Chapter 17--Transformation of the West

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CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
World Civilizations, The Global Experience
AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert
*AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board,
which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce
II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change
III. The West by 1750
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
The Italian Renaissance – 14th -15th C
Italy
-Urbanized
-Highly developed
merchant class
-Political rivalry
Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)
Boccaccio
-Secular topics in writing
Nicolo Machiavelli – realism
– gain & seize power
Western Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
Humanism
Looking back to classical past
– Greek texts
Painting - Leonardo da Vinci
-Use of perspective
-Shadow, distance
-Focus on humans
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
What was the key
difference between
the Italian and No.
European
Renaissance?
What was the most
significant result of
the invention of
printing press?
Northern European Renaissance
-France, Low Countries, England,
Germany, eastern Europe
-More concerned with religious matters
-William Shakespeare
-Miguel de Cervantes
Changes in Technology and Family
Technology – printing press
Family
-later marriage age common
-nuclear family common
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
What were the
most significant
results of the
Reformation?
What was the
response of the
Catholic Church
to Henry VIII
actions?
Draw the
doctrine of
predestination.
What were the
goals of the
Jesuits?
The Protestant and Catholic Reformations - 1517
Martin Luther – 95 Thesis
Attacks church institutions
Bible the only authority; need for vernacular
translations
Protestant protest used for political gain
German opposition to the papacy
Rulers seize church lands
England – Henry VIII
Establishes Anglican church
Jean Calvin
Calvinism - Predestination
Catholic Reformation
Renewal - Jesuits
Missionaries - education
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
Western Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
Make a connection
between the Edict of
Nantes and a
current day law.
What caused the
Commercial
Revolution?
Draw a symbol that
would represent the
proletariat.
The End of Christian Unity in the West
Religious Wars
France - Calvinists v. Catholics
1598, Edict of Nantes – tolerance for Protestants
(Huguenots)
30 Years War (1618-1648)
Devastating to Germany
Netherlands win independence from Spain
Literacy increases – reading Bible
The Commercial Revolution
Inflation - 16th century
Supply & Demand increased
Social Protest Movements
Proletariat develops
Attitudes towards poor change
Protests & witchcraft hysteria
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
What were the
political results of
the work of
Copernicus &
Galileo?
Science and Politics
Nicolai Copernicus - Did Copernicus Copy?
Polish monk
Knowledge of work of al-Urdi, al-Tusi? (Earlier Arab scientists)
Science: The New Authority
New instruments add to data collection
Galileo Galilei - Uses Copernicus' work
Draw the sun/earth
rotation theory of
the Scientific
Revolution.
Kepler’s observations confirm earlier work
What is the
significance of
Deism?
Deism - God does not intervene with the affairs of the earth
William Harvey discovers circulatory system
Francis Bacon
Empirical research
René Descartes
Skepticism
Isaac Newton
System of natural laws
John Locke - use of reason to create political system
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
Western Europe under Absolute Monarchies
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
How were the
French and
British
monarchs
different? Any
similarities?
Absolute and Parliamentary Monarchies – 17th C
-France dominates
-Centralized monarchy
-Bureaucracy
-“Absolute monarchy“ – power comes from God – no one questions
-Louis XIV
-Nobles kept at court – not able to challenge authority of monarch
-Spain, Prussia, Austria-Hungary
-Territorial expansion – religious wars
England – different
-Civil War
-Oliver Cromwell
-Parliament
-Magna Carta
Why was the
rise of the
nation-state so
revolutionary?
The formation of Nation-States
Common language, culture, national literature, songs, foods
Territorial aspect
Common allegiance; development of ethnocentrism
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
The West by 1750 – political changes in central Europe
-Frederick the Great of Prussia
Religious freedom
State regulates economy
Overseas commercial networks
-Continual warfare
France v. Britain
Rivalry over overseas territory
Prussia v. Austria
Territorial conflicts
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
Enlightenment Thought
-Scientific Revolution leads to Enlightenment
-Scientific inquiry methods applied to other fields
General principles of Enlightenment
*People are good
*Use reason to find “truth” /make decisions
*Belief in progress
Political science
Adam Smith – “Wealth of Nations”
Laissez-faire economic theory
Criminology – Becarria – innocent until proven guilty
Society and Popular Culture
Women's rights
Protection of children
Attack inequities
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 17: The Transformation of the West: 1450-1750
What is the overall
result of the Scientific
Revolution, the
Commercial
Revolution, and the
Enlightenment?
The West by 1750 - Change in Commerce & Manufacturing
-Mass consumerism- mass production of goods
-Agriculture
Nitrogen-fixing crops
Stockbreeding – enhance features of livestock that are
most desirable
Swamp drainage – more land available for farming
Potatoes & other crops from New World introduced
-Domestic economic system
Households (women & children) produce finished goods
(no factories yet)
**Change becomes the norm – people come to accept change
will bring both innovation and instability
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
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