Infection Control Ppt

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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Infection Control
Health Science and Technology Education
Table of Contents
APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Overview
You will learn about:
 The chain of infection
 Standard precautions and
transmission-based
precautions
 Proper hand cleansing
techniques
 Sterile technique
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
What do you know about…
1. Infection control?
2. Why is it important in health care facilities?
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 1 – Microorganisms
 Microorganisms are small
living bodies that are not
visible to the naked eye.
▫ Nonpathogens - maintain
body processes
▫ Pathogens – cause
infection and disease
 Classes of microorganisms:
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Bacteria
Protozoa
Fungi
Viruses
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 1 – Bacteria
 Bacteria are one-celled
microorganisms that are
classified by shape.
 Spores are thick-walled cells
created by bacteria to aid in
reproduction and to make the
bacteria resistant to harsh
environments. Spores can
result in serious illness.
 Diseases - food poisoning,
strep throat, tetanus, syphilis,
and cholera
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 1 – Protozoa
 Protozoa are the simplest
organisms in the animal
kingdom.
 Most protozoa need moisture
to survive, so they are often
found in watery environments.
 Diseases - malaria, dysentery,
and African sleeping sickness
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 1 – Fungi
 Fungi are plant-like
microorganisms that can
be found in the air, in soil,
on plants, or in water.
 There are thousands of
types of fungi, including
mushrooms, yeasts, and
molds. Only about half of
these types of fungi are
pathogenic.
 Diseases - athlete’s foot,
ringworm, yeast infections,
and thrush
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 1 – Viruses
 Viruses are the smallest
type of microorganism. They
are made up of only a few
molecules.
 Viruses invade the cells of a
living organism where they
reproduce more viruses
 Diseases - common cold,
chicken pox, measles,
herpes, hepatitis B and C,
HIV, and AIDS
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 2 – Classification of Infections and Diseases
 Endogenous – begins
inside the body
 Exogenous – caused by
something outside the body
 Nosocomial – acquired by
an individual within a health
care facility
 Opportunistic – occur when
the body’s defenses are
weak
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 2 – Infectious and Communicable Diseases
 An infectious disease
results from an invasion of
microorganisms.
 A communicable disease is
a type of infectious disease
that can be transmitted from
one person to another
person.
 Not all infectious diseases
are communicable.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 2 – Chain of Infection
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Causative agent
Reservoir
Portal of exit
Mode of transmission
Portal of entry
Susceptible host
APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 2 – Mode of Transmission
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Airborne Transmission
Bloodborne Transmission
Vectorborne Transmission
Sexual Transmission
Foodborne Transmission
Casual Contact
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 3 – Asepsis
 Asepsis is a condition that
is free of pathogens.
 Maintaining asepsis in a
health care facility is the
primary way to prevent the
spread of disease from
person to person.
 It works by breaking the
chain of infection.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 3 – Medical and Surgical Asepsis
 Medical asepsis is maintaining
a clean environment in order to
reduce the number of
pathogens. It is also called
clean technique.
 Surgical asepsis is maintaining
a sterile field that is free from all
microorganisms and spores. It
is also known as sterile
technique.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 3 – Sterilizing
 Sterilization is the
highest level of asepsis.
 Sterilization is a type of
surgical asepsis that
kills all microorganisms,
including viruses and
spores.
 The most common
piece of equipment
used for sterilization is
called an autoclave.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 3 – Disinfecting
 Disinfection is a type of
medical asepsis that
destroys most pathogens,
but is not always effective
on viruses and spores.
 Common disinfectant
solutions include chlorine
and bleach. An object
must soak in a disinfectant
solution for at least 20
minutes to be properly
disinfected.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 3 – Cleaning
 Cleaning is the lowest level
of asepsis, and is also
called sanitization.
 The cleaning process does
not require harsh chemicals
to destroy pathogens, so
cleaning can be used on
people.
 Antiseptic solutions such as
iodine, betadine, and
alcohol are often used in the
cleaning process.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 4 – Hand Washing
 Hand washing is the most
basic and important type
of medical asepsis.
 Hand washing is the
number one way to
prevent the spread of
infection.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 4 – Handwashing
 When arriving at the health care
facility and immediately before
leaving the facility
 Before and after every patient
contact
 Before and after a procedure
 Before and after handling a
specimen
 Before and after touching the
mouth
 Before and after wearing gloves.
 After contacting soiled or
contaminated items
 After picking up any item from the
floor
 After using the bathroom
 After coughing, sneezing, or using
a tissue
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 4 – Handwashing
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Use liquid soap
Use warm water
Rub hands together firmly
Clean all surfaces of the hands
Keep fingers pointed
downward
 Wash for at least 15 to 20
seconds
 Use only dry paper towels to
dry hands
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 7 – Standard Precautions
 The Center for Disease
Control and Prevention
developed a list of standard
precautions that should be
used for all patients,
regardless of their type of
illness.
 Two reasons for standard
precautions:
▫ To protect health care
workers
▫ To protect patients
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 7 – Standard Precautions for Patient Contact
 Use appropriate personal
protective equipment
 Wash hands frequently
 Bandage cuts properly
 Use face shields during
CPR
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 7 – Precautions for Environmental Cleanliness
 Place sharps in punctureproof biohazardous waste
containers
 Clean up spills immediately
 Discard infectious waste in
biohazardous waste bags
 Place contaminated linens in
biohazardous laundry bags
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 8 – Gowns
 Gowns should be worn when
using chemical solutions and
during procedures where
splashing or spraying of
blood and bodily fluid is
likely.
 Disposable gowns should be
placed into biohazardous
waste containers after use.
 Non-disposable gowns may
be placed into biohazardous
linens bags.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 9 – Masks and Eyewear
 Masks and eyewear must be
worn for procedures that may
produce splashes or sprays
of blood or bodily fluid.
 Masks should be worn once
and then discarded into
biohazardous waste
containers.
 Eyewear is often reusable.
However, it must be cleaned
and disinfected before reuse.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 10 – Non-Sterile Gloves
 Non-sterile gloves should be
worn when contacting blood
or other bodily fluids and
when handling or cleaning
contaminated items.
 The same pair of gloves
should never be worn in more
than one procedure.
 Wearing gloves should never
replace washing hands.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 12 – Communicable Diseases
 A communicable disease is a
type of infectious disease
that can be transmitted from
one person to another
person.
 Some communicable
diseases are spread through
direct contact. Others may be
spread through indirect
contact.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 12 – Transmission of Communicable Diseases
 Not all communicable
diseases are transmitted the
same way.
 There are many different
types of communicable
diseases, and health care
workers must become
familiar with the mode of
transmission for each
disease.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 12 – Transmission-Based Precautions
 Transmission-based
precautions are used only
with patients who have been
diagnosed with highly
communicable diseases.
 Three types:
▫ Airborne
▫ Droplet
▫ Contact
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 12 – Airborne Precautions
 Airborne precautions are
used for patients with
disease that are spread
through tiny airborne
droplets.
 Precautions:
▫ Isolation room
▫ Respiratory protection
▫ Negative pressure
 Examples of diseases:
▫ Tuberculosis
▫ Chicken pox
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 12 – Droplet Precautions
 Droplet precautions are used
for patients with diseases
that are spread through large
airborne droplets.
 Precautions:
▫ Isolation room
▫ Standard surgical masks
 Examples of diseases:
▫ Pneumonia
▫ Influenza
▫ Whooping cough
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 12 – Contact Precautions
 Contact precautions are
used for patients with
diseases that are spread
through direct and indirect
contact.
 Precautions:
▫ Isolation room
▫ Gowns and gloves
▫ Equipment precautions
 Examples of diseases:
▫ MRSA
▫ VRE
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 13 – Transmission-Based Garments
 When health care workers
enter isolation rooms, they
must wear transmission-based
garments.
 Health care workers must
wear appropriate garments
based on the disease of the
patient.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 13 –Protective Garments
 Order for donning PPE
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Gown
Mask
Eyewear
Gloves
 Order for removing PPE
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Gloves
Eyewear
Gown
Mask
 Always cleanse hands before
donning the items and immediately
after removing them.
 Health care workers must not touch
the outer surface of any protective
garments.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 14 – Isolation Units
 Patients with communicable
diseases are often placed
into private rooms for
isolation.
 This practice helps prevent
the spread of communicable
diseases to health care
workers and other patients.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 14 – Meals in an Isolation Unit
 Most facilities require that
disposable food trays and
eating utensils are used in
isolation units.
 Leftover food and beverages
should never be taken out of
an isolation unit. Liquids and
soft foods should be flushed
down the toilet. Solid foods
should be placed in
biohazardous waste bags.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 14 – Working in an Isolation Unit
 Most of the procedures
that take place in isolation
units require two health
care workers.
 Items that are taken from
isolation rooms are doublebagged to prevent the
spread of dangerous
pathogens.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Questions
1. What risks do you take by not wearing gloves?
2. What situations do you need to remember to wear
PPE?
3. How does forgetting to put gloves on affect your
patient’s confidence in her as a medical
professional?
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 16 – Sterile Technique
 Sterile technique, also called
surgical asepsis, is
maintaining an area that is
free from all microorganisms
 Sterile technique must be
practiced for all invasive
procedures to protect
patients from infection.
 To maintain a sterile area,
only sterile items may touch
other sterile items.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 16 – Sterile Fields
 Sterile fields are areas that
are set up for procedures
and are free from
microorganisms.
 A sterile field is usually a tray
covered with a small sterile
towel. The tray contains
equipment and supplies for a
specific procedure.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 16 – Working with Sterile Fields
 Create sterile field in a clean,
uncluttered area
 Never reach across a sterile
field
 Keep your eyes on a sterile
field at all times
 Keep the sterile field dry
 Create the sterile field again
if you suspect that it has
become contaminated
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 16 – Sterile Packages
 Most of the items used to
create a sterile field are prepackaged in sterile wraps.
 A sterile package must be
opened with care. The
outside of the package is
considered contaminated,
but the inside is sterile.
 Only sterile items, such as a
sterile transfer forceps, may
touch the inside of a sterile
package.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Lesson 17 – Sterile Glove
 Sterile gloves are a key tool in
maintaining a sterile field.
 Sterile gloves should be worn
whenever health care workers
treat an open wound, perform
an invasive procedure, or
apply a dressing.
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Reflect – Unit Questions
1.
The common cold is a virus. Beginning with the
causative agent, explain how the cold could be passed
from one person to another through the chain.
2.
Describe how you would decide which level of asepsis
is needed for a piece of equipment and how each level
of asepsis could be attained.
3.
In what work situations should a health care worker
wash their hands? What are some ways that you can
apply proper hand washing hygiene outside of work?
4.
Identify the standard precautions that should be
applied if you must change the bandage of a patient
with a seeping wound. What precautions should you
take to clean up blood from an examination room?
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Reflect – Key Questions
1. What is infection control?
2. Why is infection control important in health care
facilities?
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APPLIED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Health Science
Reinforce Project
Microorganisms Experiment
 You will use Petri dishes to observe the growth of
microorganisms.
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