What is air?
Air is a mixture of gases Nitrogen 78.09%, Oxygen 20.95%, 1% other
Why is it important?
Life on earth
Air pollution Sources : Vehicles Factories Houses Aerosols Farming Effects: Smog Acid rain Climate change
Nitrogen pollution Sources: Car fumes, factories, fertilisers Problem: Producing too much nitrogen Effects: Acid rain, harming ecosystems, contributing to global warming
Where do you find the most nitrogen pollution?
Countryside Suburban City
Bio-indicators Bio-indicators are living organisms that can be used to monitor the health of an environment or ecosystem.
Examples include: Canaries used by coal miners Invertebrates in streams e.g. Mayfly nymph
I have a flattened body What is a lichen?
I have no roots I have no stem I have no leaves
Lichens – Two lives in one A lichen is a partnership between a fungus and an alga. The fungus (mycobiont) provides protection and the alga (photobiont) provides food.
Reproduce by fragmentation or through soredia
Symbiosis or controlled parasitism ?
By existing together they can live in places they couldn’t survive on their own.
Where do lichens grow?
• Anywhere – even in the most extreme environments Hot African deserts Rocky shores Cold Alpine peaks
Lichen biodiversity • 18,000 identified worldwide 1,700 in Britain Bushy Leafy Crusty • Some lichens are more tolerant to pollution than others I nitrogen!
I hate nitrogen!
Spot the lichen 1 2 3
Activity 1 – lichens on trees Sample 4 deciduous trees – un shaded 1 Identify the tree species Measure the girth of the tree Identify all indicator lichens on one face of the trunk Look at the twigs of the tree – record lichens Record insects that you see 2 3 4
Tar spot Fungus Rhytisma acerinum Sensitive to pollution Growth is reduced by sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen The more tar spot the less polluted the air Count as 2 spots
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