique
natural resources
e.g. biodiversity
distributed along
the proposed trail
Heritage sites in W. Uganda
• 3 World UNESCO heritage sites & include:
1. Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park
2. Rwenzori Mts National Park
3. Kasubi Tombs
<-Semuliki National Park
<-Queen Elizabeth National Park
<-Kigezi Wildlife Reserve
Industries surrounding HCTT
• Tourism related
– Hotels and concessions (lodges within the
protected areas)
– Professional guiding services
– Educational centers with gift shops
• Currently Petroleum Exploration
• Mining (Hima Cement, Kilembe Mines)
• Hydropower plants coming up
HCTT focus and business development in W.
Uganda
• HCTT is a Pro-Poor Tourism (PPT) that increases the
net benefits to poor people & their participation in
managing tourism products.
• Need to maintain a balance between development
and conservation of the unique heritage in the major
touristic areas which are a huge asset
• Main concerns are that if Uganda invested the same
amounts in tourism as in oil mining what might
Uganda generate in revenue? E.g. Heritage tourism
The potential: Gorilla trekking Common practice
Spatial coverage of the HCTT
Changes in Human settlement along the HCTT
• Massive increase in settlement
and agriculture around the HCTT
thus poverty.
• Plotted all houses within 2km of
trail in 1954 and 2006
– 29,867 buildings
– ~179,200 people
• Migration corridors severed
between Mgahinga -Rwenzoris
and Queen Elizabeth and Kibale
Parks
Batwa
Bamba
UNESCO site
Batooro
Bakonjo
Banyaruguru
QENP
Banyabutumbi
UNESCO site
UNESCO site
L. Mulehe
Kalinzu, Maramagambo,
Kasyoha-kitomi CFR’s
Batwa, Bafumbira,
Bakiga cultures
L. Bunyonyi
Rwenzori Mts Ranging from Ice at 5,100 metres (16,100
ft)
Spectacular
scenery
The landscape interaction in Bwindi IFNP
Current Challenges of Heritage Areas in
western Uganda
Heritage conservation in Uganda
• Western Uganda is reach in cultural diversity heritage
resources.
• Data available shows that predominant tribes endowed
with culture:
– Bakiga, Bafumbira, Banyabutumbi, Bakonjo, Batwa (pygmies)
across the
entire trail in
<-Semuliki National Park
– L. Bunyonyi, L. Mulehe, L. Mutanda, in the south of the trails
• L. Edward, L. Goerge, Kazinga channel, crater lakes in
the mid west of the HCTTTwo World Heritage Sites –
Rwenzori and Bwindi
• One Man and Biosphere Reserve – Queen Elizabeth
Existing efforts of Heritage
conservation in Uganda
The HCTT has 4 NPs, 2 are
world UNESCO heritage site
• Indigenous Culture and
Cultural Diversity
• Recreation and Tourism
• Research and Education
All these conserved areas are
important for economic
growth in terms of foreign
exchange (tourism)
Heritage Trail sections global attraction for
tourists in Uganda
Uganda’s largest Foreign Currency Earner $500 million
in FY 2007/08
Challenges
• Conflicting
Resource
Use
TOURISM is a
major source
of income for
gov’t from
wildlife
management
and
revenues
Challenges heritage conservation in Uganda
• No doubt that heritage & culture is pressed to meet the
economic needs of the population in W. Uganda. But how?
• Hand to mouth local economy along HCTT
• Conservation considered as a cross sectoral activity
• Specific Policies and Laws
• Inadequate proper implementation
• Optimization of time spent by tourists in support of local & poor
communities
• A comprehensive handling of proper funding not well calculated
• Cultural diversity resource
• Structural benefit sharing from existing business enterprises
Development priorities focus in Uganda
While oil is important for Uganda future,
biodiversity and heritage tourism is a longer
term and sustainable prospect for bringing in
money to the country – need to be balanced
Challenges …..
• Poor information flow
• Several stakeholders with differing interests and
priorities
• Inadequate funds and overdependence on …….
• Exclusive representation
• Lack of capacity in conservation organizations to
develop good projects/proposals
• Corruption,
• Lack of transparency and accountability
• Conservation benefits not direct
What can be done!
• Mainstreaming culture into • Existing tools, guidelines &
structures are difficult to apply,
tourism requires additional
on addressing issues
efforts,
• Culture & Heritage strategies
• Difficulty to question
specifically require a long term
relations within poor
communities
• Can INTO push for integration
of Heritage strategies into the
• Issues are deeply
proposed SDG’s to replace
embedded in social, political
the MDG’s
and cultural
• Contemporary
understanding of process
and approach
Ecotourism as alternate livelihood
In northern Tanzania
Valuing heritage
• There is a need to value heritage in
terms of culture availability in
Uganda. Some work done so far,
indicate that cultural practice
provided services to local people
and the country worth about 0.1%
of Uganda’s GDP in 2005.
• Participation in decisions &
enterprises then poverty impacts
are likely to be enhanced.
(Estimate that each practice by
batwa (pygymies) in Uganda is
worth $13,500 per year in revenue
to Uganda poverty will be history).
Colin Tudge proposed in Global Ecology,
1991….& J. Buckerigde 2011 with 4Es
Global Ecology 1991:
• Knowledge & technique learned
from the past,
• Economic & political systems
address deep problems of Heritage
conservation,
4Es 2011:
• Morality and conflict: Who is
important in heritage
conservation?
• Can our ethics take us to the
heritage conservation we want
or maybe harbinger?
Thanks for Listening to me
AUC acknowledges CCFU and efforts by INTO to
organise this 1st and 15th conference in Africa
You’re welcome to support HCTT in W. Uganda
Thank you
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