It Takes a Method to Recover Matter and Energy from Wastes

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AGBOGBLOSHIE GHANA:
A BRIDGE WITH OLD MONITORS: RECYCLING?
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES:
INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION
AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI
FEEM - IEFE
MILANO – 11 DICEMBRE 2014
THE PROBLEM IS COMPLEX BUT
PLANNING SOLUTIONS IS BETTER THAN RELYING
ONLY ON COMMUNICATION
In realtà – mormorò Tiresia – se c’è una cosa che mi interessa è che non
esistono storie irrilevanti. Tutto è connesso con tutto. Dovunque si cambi
qualcosa, il cambiamento riguarda il tutto. […] Quel dannatissimo ultimo
oracolo riguardante la solita eterna pestilenza a Tebe! Invece di costruire
una fognatura come si deve, tanto per cambiare ti chiedono un oracolo.
F. Dürrenmatt, La morte della Pizia, 1976
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
The main objectives of the proposed method are to:
 argue that it is possible to sustainably solve the problem of solid waste
management; to offer a method to overcome empirical approaches and provide
scientific tools for the strategic planning and assessment of waste management;
 provide a complete and detailed vision of an integrated waste management
system: underline the needs to innovate and adapt technical solutions to the
specificity of different situations and to involve the relevant actors in the building of
the system;
 adopt scientific and objective criteria to assess the effectiveness of an
integrated WM system and use the results of life cycle assessment to design
infrastructural development, support public involvement and a transparent decision
making process.
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
THE PROBLEM IS COMPLEX BUT
PLANNING SOLUTIONS IS POSSIBLE
ENERGY RECOVERY
WITH TT
RESIDUI INDIFFERENZIATI TRASPORTO A
PORTA A PORTA
TRATTAMENTO
TERMICO
 ample network of actors
 ‘wicked’ problem
 ever changing wastes
 sofisticated industrial
ORGANISATION OF
COLLECTION
RD
PORTA A PORTA
WASTE
COMPOSITION
 risk of incinerators
intensely debated
RECUPERO
SCORIE
CENERI A
DISCARICA
INTERMEDIATE
CLEANING PLANTS
RD A PRIMA
PULIZIA
RECUPERO
FERROSI
OTHER
A RECUPERO
SCORIE
DISCARICA
PERICOLOSI
SCARTI
RD
PROSSIMITA'
RD A PRIMA
PULIZIA
IMPIANTI DI
PRIMA PULIZIA
A IMPIANTI DI
SELEZIONE
AL RECUPERO
VETRO
RIFIUT I SPECIALI
ASSIMILATI
RECOVERY
OF MATTER
TRASPORTO CENTRI di A PRIMA PULIZIA
PRIVATO E RACCOLTA
PUBBLICO
IS PROPOSED AS A PLANNING TOOL BY
THE COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS
DISCARICA
SCARTI
IMPIANTI DI
SELEZIONE
TRANSPORT
A RECUPERO
CARTA
A RECUPERO
FE e non-FE
LCA
OF ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS
A RECUPERO
FERROSI
PRE-TREATMENT
RESIDUI INDIFFERENZIATI TRASPORTO A
PROSSIMITA'/STRADALE
TRATTAMENTO
TERMICO
RIFIUT I URBANI
infrastructure
TRATTAMENTO TERMICO
RIFIUT I
INDIFFERENZIATI
A RECUPERO RECUPERO
NON-FERROSI NON-FERROSI
VETRO
LANDFILL
CARTA
FE e non-FE
A RECUPERO TRASPORTO PLASTICA
PLASTICA INTERNAZIONALE
IMPIANTO
COMPOSTAGGIO
INTERNATIONAL
TRANSPORT
COMPOST
SCARTI
ALIMENTARI
A COMPOSTAGGIO
SCARTI VEGETALI
A DIGEST IONE
ANAEROBICA
DIGEST IONE
ANAEROBICA
A RECUPERO
ENERGIA
ENERGIA DA SCARTI
VEGETALI
RECOVERY FROM
ORGANIC WASTES
Compost Use
CENERI
SCARTI A
DISCARICA
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
LET’S GIVE OURSELVES A METHOD
DESCRIBE THE WASTE ‘ACTORS NETWORK’ AND HOW DECISIONS ARE TAKEN
THE SECOND PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS IS A PROTAGONIST IN THE WASTE
NETWORK: NOTHING COMPARES WITH CONSUMING LESS
THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE
SCENARIOS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT BY LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
LET’S RECLAIM WASTE
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
WASTE MANAGEMENT IS A WICKED PROBLEM
“ …. you may agree that it becomes morally objectionable for the planner
to treat a wicked problem as though it were a tame one, or to tame a wicked problem
prematurely, or to refuse to recognize the inherent wickedness of social problems.”
ONE SHOULD NOT DEAL WITH WM AS IF IT WERE A TAME PROBLEM
• There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem: the information needed to
understand a wicked problem depends upon one's idea for solving it: to describe a
wicked-problem in sufficient detail, one has to develop an inventory of all conceivable
solutions ahead of time.
• Wicked problems have no stopping rule
• Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but good-or-bad
• There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem
• Every solution to a wicked problem is a "one-shot operation";
• Every wicked problem is essentially unique
• Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem
• ….
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
WM REQUIRES AN INDUSTRIAL
SUPPLY CHAIN
RESPONSIBILITY OF OLD INDUSTRIALISATION
COUNTRIES TO PRODUCE AND EXPORT
TECHNOLOGY WHICH CAN TAKE CARE OF ITS
CONSEQUENCES
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THERMAL TREATMENT AND EMISSION ABATEMENT
TECHNOLOGIES DEMONSTRATE THAT:
TECHNOLOGY CAN BE MADE TO TAKE CARE OF ITS CONSEQUENCES
These workers are doing the
same thing: extracting
precious metals from WEEE
Laborer heating acid mixture to extract gold from imported computer chips: waste
acids and sludges are dumped on soil and into the river. The only protective
equipment used are rubber boots and gloves. from BAN
http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/landuse/multimedia
AN INTEGRATED WM SYSTEM CONSTANTLY EXCHANGES MATTER AND ENERGY
WITH THE REST OF THE SOCIETY AND THE PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
system boundaries
PREVENTION
IF WE ADOPT THE INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY’S CRITERIA THE
QUESTION TO ANSWER BECOMES:
HOW TO OPTIMISE THESE EXCHANGES?
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
3 strategies for recovery of energy from residual waste
Differing for organisaiton, recovery efficiency and environmental impacts:
1. Energy recovery from residual waste
in thermal treatment plants
1C
1B
2. pre-treatment (MBT) of residual waste and
energy recovery from RDF (refuse derived fuel)
in a dedicated plant, existing of built on purpose
3. pre-treatment (MBT) of residual waste: BUT for energy recovery from RDF no dedicated
plants is planned: RDF is left to the market, for thermal treatment in ‘incinerators’ or coinceneration in cement kiln and power plants often outside the area where waste are
produced and managed.
LCA PROVIDES A SYNTHETIC VIEW OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF
ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS
CO2 eq.
Acidificazione
1A disc
1B TT
1C MBT/TT
1E TT/AD/t
Consumo Risorse
0,50
-0,50
persone eq.
-1,50
-2,50
1F MBT/CEM
-3,50
All
scenarios:
RD 55%
-4,50
-5,50
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
To disassemble complexity and understand which elements govern the environmental
efficiency of a whole WM system, the analysis deepens and the impacts of the each WM
phases are quantified
kg CO2 eq. x 1.000.000
10
Raccolta
Riciclaggio
Trasporto
Trattamenti
Imp. Intermedi
Discarica
5
0
-5
emission of greenhouse gases
-10
Corrente
1A DISC
1B TT
1C TMB/TT
1D
1E
1F
DISC/AD/tt TT/AD/tt TMB/CEM
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
LCA COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE STATEGIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF
ENERGY FROM WASTE
Abiotic resources saving: sensitivity analysis
kg Antimio eq. x 1000
1A Disc
1B TT
1C MBT+TT
1D Cemen 1E TT+EnSO
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
-300
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
LCA COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE STATEGIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF
ENERGY FROM WASTE
Abiotic resources saving: sensitivity analysis
1B TT
1C MBT+TT
1D Cemen 1E TT+EnSO
0
MBT consumption depend on the
way single processes are
assembled: more separation more
energy consumption
-50
-100
-150
SC 1C – resources consumption of plants
-200
-250
-300
kg antimonio eq.
kg Antimio eq. x 1000
1A Disc
5
-5
-15
-25
-35
-45
-55
-65
-75
-85
TT
Compostaggio Compostaggio
SV
SA
TMB
LCA COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE STATEGIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF
ENERGY FROM WASTE
Abiotic resource saving: sensitivity analysis
kg Antimio eq. x 1000
1A Disc
1B TT
1C MBT+TT
1D Cemen 1E TT+EnSO
0
-50
Importance of
performing LCA with
real data
-100
-150
-500 kg coal/ t CSS
-200
-250
-300
-900 kg coal/ t CSS
LCA COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE STATEGIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF
ENERGY FROM WASTE
Abiotic resource saving: sensitivity analysis
kg Antimio eq. x 1000
1A Disc
1B TT
1C MBT+TT
1D Cemen
1E TT+EnSO
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
INDICATORE DI SINTESI
Rifiuti biodegradabili a discarica (t/a)
-300
1A DISC
1B TT
1C NONEcod
1D Cement
1E TT+En S
RECCOMENDATIONS
 Coordinate and assess policy at the NATIONAL SCALE: establish a National Plan
for WM.
 Openly discuss the need to INTEGRATE WM within the NATIONAL ENERGY
SYSTEM and to exploit its potential for the reduction of greenhouse gases
emissions.
 Properly select the number, type and capacity of the plants necessary to complete
the waste infrastructure system at the national and regional scales, using LCA and
GIS.
 Recognise the urgency of SETTING IN PLACE A SIGNIFICANT
INFRASTRUCTURE CAPACITY to overcome main national differences, of
planning towards national self-sufficiency and of reducing illegal trafficking.
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
RECCOMENDATIONS
 Homogenise national legislation on environmental crimes and international
efforts to PREVENT ILLEGAL behaviour.
 Give VALUE TO PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND DISCUSSION on waste
management and risk communication; and give full disclosure to the results of
monitoring health and air emissions from all treatment plants
 Define a public national strategy to use TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION to
support a shift in consumption patterns, the evolution of waste management and
the creation of new JOBS.
 Assess the system: adopt Criteria and Indicators for an effective and
sustainable WM development and operation.
IT TAKES A METHOD TO RECOVER MATTER AND ENERGY FROM WASTES: INTEGRATING RESOURCES' FLOWS, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RISK PERCEPTION AND ACTORS' NETWORKS TO OPTIMIZE
THE RECOVERY OF VALUE FROM WASTES
SIMONETTA TUNESI MILANO - FEEM- IEFE 10 DECEMBER 2014
[email protected]
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