NVivo

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Slide 8.1
Chapter 8:
Qualitative Methods
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.2
Content
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Qualitative versus quantitative methods
Merits of qualitative methods
The qualitative research process
The range of methods – data gathering
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
V.
In-depth interviews
Focus groups
Participant observation
Analysing texts
Biographical methods
Ethnography
Data Analysis
1.
2.
Manual methods
Using computer software – Nvivo.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.3
A. Qualitative vs Quantitative


In the past, in social science and leisure and
tourism studies, quantitative methods were
dominant.
This is no longer the case, from the mid-1990s



In leisure studies qualitative methods have become
dominant.
In tourism studies qualitative methods are widely
accepted.
It is no longer necessary to ‘defend’ the use of
qualitative methods in leisure and tourism studies.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.4
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B. Merits of qualitative
methods (after Kelly)
Correspond to the qualitative nature of leisure/
tourism experiences.
Brings people into leisure and tourism research.
Results understandable to people who are not
statistically trained.
Able to encompass personal change over time.
Suited to investigating face-to-face interaction
between people (symbols, gestures, etc.).
Suited to providing an understanding of people's
needs and aspirations.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.5
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Use of qualitative methods in
market research (after Peterson)
Developing hypotheses on behaviour and attitudes
Identifying the full range of issues/views/attitudes to be
pursued in larger-scale research
Suggesting methods for quantitative enquiry
Identifying appropriate language to use in surveys
Understanding a buying decision-making process
Developing new product/service/marketing strategy
ideas – free play of attitudes/opinions a rich source of
ideas for the marketer
Providing initial screening of new product/service/
strategy ideas
Learning how communications are received by potential
customers – particularly related to advertising.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.6


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C. The qualitative research
process
Recursive rather than sequential – see Fig. 8.1
Tends to be inductive rather than deductive
Related to the idea of ‘grounded theory’.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.7
Fig. 8.1 The qualitative
research process
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.8

Characterised by:

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D. The range of methods
1. In-depth interviews
Length – 30 mins to several hours
Depth – more in-depth than a typical questionnaire-based
interview
Structure – fluid, informal structure
Used when:



Number of subjects/interviewees relatively small
Information is expected to vary considerably, and in
complex ways from subject to subject
A topic is to be explored as a preliminary stage in
planning a larger, possibly quantitative study.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.9
In-depth interview checklist

Often a checklist of topics, rather than
formal list of questions, is used – for example
see Appendix 8.1
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.10
Interviewing interventions
(after Whyte) (Fig. 8.3)
1. ‘Uh-huh’
Non-verbal response – indicates that the
interviewer is still listening/ interested.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.11
Interviewing interventions
(after Whyte) (Fig. 8.3) (contd.)
1. ‘Uh-huh’
Non-verbal response – indicates that the
interviewer is still listening/ interested.
2. ‘That’s
interesting’
Encourages the subject to keep talking/expand on
the current topic.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.12
Interviewing interventions
(after Whyte) (Fig. 8.3) (contd.)
1. ‘Uh-huh’
Non-verbal response – indicates that the
interviewer is still listening/ interested.
2. ‘That’s
interesting’
Encourages the subject to keep talking/expand on
the current topic.
3. Reflection
Repeating last statement as a question – e.g. 'So
you don't like sport?'
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.13
Interviewing interventions
(after Whyte) (Fig. 8.3) (contd.)
1. ‘Uh-huh’
Non-verbal response – indicates that the
interviewer is still listening/ interested.
2. ‘That’s
interesting’
Encourages the subject to keep talking/expand on
the current topic.
3. Reflection
Repeating last statement as a question – e.g. 'So
you don't like sport?'
4. Probe
Invites explanations – e.g. 'Why don't you like
sport?'
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.14
Interviewing interventions
(after Whyte) (Fig. 8.3) (contd.)
1. ‘Uh-huh’
Non-verbal response – indicates that the
interviewer is still listening/ interested.
2. ‘That’s
interesting’
Encourages the subject to keep talking/expand on
the current topic.
3. Reflection
Repeating last statement as a question – e.g. 'So
you don't like sport?'
4. Probe
Invites explanations – e.g. 'Why don't you like
sport?'
5. Back tracking
Recall something said earlier – invite further
information – e.g. 'Let's go back to what you were
saying about your school days'.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.15
Interviewing interventions
(after Whyte) (Fig. 8.3) (contd.)
1. ‘Uh-huh’
Non-verbal response – indicates that the interviewer
is still listening/ interested.
2. ‘That’s
interesting’
Encourages the subject to keep talking/expand on
the current topic.
3. Reflection
Repeating last statement as a question – e.g. 'So
you don't like sport?'
4. Probe
Invites explanations – e.g. 'Why don't you like
sport?'
5. Back tracking
Recall something said earlier – invite further
information – e.g. 'Let's go back to what you were
saying about your school days'.
6. New topic
Initiating a new topic – e.g. 'Can we talk about
other leisure activities – what about entertainment?'
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.16
Recording in-depth interviews



Tape-recording preferable.
Notes (taken during or immediately after
interview) also used.
Transcribing tape-recorded interview, wordfor-word, produces a verbatim transcript.


Transcribing is a time-consuming process.
Analysis of notes and transcripts – see
analysis section.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.17
2. Focus groups
Similar to in-depth interviews but conducted with a
group (typically 8 – 12 members).
 ‘Facilitator’ (rather than interviewer) guides discussion.
 Interaction between subjects takes place as well as
between interviewer/facilitator and subject.
 Used when:
 .. a group is small in number so would not be adequately
represented in a general community survey – eg. some
minority ethnic groups or people with disabilities
 … the interaction/discussion process itself is of interest –
eg. testing reactions to a proposed new product
 … it may not be practical to arrange for individual indepth interviews but people are willing to be interviewed
as a group.

Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.18
3. Participant observation


The researcher becomes a participant in the social
process being studied.
Examples
 Studying a whole community by living there – Whyte
Street Corner Society.
 Studying pub culture as a ‘regular’– Michael Smith
(UK).
 Studying a leisure facility or tourist resort as a
user/visitor.
 Studying a drug subculture by joining a drug-using
group (NB. related ethical issues).
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.19
Participant observation – issues


Gaining admission to/acceptance by a group
What role to play:
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Full identification as researcher?
Partial identification?
No identification or fake identity?
NB Related ethical issues.
Identification of informants/confidants – related to
the idea of sampling.
Practicalities of recording of information.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.20
4. Analysing texts
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
Research tradition derived from the
humanities
‘Text’ includes:
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Books, newspapers, magazines
Posters
Film
- Pictures
- Recorded music
- Television.
In The Tourist Gaze Urry says:

Tourism research should involve … not only written texts
but also maps, landscapes, paintings, films, townscapes,
TV programmes, brochures, and so on. (Urry, 1994:
238).
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.21
5. Biographical methods


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Biography/autobiography of key individuals
Oral history – eye witness accounts of past
events
Memory work – focus group type process
involving people writing about and discussing
experiences
Personal domain histories – analysis of life
experience in one ‘domain’, eg. ‘personal leisure
history’.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.22
6. Ethnography



From the Greek ethnos, people.
Not one technique but an approach drawing
on a variety of, generally qualitative,
techniques.
In cultural studies, associated with the study
of sub-cultures – eg. youth sub-cultures,
ethnic sub-cultures.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.23
E. Data analysis
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Data storage and confidentiality
Circular model
Case-study example
Manual analysis methods
Computer-based analysis methods.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.24
1. Storage of Data

Security and confidentiality of transcripts/tapes,
particularly if sensitive material is involved


raises ethical issues – see Chapter 3.
Research material should ideally not be labelled
with real names of organisations or individuals


Fictitious names should be created
with an index of real names kept separately.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.25
2. Circular model in
quantitative research (Fig. 8.4)
C. Analysis
Deductive/
Quantitative
B. Observation/
Description
Data
collection
A. START
Explanation/ Hypotheses/
Theory/ Research
Questions
The literature and
informal observation
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.26
2. Circular model in
qualitative research (Fig. 8.4) (con
Possibly Further
reference to litertaure
On-going Data
collection
D. Refinement of
Hypotheses/
Research questions
E. Continuing
Observation/
Description
Inductive/
Qualitative
C. Analysis
F. Final Analysis
B. Observation/
Description
A. START
Tentative /Hypotheses/
Research questions
Data
collection
The literature and
informal observation
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.27

3. Case-study example –
conceptual framework (Fig. 8.5)
Research project used to demonstrate data
analysis – leisure/tourism choice model – in-depth
interview transcripts used for illustration.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.28
Case-study example –
interview transcripts (Fig. 8.6)
Mark (Age 22, Male, Student, Income £8K)
(Researcher’s
annotations)
Q. What would you say is your most time-consuming leisure
activity outside of the home at present?
Act.: Sport – football
Constraint: Commitments,
Need to keep fit, Time,
Money
Well, I would say it's playing football, at least during the
season. While the football's on, because of training twice a
week and needing to be fairly serious about keeping fit I don't
do much else: I probably only go to a pub once - or at most
twice - a week. I don't have the time or the money to do much
more.
Q. How were you introduced to football?
Influence: Parent+
Teacher ++
Event: Coaching clinic
Oh, I've always played ... since I could run around I suppose.
My dad says he spotted my talent - so-called - when I was a
toddler, but it was one of the teachers at primary school that
really encouraged me. He persuaded my mum to take me to a
coaching clinic when I was about 8 or 9, then I got into the
local under-11s.
etc. – see Fig. 8.6
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.29
4. Manual Analysis
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Importance of reading/re-reading transcripts.
Identification of emergent themes (similar to
variables or relationships between variables in
quantitative research).
Themes may
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arise from conceptual framework/ research questions –
therefore searched for deductively, or
emerge unprompted, inductively.
Themes ‘flagged’ by researcher – as in column 1 of Fig.
8.6
Can result in a more developed conceptual frame-work
– see Fig. 8.7
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.30
Developed conceptual
framework (Fig. 8.7)
Activity choice
Sporting
Social
Cultural
Background
Background/
experience
experience/
influences
influences
Present
Present
constraints/
constraints/
opportunities
opportunities
Personal
Personal
factors
factors
Events
Parents
Teachers
Peers
Time
Money
Fitness
Competitive
Social/Non-social
Anti-routine/Habitual
Instrumental
Active
Coaching etc.
Weight-gain
Relationships
Money
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.31
Mechanics of manual analysis

Flagging of transcripts (as in Fig. 8.6)
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In margins
Use of colour coding
‘Post-it’ notes
Cards
Cataloguing, eg.

Constraint - time:



Constraint - money:
Mark: p. 2, para. 3,
Anna: p. 7 para. 4
Mark; p. 2, para. 3
Searching/flagging/cataloguing can be aided using
Word-processor ‘search’ facility.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.32
Analysis
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Numbers not important
Emphasis on differences rather than similarities
Some analysis parallel to quantitative analysis –
eg. Crosstabulation – see Fig. 8.8.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.33
Analysis – qualitative
crosstabulation (Fig. 8.8)
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.34
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
5. Computer-aided
qualitative analysis
Use of computer-aided qualitative data
analysis software (CAQDAS)
Used here: NVivo



package from QSR (Qualitative Solutions and
Research Pty Ltd)
includes N6 (updated version of the well-known
NUD*IST),and XSight for market researchers
see www.qsrinternational.com
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.35
NVivo procedures covered
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Starting up
Creating a Project
Creating Documents
Document attributes
Setting up a coding system
Coding text
Analysis.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.36
a. Starting up

Click on NVivo icon to obtain NVivo Launch Pad (Fig.
8.9)
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.37
a. Starting up (contd.) NVivo Launch Pad (Fig. 8.9)
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.38
Note to Lecturer


The best approach from here on is to ‘go live’ with
NVivo with the example data pre-loaded onto your
computer and follow the procedures in the book.
If this is not possible and you wish to proceed to
provide an overview using PowerPoint, the Figures
from the book are included in the following slides.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.39
Figure 8.10. NVivo Create
Project
• Click on Create a New Project to reveal the New
Project Wizard: this offers the user a Typical or
Custom set up – we will deal only with the Typical set
up here. [Next]
• A dialog box is presented requesting a Name and
Description. Type in 'Leisure Choice' as the Name and
'Leisure Choice Project' as the Description. [Next]
• NVivo confirms the project name and description and
indicates that the details will be stored in a folder
located at: C:\QSR Projects\Training. [Finish]
(Note: If you wish to save your project details onto a
floppy disk, as is sometimes necessary in a computer
laboratory environment, use the 'Custom' set-up, where
an alternative file location – eg. A:Leisure Choice can
be specified)
• The NVivo 'Project Pad' now appears on the screen, as
shown below.
(Note: This screen can also now be obtained by
clicking on 'Open a Project' in the Launch Pad and
selecting Project Name 'Leisure Choice').
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.40
Figure 8.11. NVivo:
Create Document
• In the Project Pad, click on Create a Document.
The New Document Wizard: Creation dialog
box appears and offers a range of options - for
this demonstration, select the first option: Locate
and import readable external file(s). [Next]
• Locate the first text file – in this case Int_Mark.rtf
– on the hard disk or floppy disk. [Open]
• The New Document Wizard: Obtain Name box
offers a range of ways of providing a name and
description for the file. In this case, select the first
option: Use the source file name as document
name, and first paragraph as description.
[Finish] This means that NVivo will refer to this
document by the name of: 'Int_Mark.rtf' and,
when appropriate, will also use the more detailed
Description: 'Mark (Age 27, Male, Student,
Income £8K)'.
• Repeat this process for each the other two
interview files.
• Returning to the Project Pad. Click on Explore
Documents to reveal the three files listed, as
shown below.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.41
Figure 8.12. NVivo:
Document attributes
• In the Project Pad, select Documents and click on
Edit a Document Attributes.
• Create new Attribute is highlighted. In the Type the
new attribute name box, type Age, then specify value
type in this case 'Number'. [Apply]
• Repeat for Gender (Value type: String), Empstat (Value
type: String) and Income (Value type: Number).
'Descriptions' can be added in the space provided if
you wish - eg. 'Annual salary, £'000s'. [Close]
• This defines the Attributes to be used - similar to
defining variables in SPSS. Values for each
interviewee/transcript must now be recorded.
• In the Project Pad, select Documents and click on
Explore document attributes.
• A spread-sheet-style table is presented, with document
names down the side and attributes across the top –
as below, but with the table spaces blank.
• To enter the attribute data, in each space right-click,
then click on New Value and enter the value [OK], as
shown below. Once started, values which have already
been use appear in the dialog box – clicking on these
values removes the necessity to re-type frequently
used values – eg. male and female – when a number
of documents is involved.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Figure 8.13. NVivo: Setting up a coding
system
In the Project Pad, click on Nodes, then on Create a Node, then the
Slide
Slide 8.42
8.42
1.
Tree tab: the Create Node dialog box is displayed (Fig. 8.13A):
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.43
NVivo: Setting up a coding system (contd.)
1. Type Main activity in the Title box and Main activity choice in the
Description box [Create]: (1) Main activity appears in the left-hand box
under Trees.
2. Double click on Main activity and it moves up into the Tree Nodes box.
3. In the Title box type Activity type; check that Address is 1; and in the
Description box Activity type chosen [Create]: (1 1) Activity type now
appears under (1) Main activity.
4. Double click on Activity type (1 1) and it moves up into the Tree Nodes box.
5. In the Title box, type Sport; check that Address is 1; and in the Description
box type Sport and physical recreation [Create]: (1 1 1) Sport now appears
under (1 1) Activity
6. Repeat step 6 for the following (Address will automatically update):
Node (1 1 2): Title: Social Description: Informal social activities
Node (1 1 3): Title: Culture Description: Cultural activities
Node (1 1 4): Title: Friends Description: Activities with friends
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.44
Figure 8.13. NVivo: Setting up a coding system (contd.)
The Create Node dialog box now appears (FIG 8.13B)
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.45
Figure 8.13. NVivo: Setting up a coding system (contd.)
8. Restore (1) Main activity to the Tree Nodes box and repeat steps 4-7 for:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Node
(1 2)
(1 2 1)
(1 2 2)
(1 2 3)
(1 3)
(1 3 1)
(1 3 2)
(1 3 3)
(1 3 4)
(1 4)
(1 4 1)
(1 4 2)
(1 4 3)
(1 4 4)
(1 4 5)
(1 5)
(1 5 1)
(1 5 2)
(1 5 3)
(1 5 4)
Title
Influence
Parents
Teachers
Peers
Present
Time
Money
Fitness
Commitments
Personal
Competitive
Social
Routine
Active
Team
Events
Coaching
Money
Relationships
Reading
Description
Influence/background/experience
Parental influence
Teacher influence
Peer influence
Present constraints
Availability of time
Availability of money
Need to be fit
Commitments - work, study etc.
Personal attitudes
Competitive outlook
Social outlook
Anti-routine
Desire to be physically active
Team-orientated
Key events
Coaching, tuition, etc.
Change in financial situation
Change in key personal relationships
Reading something, eg. review, book
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.46
Figure 8.13. NVivo: Setting up a coding system (contd.)
9. A rudimentary coding system has now been created. It can be examined and edited by clicking on
Explore Nodes in the Project Pad - as shown in the Node Explorer (Fig. 8.13C).
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.47
Figure 8.14. NVivo: Coding text
1. In the project pad, click on Documents and Browse a
Document. The list of document files is presented.
Select Int_Mark [OK]. Mark's interview transcript is
presented.
2. Block in: 'playing football', then click on Coder at the
bottom right of the screen and click on Activity type,
then Sport then on Code.
3. Block in:'While the football's on, because of training
twice a week and needing to be fairly serious about
keeping fit I probably only go to a pub once - or at
most twice - a week'. Click on Coder at the bottom
right of the screen and click on Present then on
Commitments and then on Code.
4. To provide a visual display of the results of coding, click
on View and select Coding stripes. The 'coding stripe'
appears to the right.
5. Repeat this process for:
'needing to be fairly serious about keeping fit': code it
Present and Fitness.
'I don't have
the time or the money to do much more': code it
twice: Time and Money.
6. This process can be repeated for the other parts of
Mark's interview abstract, using the notes in Figure 8.6.
7. The screen should now appear as in the Document
Browser below.
8. This process can be repeated for the other two interview
transcripts.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.48
Figure 8.15. NVivo Search
1. In the Project Pad, select Search. The Search Tool dialog box is
displayed, as shown below. This has three sections:
Find;
In this Scope; and And Spread Finds.
2. In Find: double click on Node to reveal the Single Node Lookup
dialog box.
3. Click on Choose and, in the Choose Node box, select the Trees
then (1) Main activity then (1 3) Present then (1 3 1) Time [OK]. This
returns you to the Single Node Lookup dialog box.
4. In the Single Node Lookup dialog box:
a. the Return box indicates how the results of the search
will be stored – keep the default All finds as a node
b. the Name box indicates the name of the folder/file in
which the results will be stored – keep the default
/Search Results/Single Node Lookup.
5. In this Scope: indicates the type of documents which will be
searched – keep the default All Documents.
6. And Spread Finds: indicates the spread of text to be retrieved
around each 'find' of the search – for example, a number
of
characters either side of the find, or the surrounding paragraph – set
the number to 40 for this exercise.
7. Click Run Search.
8. The results of the search are placed in a new 'Search Results' node
(see 'Search Results' below). You are given two
options
to view the results: Show Node in Explorer or Browse Node.
Select the latter – the results are displayed in the
Search
Results/Single Node Lookup- Node Browser as shown below.
9. Searching need not be dependent on pre-set nodes. For example,
occurrences of the word friends could identified and
listed
by select Text instead of Node in step 2 above and entering the
search text friends rather than specifying a node.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.49
1.
2.
3.
4.
Figure 8.16. NVivo:
Dealing with search results
In the Project Pad, select Nodes and
click on Explore Nodes.
In the Node Explorer: click on Trees
and it will be seen that, in addition to
the Main activity group of nodes,
there is now one or more Search
Results nodes, as shown below.
Right click on any Search Result to:
– view (browse) it;
– delete if it will not be required
in future - this is
recommended to avoid
confusion with later searches;
– rename it (Inspect/Change
Node's properties)
Incorporate it into the coding system.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.50
Figure 8.17. NVivo:
Search and code + Selective search
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
Slide 8.51
Figure 8.18. NVivo: Model
diagram
1. In the Project Pad select Explore
Models then Tools then Add to
Model.
2. Select Node the Main activity. The
computer presents a message: '(1)
Main activity: This model has
descendants. Do you want to add
them?' Select Yes.
3. The model appears on the screen as
shown below: the layout may be
cramped but can be rearranged by
selecting and 'dragging' the points on
the diagram as desired.
Veal, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, 3rd edition © Pearson Education Limited 2006
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