Chapter 9&10 review - CarrollEnvironmentalScience

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APES CHAPTERS
9&10 REVIEW
POPULATION ECOLOGY AND APPLYING
POPULATION ECOLOGY: THE HUMAN
POPULATION
CHAPTER 9
POPULATION DYNAMICS: change in size,
density, and age distribution in response to
environmental conditions
Populations also change because of how they
are distributed in their habitat.
CHAPTER 9
CLUMPED: most species live in clumps.
1. resources species need vary from place to place
2. protection from predators
3. ex. wolves: better chance of getting a meal
4. groups for mating and caring for young
CHAPTER 9
UNIFORM
CHAPTER 9
RANDOM DISPERSION:
CHAPTER 9
asdf
Biotic Potential: potential for growth
Environmental Resistance: all factors that limit growth
Carrying Capacity: combination of the two
CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 9
LOGISTIC GROWTH
CHAPTER 9
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH, OVERSHOOT,
AND POPULATION CRASH
CHAPTER 9
TOP DOWN CONTROL: (lynx and the hare)
the lynx preys on the hare, causing a
decrease in hare in return causing a
decrease in the lynx population.
BOTTOM UP: the changing hare population is
what effects the lynx population
CHAPTER 9
r selected species: (r)= roach
*reproduce early
*lots of offspring
*little or no parental care
*massive loss of offspring
OPPORTUNISTS
CHAPTER 9
K= kangaroo
*fewer, larger offspring
*high parental care
*later reproductive age
*larger adults
*late successional species
COMPETITOR
CHAPTER 9
SURVIVORSHIP CURVE:
early loss, late loss, and constant loss
CHAPTER 9
Natural Systems:
biologically diverse
use renewable solar energy
little if any waste production
recycled nutrients
net primary productivity shared among many
species
CHAPTER 9
Human Dominated Systems:
biologically simplified
mostly renewable fossil fuel energy
high waste production
nutrients often lost or wasted
net primary productivity: used, destroyed or
degraded to support human activities
CHAPTER 9
WAYS THAT WE HAVE ALTERED NATURE
TO FIT OUR NEEDS:
degraded habitats
reduced biodiversity
introduced non native species
wasting resources
strengthened some species of pests through
pesticides
eliminated predators
overused natural resources
interfered with chemical cycling
we have become dependent on non renewable
CHAPTER 9
PRINCIPLES OF
SUSTAINABILITY
CHAPTER 10
POPULATION SIZE: THE KEY PLAYERS
BIRTHS (+)
IMMIGRATION(+)
DEATHS(-)
EMMIGRATION (-)
population change = (births+immigration)(deaths+emmigration)
CHAPTER 10
CRUDE BIRTH RATE: number of live births per
1000 people in a population in a given year
CRUDE DEATH RATE: number of
deaths per 1000 people in a population
in a given year
CHAPTER 10
ANNUAL RATE OF NATURAL POPULATION
CHANGE= (BIRTH RATE-DEATH
RATE)/1000 x100
(BIRTH RATE-DEATH RATE)/10
CHAPTER 10
DOUBLING TIME: (aka the easiest of the math
you will do on the exam)
THE RULE OF 70:
70/ percentage growth rate (just the number,
don't change anything) = doubling time in
years
CHAPTER 10
DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN DIFFERENT
TYPES OF FERTILITY:
Fertility: number of births that occur to in
individual woman or in a population
Replacement level fertility: number of children a
couple must bear to replace themselves (2.1
in developed and as high as 2.5 in
developing)
Total fertility rate: average number of children a
woman typically has during her reproductive
years (dropped sharply since 1950)
CHAPTER 10
WHAT FACTORS AFFECT BIRTH RATES
AND FERTILITY RATES:
Importance of children as part of the work force
Cost of raising and educating a child
Availability of private and public pension
systems
Urbanization
Educational and employment services for
women
Infant mortality rate
Average age at marriage
CHAPTER 10
WHY HAS THE POPULATION GROWN SO
RAPIDLY?
not by an increase in the birth rate, but a
decrease in the crude death rate
CHAPTER 10
BEST INDICATOR OF A COUNTRY'S
QUALITY OF LIFE:
Infant Mortality Rate
a high infant mortality rate indicates insufficient
food (undernutrition) , poor nutrition
(malnutrition) , and a high incidence of
infected drinking water
CHAPTER 10
Rapid population decrease is just as dangerous
as rapid population increase
side effects:
decreasing number of working tax payers
more people on social security than those
working to pay for it
forced to raise retirement age, increase taxes,
etc.
CHAPTER 10
CAN THE WORLD PROVIDE AN ADEQUATE
STANDARD OF LIVING FOR 2.5 BILLION
MORE PEOPLE WITHOUT CAUSING
WIDESPREAD ENVIRONMENTAL
DAMAGE?
CHAPTER 10
Optimum population for a country
Should the amount of children you have be
regulated?
We fail to provide the basic necessities to live
for one out of six people today
CHAPTER 10
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITIONS
Pre industrial: high birth rate and high death
rate
Transitional: Death rates drop, birth rates
remain high
Industrial: birth rates drop, death rates remain
low
Post Industrial: birth rates and death rates
approach zero reaching zero population
growth
CHAPTER 10
FAMILY PLANNING IS IMPORTANT
Educational services to help couples choose
how many kids they want and when they
want them
Raised use of contraceptives in developing
countries from 10% in 1960s to 51% in 2004
CHAPTER 10
WOMEN:
women do almost all the worlds domestic work
and child care with little or no pay
Women do 60-80% of the work associated with
growing food, gathering fuelwood, and
hauling water in rural areas of Africa, Latin
America, and Asia
CHAPTER 10
EMPOWERING WOMEN=LESS BABIES
More education + high paying job most likely
means:
less concerned with marriage and having a
family
more educated as concerned with family
planning
access to contraceptives
CHAPTER 10
THE UN'S PLAN TO REDUCE POPULATION
Universal family planning
Improve health care for infants and women
"National population policies"
Expand job opportunities for women
Provide more education (especially for women)
Increase involvement of men in child rearing
"Sharply reduce poverty"
Reduce unsustainable patterns of production
and consumption
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