The Predictive Assessment of Reading (PAR)

February 11, 2013
Carrie Malloy & Julie Smith
Long Term Goals
Engagement and Joy
Story Time at Secca
Story Time at Summit
History of the PAR
Developed out of 30 years of NIH-funded research
designed to gain a better understanding of literacy
 How
it unfolds in typical readers
 How early intervention can ameliorate later difficulties
The National Reading Panel’s 2000 report,
Put Reading First
Commissioned out of concern for the growing
illiteracy rate in our country
A panel of research experts analyzed hundreds of
literacy studies (a meta-analysis)
Their assessment of the research literature on
reading and its implications for reading instruction
Their Findings
Research Supports Five Essential Components of
Reading Instruction:
 Phonemic
 Phonics
 Vocabulary
 Fluency
 Comprehension
Phonemic Awareness
A child’s ability to recognize that spoken words are
made up of individual speech sounds (phonemes)
and that child can hear, count, and manipulate those
Listening for Sounds
Understanding that there is a predictable relationship
between speech sounds in our spoken language
(phonemes) and the letters which represent them
(graphemes). Often referred to as the “alphabetic
Phonics instruction must be taught
 Systematically
(easiest concepts to harder)
 Explicitly (to mastery)
 Should begin no later than Kindergarten
Sounds and Symbols
Development of stored information about the
meaning and pronunciation of words
 Developed
indirectly through oral language and
listening to enriched text read aloud
 Developed
directly through explicit and specific
teaching of word meanings in context, dictionary skills,
familiarity with word parts
Alfie and Annie Rose
The ability to read text accurately, quickly, and with
prosody. Studies demonstrate that practice and
repetition leads to automaticity.
Activities for improving fluency include:
 Monitored,
repeated oral reading practice
 Student-adult paired reading
 Choral reading
 Taped practice
 Timed drills
Repeated Stories and Singing
The ultimate goal of reading. The following
strategies have a firm scientific basis for improving
text comprehension:
 Teaching
students to question, predict, self-monitor as
they read
 The use of graphic organizers
 Teaching story structure
 Summarizing and visualization strategies
Expressing What We Know
Why the PAR?
Now that research can better shed light on how
literacy develops, rather than waiting for children to
fail, what can be done to:
 Predict
a child’s future reading outcome
 Change the course of that outcome through focused,
preventative instruction
What is the PAR?
The PAR is not an academic achievement test, but rather an
early screening tool developed to assess a child’s skill on
basic underlying processing skills which support literacy.
These include:
Phonological Awareness
Letter Identification and High Frequency Single Word Reading
Rapid Naming (a measure of fluency/word retrieval)
It is able to predict a kindergartener’s eighth grade reading
ability with 97% accuracy.
What Can the PAR Tell Us About a
Its results can:
 Uncover
patterns of uneven skill development
 Identify early literacy and pre-literacy strengths and
 Provide insight regarding critical pre-reading skills,
which can be supported or bolstered to change the
course of a child’s future literacy outcome
A Look At How it’s Administered
Understanding The Results
Begin with the End in Mind