UG-Presentation_RPM - Gangapedia

advertisement
Ecology and Biodiversity in Ganga River
Actions required for Eco-restoration
FLORAL AND FAUNAL DIVERSITY IN UPPER GANGA
Saturday, August 6, 2011
PBCEC, IIT Kanpur
STUDY-AREA OF THE GANGA RIVER FROM
GANGOTRI TO HARIDWAR UP TO BHIMGODA BARRAGE
UG1
UG2
UG3
UG1: (Gangotri to Gangnani)
UG2: (Gangnani to Devprayag)
UG3: Devprayag to Haridwar (Upstream of Bhimgoda barrage)
UG I (GANGOTRI TO GANGNANI)

Very less influenced by human interventions

Major habitat: Rapids, riffles and pools

Substrate: Mature boulders, rocks and pebbles
Water quality

Clean and clear with low depths and high transparency

The water temperatures are also very low varying between 4.3-9.8°C

The water velocity is high 2 to 3.3 m/s

The only organic input is lignocellulosic materials
Biotic components

Periphyton is the only producer factor which supports zoobenthos represented by may fly
(Ephemeroptera), caddis fly (Trichoptera), stone fly (Plecoptera), beatle (Coleoptera) and two
wings fly (Diptera)

Sixteen taxa of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae)have been reported

In the lower stretch three taxa of green algae (Chlorophyceae) have been identified

Dragon and damsel flies (Odonata) are conspicuous by their absence

Zooplankton has not been reported in this zone

No fish population from Gaumukh to Harsil, Singh (2008)

Brown trout (Salmo trutto fario) observed in Jhala downstream of Bhaironghati, Nautiyal et al.
(2007)
UG II (GANGNANI TO DEVPRAYAG)

Influence of Barrages and dams (Maneri Bhali I and II Projects, and Tehri and Koteshwar Dams)

Major habitat: Rapids, riffles and pools

Substrate: Mature cobbles, pebbles and boulders

Devprayag predominated by rocky substrate
Water quality

Clean and clear water with high transparency at most of the places

Moderate current velocity 1.0 – 3.3 m/s

Water temperature ranges between 4.3-16.3°C

Higher water temperatures (in the range 8.5-17.2°C) have also been recorded at Tehri
Biotic components

The biota consists of periphyton, phytoplankton, zooplankton and vertebrate population essentially
fish

Periphyton is represented mainly by diatoms Achnanthidium sp., Navicula sp. and Cymbella sp.

The phytoplankton is also dominated by diatoms

The zoobenthos are dominated by may fly (Ephemeroptera) and dipterans

Zooplankton is not conspicuous except the occasional presence of ciliates viz. Colpidium and
Peramecium sp.
UG II (GANGNANI TO DEVPRAYAG) BIOTIC COMPONENTS

The vertebrate population is represented by fish, mainly carps; the most typical being Trouts
(Schizothorax sp., Schizothoraichthys sp., Garra sp.), Sissoridae (Pseudecheneis sp., Glyptothorax
sp.) Balitoridae (Nemachelius sp.) and Mahseer (Tor sp.)

The fish population is dependent on periphyton, plankton and zoobenthos at the level of
producers and primary consumers

The fishes migrate towards upper reaches in August-October in search of suitable breeding
environment

The migration of fish for breeding has been largely altered by the barriers and diversions
(barrages, dams and tunnels)
UG III (DEVPRAYAG TO HARIDWAR)

Devprayag is the confluence point of the rivers Bhagirathi and Alaknanda

Before reaching Rishikesh, it joins a tributary, Nayar, which is reported as breeding ground for the
of Mahseer (Tor sp.)

Major habitat: Rapids, riffles and pools

Substrate: Mature cobbles, pebbles and boulders
Water quality

Clean and clear water with high transparency and moderate depth at most of the places

The current velocity 0.1-3.0 m/s and water temperature varies between 15-23°C
Biotic components

Phytobenthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fishes constitute the biota in this
stretch

Phytobenthos are mostly represented by diatoms. The number of taxa varies from 10 to 77

The phytoplankton comprises mostly Bacillariophyceae,Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae have
also started appearing

Zooplankton is scanty consisting of ciliates. A few rotifers and crustaceans also are reported

In zoobenthos, may fly (Ephemeroptera) is dominant, though odonata have started appearing

Important fishes reported in this sub stretch include minor carps (e.g. Barilius sp., Puntius sp.),
major carps (Labeo sp.), Mahseer (Tor sp.), catfishes and an exotic fish (Cyprinus carpio)
BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY OF UPPER GANGA
PHYTOPLANKTON (ALGAE)
UG1
UG2
UG3
Number s
72
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
57
39
39
12
12
Genera
Species
Taxa
UG1
UG3
46
50
40
30
20
19
17
8
15
9
4
10
0
3
0 0 2
Family
Euglenophyceae
Chlorophyceae
Cyanophyceae
0
Bacillariophyceae
Number of Species
UG2
1. Total number of genera and species increases from
the zone UG1 to UG3.
2. Diatom (Bacillariophycae) constitutes dominant
group in all the zones (Cymbella sp., Navicula sp.
and Synedra sp)
3. The number of species in green algae
(Chlorophyceae), blue green algae (Cyanophycea)
& euglena (Euglenophyceae) increase from UG1 to
UG3
Diatom
(Bacillariophyceae)
Green algae
(Chlorophyceae)
BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY OF UPPER GANGA
PHYTOBENTHOS (ALGAE)
UG1
UG2
UG3
141
Numbers
150
81
49
100
32
17
10
50
0
Genera
Species
Taxa
UG1
100
50
UG3
126
150
69
17
0
11
5
0
4 7
Family
Cynaophyceae
Chlorophyceae
0
Bacilariophyce
ae
Numbers
UG2
1. Total number of genera and species
increases from the zone UG1 to UG2
and decrease to UG3 due to river enters
in to gorge and lack proper substratum.
However, maximum is present at UG2
2. Diatom (Bacillariophycae) is dominant
group in all the zones and number of
species (Achnanthes, Navicula and
Cymbella sp.
3. The number of species in green algae
(Chlorophyceae) and blue green algae
(Cyanophyceae) increases from UG1 to
UG3.
Diatom
(Bacillariophyceae)
Blue green algae
(Cyanophyceae)
BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY OF UPPER GANGA
ZOOBENTHOS (MACROINVERTEBRATE)
UG1
UG2
UG3
29
Number s
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
17
9
1. Total number of orders and families
increases from UG1 to UG2 & decrease at
UG3.
2. May fly (Ephemeroptera) and two wing fly
(Diptera) are dominant at UG2.
3. The number of families in stone fly
(Plecoptera) decreases, while Dragon &
damsel fly (Odonata) increases from UG1 to
UG3 due to lack of preferred substrate
16
7
5
Order
Family
Taxa
7
8
6
4
4
6
UG2
6
UG3
7
4
3
1
2
2
4
2
0
0
1
2
2
33
0
11
0
11
1
0 0
Nemaatoda
Mollusca
Miscellaneous
Taxa
Coleoptera
Odonata
Plecoptera
Diptera
Trichoptera
0
Ephemeroptera
Number of families
UG1
Stone fly
(Plecoptera)
May fly
( Ephemeroptera)
CHARACTERISTIC TAXA IN UPPER GANGA
Characteristic Taxa Dwelling Habits &
Feeding
Habitat
Habits & Habitats
Diatoms
Riffles, rapids &
Producers: Riffles, rapids &
(Bacillariophyceae)
pools
pools
Breeding
ground
Riffles, rapids &
pools
Stone fly
(Plecoptera)
Rapids, riffles, rock
& boulders
Stony substrate
(B; C)
May fly
(Ephemeroptera) &
Two wing fly
(Diptera)
Two wing fly
(Diptera) & May fly
(Ephemeroptera)
Snow Trout
(Schizothorax sp.)
Rapids & riffles /
cobble, pebble
Predators,
Stony substrate
(B; C) at depth of <0.50 m
Collectors
In food chain, stony and soft
substrate mainly at bank of
the river at depth of <0.50 m
Stony & soft (sand) at depth
of <0.50 m
Stony substrate
(Cobble;
Boulder;
Pebbles)
Stony & soft
(sand) substrate
UG2
Herbivorous
Stony substrate
of 1-3m
UG2
Mahseer (Tor sp.)
1-3 m large size
deep pools with
rocky bottom
Stony & soft (sand)
substrate mainly
<0.50 m
Prefer 1-3 m deep
pools
Omnivorous
Breed on
(green algae, insects), column graveled surface
& mid water dweller
depth 0.5-1.0m
Zone
s
UG1,
UG2,
UG3
UG1
UG3
UG3
CHARACTERISTIC FISH OF UPPER GANGA




Name-Schizothorax richardsonii
Common Name- Snow trout
Size- 200-255 mm (max. 509 mm)
Characteristic Features: Herbivorous: feed on
algae, periphyton, bottom feeder, inferior
mouth with hard cartilaginous disc adopted for
scrapping. Spawning period from September November at stony substrate with shallow
water (riffles, rapids) and moderate flow.
Fecundity 3190-14650 eggs /female, water
temperature 8-28oC. Adult prefers deep pools
and runs (1-3 m), while juveniles and early
stages prefer shallow pools with substratum
consist of cobbles with small boulders and take
shelter underside of large boulders. It migrates
to higher reaches of the stream for breeding
(Shrestha and Khanna 1976; Singh 2008)
 Name-Tor putitora
 Common Name-Golden Mahseer
 Size- 200-260 mm (max. 450 mm).
Hamilton (1822 recorded 9 feet; 271cm)
 Characteristic Features: Omnivorous (Green
algae, insects) Spawning period May to
September and breed at graveled surface depth
0.5-1.0 m period. Adult prefers deep waters
(pools and runs 1-3 m), while brooders migrate
to shallow stream for breeding. Fingerlings and
juveniles feed in shallow stream, grow there
and return to deep waters in the main river. It
migrates to side streams and tributaries for
breeding in shallow clear water having stony
substratum and moderate velocity and rich
benthic life, water temperature 12-28oC.
(Shrestha and Khanna 1976; Singh 2008)
CONCLUSIONS
UG I: GANGOTRI TO GANGANI

Biota is dominated by diatoms (Bacillariophyceae > 90%) in both phytoplankton and periphyton.
Other class of algae was conspicuous by their absence since they cannot grow at such low
temperature and high velocities

The predator, stone fly (Plecoptera) is top consumers in food chain due to absence of fish
population
UG II: GANGANI TO DEVPRAYAG

Green algae (Chlorophyceae) make their presence but diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) still continue to
dominate in both plankton and periphyton communities

May fly (Ephemeroptera) and two wing fly (Diptera) are dominant taxa in zoobenthos community

Zooplanktons in the form of protozoans (Ciliates) have started to appear

The zone is suitable for Trout fish because of moderate water temperature and water velocity.
UG III: DEVPRAYAG TO HARIDWAR

Diatoms continue to dominate in both Plankton and Periphyton community with blue green
(Cyanophyceae) and green algae (Chlorophyecae) also appearing

Two wing fly (Diptera) are dominant and odonata (Dragon fly and Damsel fly) have made their
appearance downstream of Rishikesh

Mahseer is an important and typical fish of this reach followed by minor and major carps.
THANK YOU
Download
Related flashcards

Zoology

27 cards

Zoology journals

45 cards

Animal sexuality

11 cards

Animal sexuality

13 cards

Animal communication

11 cards

Create Flashcards