‘Internationalisation of the Curriculum – what does it really mean?’ 11.00am -12.00 noon Liverpool University 20 June 2011 Associate Professor Betty Leask ALTC National Teaching Fellow University of South Australia The meaning of IoC is ‘not always clear’ • ‘While the appeal of the idea of internationalization of the curriculum appears ubiquitous it is not always clear what it means and how it might represent a new way of prioritizing and organizing learning’ (Rizvi and Lingard 2010, p. 173) • an ‘educational reform’ that requires that we think differently about the universality of knowledge (Mestenhauser, 1998, p. 21) • Boy with moon in cart ‘Frontiers’ in IoC • the borders between ‘teaching’, ‘learning’ and ‘curriculum’ • the point where students and teachers engage with each other and with curriculum content and learning takes place • the ‘regions at the edge of the settled area’, outside the comfort zone of students and staff A National Teaching Fellowship Internationalisation of the Curriculum in Action ‘How can we internationalise the curriculum in this discipline area in this particular institutional context and ensure that, as a result, we improve the learning outcomes of all students?’ • Funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) • Aug 2010-Nov2011 Outline • What does internationalisation of the curriculum mean in theory? • What does it look like in action in different disciplines? • What are some of the blockers and enablers? • Where can you start? And then what? What does it mean in theory? ‘Process’ and ‘product’ • An internationalised curriculum (product) will purposefully develop the international and intercultural perspectives (skills, knowledge and attitudes) of all students • IoC is the incorporation of an international and intercultural dimension into the preparation, delivery and outcomes of a program of study (process) (Leask 2009) It’s about more than content and it has a discipline perspective • ‘internationalising curricula is not just about content, it also requires changes in pedagogy to encourage students to develop critical skills to understand forces shaping their discipline and challenge accepted viewpoints’ (Zimitat 2008) An internationalised curriculum will • engage students with internationally informed research and cultural and linguistic diversity • purposefully develop defined international and intercultural perspectives • progressively assess learning outcomes • prepare students to deal with uncertainty by opening their minds and developing their ability to think both creatively and critically • move beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries and dominant paradigms International and intercultural perspectives • the knowledge, skills and self awareness students need to participate effectively as citizens and professionals in a global society characterised by rapid change and increasing diversity • in the context of the discipline and the course Some myths about IoC 1. It’s about teaching international students 2. We just need to include a few comparative, international case studies 3. It’s about adapting our teaching to make it accessible to offshore students 4. It’s about adapting the curriculum for offshore delivery (contextualisation/localisation) 5. If we could get more students to go on exchange or study abroad we’d have an internationalised curriculum 6. It only concerns the formal curriculum IoC doesn’t happen in a vacuum • Global, national and institutional contexts are important • Knowledge in and across the disciplines is central • The formal and informal curriculum are both important The informal curriculum • various extra-curricular activities and support services that help to define the culture of the campus • ‘hidden’ messages • the total student experience IoC is related to • the cultural foundations of knowledge and practice within the discipline and related professions – this often means challenging commonly held beliefs • students and staff engaging productively with difference, including different ways of thinking, both within and beyond the classroom IoC is related to • learning activities focused on the progressive development in all students of international and intercultural skills, integrated across a program of study (course) • assessment of student progress towards achievement of international and intercultural learning outcomes. Can be related to the development of graduate attributes • Statements of generic graduate attributes. E.g: (1) Communication ... across professional and cultural boundaries (2) Analysis and inquiry ... (3) Problem-solving ...in novel situations (4) Working ... with others (5) Professionalism and social responsibility ...for benefit of others and the environment • What do these mean for global careers (in the context of the discipline)? Characteristics of an internationalised curriculum • Disciplinary driven – From rationale to outcomes • Context sensitive – Multiple layers • Future oriented – Critical perspective on the past and present • Founded on excellent teaching – ‘Aligned’ and student focussed Examples of IoC in action Nursing Learning outcomes for nurses in a globalised world • Ability to co-operate and collaborate in joint efforts across national and cultural boundaries • Intercultural communicative competence required for provision of professional health care to patients from diverse cultural backgrounds • Ability to obtain and utilise ideas and experiences from different parts of the world • Ability to function within the healthcare organisations of the future (Sandstrom 1998) Public Relations • Public Relations as a discipline is culturally constructed and culturally specific • Students considering differences in conceptual and professional approaches, and relating these to particular social and political contexts e.g. analysis of communication materials generated in relation to: – Power blackouts in Malaysia and Western Australia – Water issues in Singapore & Malaysia – Taiwanese government elections (Surma & Fitch 2006) Law • There has been a tendency to be tokenistic and to focus only on international and comparative law options (rather than as part of the core curriculum) • IoC in Law requires a fundamental review of materials and legal skills and teaching methodologies, rather than a series of patchwork additions (International Legal Education and Training Committee 2004, p.7) Science • a curriculum based on a critical analysis of the connections between culture, knowledge and professional practice in science within a globalised world • employs problem-based methodologies • prepares students to be flexible, adaptive and reflexive problem solvers who can conduct community-based as well as industry-based investigations (Carter 2008 p.629) Accounting • Linguistic and cultural diversity likely to increase not decrease – not only related to IS • Need to require, support and assess/assure development of professional communication skills as part of degree • Tweaking rather than major addition to content – still possible to cover technical skills • Program-level approach with changes at subject level- but not all subjects (Evans et al 2009) What are the main blockers to IoC? Blockers 1: Institutional 1. Lack of leadership at institutional and ‘local’ level 2. Poorly conceived and managed internationalisation strategy 3. Lack of financial support 4. Reward systems e.g. recruitment and promotion policies 5. Structural barriers, such as time to meet as a course team (Childress 2010; Leask forthcoming) Blockers 2: Individual 1. Rejection of neo-liberal, market driven approach to internationalisation at local and national level 2. Disciplinary ‘headsets’ - lack of motivation 3. A preference for working independently 4. Lack of desire and/or ability think outside of traditional disciplinary paradigms 5. Don’t know where to start (Childress 2010; Leask forthcoming) Where to start You’ll need to work as a team You’ll need to agree on why • What is the rationale for IoC in your course? Look carefully at what you’re already doing • • • • What do you already do? How well do you do it? What could you do better? The big picture and the detail • A tool to stimulate reflection and discussion www.ioc.net.au How international is the curriculum already? National, parochial curriculum International curriculum 1__________2_________3_________4 Case studies from different cultures Study abroad Language study Internship Clearly defined and assessed international learning outcomes A Questionnaire on IoC - QIC • A guide to help you make a start • 16 questions e.g. Assessment Tasks and Arrangements • 10.1 Assessment tasks never require students to consider issues from a variety of cultural perspectives • 10.2 Assessment tasks rarely require students to consider issues from a variety of cultural perspectives • 10.3 Assessment tasks sometimes require students to consider issues from a variety of cultural perspectives, but no systematic approach to this has been discussed by the course team • 10.4 Assessment tasks systematically require students to consider issues from a variety of cultural perspectives so that it is assured by the end of the course that students can do this effectively Where to next? Outcome • As a result of the completion of the QIC possible ‘next steps’ are identified. Modifications to Rationale/ reasons for course/ other follow-up change actions Timeline Person responsible Focus on IOC in context • Set course goals – what skills, knowledge and attitudes will be required of graduates of this degree to enable them to work and live in a globalised world • Define international/intercultural learning outcomes related to achievement of course goals in selected units • Systematically ‘map’ and track development and assessment of these outcomes – how will you know that your graduates have achieved these outcomes – and that they are the right ones? The informal curriculum • • • • The ‘way we do things around here’ Peer mentoring programmes Global leadership awards Extra curricular actvities • What and who, and whose knowledge and skills are valued? A metaphor... There’s no single foolproof ‘recipe’ 1. Every ‘kitchen’ has a different layout and various combinations of tools and ingredients 2. There’s no universal set of ingredients or method and consequently many different ‘flavours’ will result 3. While there are some critical differences in the location of our kitchens, we also have much in common and can learn from each other Conclusion • • • Each program and discipline has to develop its own approach – this is intellectual work that only academic staff can undertake, but they need time and support Students, professional associations and employers need to be actively involved in IoC too Staff and students need to be rewarded for effort Want to learn more or contribute? Contact me: [email protected] Visit the website http://www.ioc.net.au • • • • • Presentations and workshop slides PD resources Themed literature review Discussion Forum Case studies of IoC in Action References • • • • • • • • • • • Carter, L. (2008) Globalization and Science Education: The Implications of Science in the New Economy Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 45, No. 5, pp. 617-633 Childress, L. (2010) The twenty-first century university: developing faculty engagement in internationalisation Complicated Conversation Vol 32. New York: Peter Lang. Egron-Polak, E, & Hudson, R. (2010) Internationalization of Higher Education: Global Trends, Regional Perspectives IAU 3rd Global Survey Report Freeman, M., Treleaven, L., Ramburuth, P., Leask, B., Caulfield, N., Simpson, L., Ridings, S., & Sykes, C. (2009) Embedding the development of intercultural competence in business education ALTC Project Final Report Sydney: ALTC http://www.altc.edu.au/resource-embedding-development-business-usyd-2009 International Legal Education and Training Committee (June 2004) Internationalisation of the Australian Law Degree. Canberra; International Legal Services Council (ILSAC) Leask, B. (2009) Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between home and international students. Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 13, No. 2, 205-221 Leask, B. & Beelen, J. (2010) Enhancing the engagement of academic staff in international education in Europe and Australia: Background Paper 2. Paper prepared for the IEAA-EAIE Symposium: Advancing Australia-Europe Engagement. Hawthorn: International Education Association of Australia (IEAA). Mestenhauser, J. (1998) Portaits of an internationalized curriculum. In: Mestenhauser, J. & Ellingboe, B. (eds) Reforming the Higher Education Curriculum. Phoenix, AZ: The Oryx Press, pp. 3-35. Rizvi, F. and Lingard B. 2010. Globalizing Education Policy Abingdon: Routledge. Sandstrom, S. (1998) Internationalisation in Swedish Undergraduate Nursing Education: It’s interpretation and implementation in the context of nursing with tender loving care. Research Bulletin 96 Helsinki: Faculty of Education: University of Helsinki. Zimitat, C. (2008). Student Perceptions of the Internationalisation of the Curriculum. Chapter 13. In L. Dunn and M. Wallace (Eds), Teaching in Transnational Higher Education (pp. 135-147), London: Routledge.