Understanding Verb Tense - Ms. B`s Class is Online

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Understanding verb tense and mood
What are verb tense and mood?
Verb tense
Special problems in the uses of tenses
Mood
Modals
Review A
Review B
What are verb tense and mood?
Verbs take different forms to do different jobs.
One job is to show when an action or state of
being takes place. The form a verb takes to show
time is called tense.
Early phones
had round dials.
Cell phones will
get even smaller.
Our phone is red.
What are verb tense and mood?
Verbs also take different forms to show the
attitude of the person using the verb. These
forms are called mood.
I polished this
apple for you.
Polish those
shoes, soldier!
I suggest that you
polish your nails.
Verb tense
The tense of a verb indicates the time of the
action or state of being expressed by the verb.
Perfect tenses indicate that something happened
or existed before a specific point in time.
Past
Past
Past perfect
Present
Now
Present perfect
Future
Future
Future perfect
He
Hewill
alsoMark
have
Tomorrow
He
had
Mark
has
studied
studied
studied
studies
studied
Mark
for
enough
a will
little
for
two
hard
his
study
hours
right
by
for
classes.
the
every
after
last
math.
end
night.
test.
school.
of the night.
Verb tense
The tenses of verbs are formed from the four
principal parts of verbs.
Base form
Present participle
Past
Past participle
print
see
[is] print ing
[is] see ing
print ed
s aw
[have] print ed
[have] see n
Verb tense
Each tense has a progressive form, which is
used to express continuing action or state of
being.
Present progressive
am, are, is walking
Past progressive
was, were walking
Future progressive
will (shall) be walking
Present perfect progressive
has, have been walking
Past perfect progressive
had been walking
Future perfect progressive
will (shall) have been walking
Verb tense
The present and past tenses have another form,
the emphatic form, which shows emphasis.
In the present tense, the emphatic form of a verb
consists of do or does plus the base form.
Present emphatic
do walk, does walk
In the past tense the emphatic form consists of
did plus the base form.
Past emphatic
did walk
Verb tense
Present and present perfect
The present tense expresses an action or a
state of being that is occurring now, at the
present time.
Martina and Jen race down the field.
The fans are cheering wildly.
(Progressive form)
The players do look confident.
(Emphatic form)
Verb tense
Present and present perfect
The present tense is also used in these ways:
to show a customary or
habitual action or state of
being
We go to the mall every
Saturday.
to express a general truth
The sun sets in the west.
to discuss a literary work
(literary present)
The Dark Child relates the
experiences of a boy growing
up in an African village.
to make historical events
seem current (historical
present)
In a surprise move the Greeks
construct a huge wooden
horse and leave it outside Troy.
to express future time
We drive to Maine tomorrow.
Verb tense
Present and present perfect
The present perfect tense
• expresses an action or a state of being that
occurred at an indefinite time in the past
• is formed with the helping verb have or has
Tim and Mia have entered the data into the computer.
Who has been using this computer?
(Progressive form)
Verb tense
Present and present perfect
The present perfect tense is also used to express
an action or state of being that began in the past
and continues into the present.
Mr. Reyes has taught science
for ten years.
(Progressive form)
Mr. Reed has been coaching
soccer since 2003.
Verb tense
Past and past perfect
The past tense expresses an action or a state of
being that occurred in the past and did not
continue into the present.
In the last lap the runner fell.
The fall did cause a bad injury.
(Emphatic form)
Verb tense
Past and past perfect
The past perfect tense
• expresses an action or a state of being that
ended before another past action or state of
being occurred
• is formed with the helping verb had
Paul had traveled several miles
before he realized his mistake.
He discovered that he had
misread the road map.
Verb tense
Future and future perfect
The future tense
• expresses an action or a state of being that will
occur
• is formed with the helping verb shall or will
Leah will attend a writers’ workshop
this summer.
She will be writing poetry and fiction.
(Progressive form)
Verb tense
Future and future perfect
The future perfect tense
• expresses an action or a state of being that will
end before some other future occurrence
• is formed with the helping verbs will have or
shall have
You will have saved enough money for the car by
the time you start back to school.
By then, you will have been working here a year.
(Progressive form)
Verb tense
On Your Own
Change the tense of the verb in each sentence, as indicated
in parentheses.
1. Max has studied piano for one year. (Change to future.)
2. Ivy roots made their way into the bricks. (Change to
present progressive.)
3. The smell of gas filled the air. (Change to past perfect.)
4. Ray runs every day. (Change to past perfect progressive.)
5. The picture has been needing a new frame. (Change to
present emphatic.)
[End of Section]
Special problems in the use of tenses
Sequence of tenses
Use tense forms correctly to show relationships
between verbs in a sentence.
To describe events that occur at the same time,
use verbs in the same tense.
Present tense
Present tense
The bell rings, and the classroom empties.
Past tense
Past tense
The bell rang, and the classroom emptied.
Special problems in the use of tenses
Sequence of tenses
For events that occur at different times, use
verbs of different tenses to show the order of
events.
Past tense
Present tense
She plays soccer now, but last year she swam on the
swim team.
Her soccer playing is
occurring now. Her
swimming on the swim
team occurred in the past
and preceded her soccer
playing.
Special problems in the use of tenses
Sequence of tenses
For events that occur at different times, use
verbs of different tenses to show the order of
events.
Past tense
Past perfect tense
Serena told us that she had invited
Josh to the party.
The action of inviting was completed
before the action of telling.
Special problems in the use of tenses
If clauses
In an if clause that expresses the earlier of two
events, do not use would have. Instead, use the
past perfect tense.
Nonstandard
Standard
would
have more
takentime,
morehe
time,
If he had
taken
he would
have
won.
would
have
won.
Special problems in the use of tenses
On Your Own
Correct each error in the use of verb tenses. If a sentence is
already correct, label it C.
1. After she graduated, Corrine joins the navy.
2. We would have walked there if the weather would have
been nice.
3. She delivers the mail when the regular mail carrier is sick.
4. After Sam had answered, Mr. Cain says, “That is correct.”
5. If you had asked politely, I might have helped you.
[End of Section]
Mood
Mood is the form a verb takes to indicate the
attitude of the person using the verb.
The indicative mood expresses a fact, an
opinion, or a question.
Fact
Opinion
Question
Jimmy Carter won the Nobel Peace
Prize in 2002.
Isabel Allende is a gifted writer.
Can you explain the difference
between a meteor and a meteorite?
Mood
The imperative mood expresses a direct
command or a request.
Direct
command
Request
Explain the difference between a
meteor and a meteorite.
Please pass me that astronomy book.
Mood
The present and past tenses have distinctive forms
in the subjunctive mood.
• The present subjunctive expresses a
suggestion or a necessity.
Suggestion
Necessity
We recommend that Mary Collins
be invited to speak at the assembly.
It is required that you attend the
special training session.
Mood
• The past subjunctive expresses a condition
contrary to fact or expresses a wish.
Condition
contrary to fact
Wish
If I were you, I’d check the oil
level in the car.
Margaret wishes she were an auto
mechanic.
Mood
On Your Own
For each sentence, identify the mood of the boldfaced verb
as indicative, imperative, or subjunctive.
________ 1. Was your brother excited about the game?
_________ 2. Be a good dog and stay right there, Molly.
_________ 3. Ms. Harper suggested that we volunteer.
_________ 4. Mr. Darwin said that he will lead a field
trip to the animal sanctuary.
_________ 5. If I were as talented a singer as you, I
would try out for the chorus.
[End of Section]
Modals
A modal is a helping verb that is joined with a
main verb or an infinitive to express an attitude
toward the action or state of being of the main
verb.
Helping Verbs Used as Modals
can
could
may
might
must
ought
shall
should
will
would
Modals
The modals can and could are used to express
ability.
Can you swim the freestyle?
I could have taken swimming lessons this spring.
Modals
The modal may is used to express permission or
possibility.
Permission
May I use your pencil?
Possibility
You may want to add more garlic
to the pasta sauce.
The modal might is also used to express
possibility.
Janelle might get a new bicycle.
Modals
The modal must is used most often to express a
requirement. Sometimes must is used to express
an explanation.
Requirement
You must take care of houseplants if you
want them to live.
Explanation
I must have watered
this plant too much;
some of its leaves have
turned yellow.
Modals
The modal ought is used to express an obligation
or a likelihood.
Obligation
Gary ought to send a
thank-you note.
Likelihood
The post office ought to be
open by now.
Modals
The modals shall and will are used to express
future time.
I shall graduate from high school this June.
Where will the ceremony be held?
Modals
The modal should is used to express a
recommendation, an obligation, or a possibility.
Recommendation
Doug should visit each campus
before deciding on a college.
Obligation
You should have asked before
borrowing the book.
Possibility
Should you decide to accept the
other job offer, please let me know.
Modals
The modal would is used to express the
conditional form of a verb.
If it had rained, we would have cancelled the hike.
I would have let you know about any changes.
Modals
Would can also be used to express future time in
a subordinate clause when the main verb in the
independent clause is in the past tense.
past tense verb
modal expresses future time
Calista told
told us
us that
that she
she would
wouldmeet
meet
the
park.
usus
at at
the
park.
Main clause
Subordinate clause
Modals
Would is sometimes used to express
• an action that was repeated in the past
Every summer my family would travel to Colorado.
• a polite request
Would you please help him set the table?
• an invitation
Would you go to the folk festival with me?
Modals
On Your Own
Supply an appropriate modal for each sentence.
1. “I definitely _____ call you tomorrow,” Ellen promised.
2. Take your umbrella because it _____ rain.
3. Explain this math problem to me; I _____ not figure it
out.
4. The committee _____ not have chosen anyone better
than Esteban.
5. Now that I have read that book, I _____ highly
recommend it to all my friends.
[End of Section]
Review A
Identify the tense or mood of each boldfaced verb, as
indicated in parentheses. If the verb is in the progressive or
emphatic form, also identify the form.
__________ 1. The band had finished the concert, but the
audience called for another set. (tense)
__________ 2. The class will be reading a play. (tense)
__________ 3. If you were more patient, you would
succeed. (mood)
__________ 4. I have been stung by a bee. (tense)
__________ 5. Remember to remove your shoes in a
Japanese restaurant. (mood)
Review B
Supply an appropriate modal, helping verb, or main verb to
complete each sentence correctly. The hints in parentheses
will help you.
1. If Maya _____ listened more carefully, she would have
known what to do. (correct if clause)
2. You _____ register by 8:00. (shows a requirement)
3. I suggest that you _____ on time. (subjunctive mood)
4. I _____ help you paint if I had time. (shows a condition)
5. As a witness to the accident, Pam told the police what
_____ happened. (correct sequence of tenses)
[End of Section]
The End
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