AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting Started

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Chapter 2
The Science and Theory of Language
Development
Language Development from Theory to Practice, 2e
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Focus Questions
This chapter is designed to answer the
following questions:
1.
Who studies language development and
why?
2.
What are some major approaches to
studying language development?
3.
What are some of the major language
development theories?
4.
How do language development theories
influence practice?
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-2
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Introduction: What is a Theory?



Claim that a ________that will either hold up
over time or will not, based on the
accumulated outcomes from careful scientific
inquiry.
Relationship to language development:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
Should be _______using the scientific
process.
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-3
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Introduction: Theory and Science


Science:__________________________
_________________________________
Relationship to language development:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
Theories provide the ____________________
_____________, and the _________ of
scientific studies help us to _____________
theories over time.
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-4
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Who Studies Language
Development and Why?
Who:



Relationship between philosophers and
researchers of the 21st century.
Disciplines: ________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________.
Lack of area “_______” by a given discipline
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-5
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Who Studies Langauge
Development and Why, cont
Why:
 Basic research: ____________________
___________________________________.


Further our understanding about language as a
human phenomenon
Applied research: __________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

Address specific problems in society and inform
practices relevant to language development
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-6
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Basic Research



Advance fundamental understanding of
_________________________________.
_________, _____, and ______ theories
about language development.
When outcomes consistently confirm a
theory, the theory becomes ___________
__________________________________.
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-7
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Basic Research, cont:
Multicultural Focus

Sociolinguistic research and civil rights
issues:


_________________________________
_________________________________
Purnell, Idsardi, and Baugh (1999):
speech characteristics alone can
stimulate housing discrimination
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-8
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Applied Research


Contributes to _____________ by testing the
_______ of certain practices and approaches
(Stokes, 1997)
Experimental research designs to examine
the causal relationship between a
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-9
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Applied Research, cont

Test practices concerning language
development relevant to three main contexts:



Homes:__________________________________
_________________________________________
Clinics:__________________________________
_________________________________________
Schools:_________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-10
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Goal of Speech Perception
Studies

________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-11
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Methods for Studying Speech
Perception




Present auditory stimuli to participants and
measure their response to the stimuli.
Digitization:__________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
In utero heart rate and kicking response
Head Turn Preference Procedure
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-12
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Methods for Studying Speech
Perception Cont.


Behavioral testing:_______________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Brain-imaging technologies: magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI)

Tonotopic maps: _______________________
________________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-13
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Goal of Language Production
Studies

___________________________________
___________________________________


Examine emergent capabilities in form, content,
and use
Normative research: ________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________

Chart typical language production
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-14
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Methods for Studying Language
Production

Observational studies: examine children’s
language use in _________ or
_____________ contexts, usually using a
tape recorder or other audio recording device


Naturalistic: ___________________________
_______________________________________
Semi-structured: _______________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-15
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Methods for Studying Language
Production Cont.

Experimental studies: __________
_______________________________
_________________




Examine different aspects of production:
vocabulary, morphology, syntax,
phonology, pragmatics
Pseudowords
Repeat sentences
Correct erroneous sentences
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-16
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Goal of Language
Comprehension Studies

________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-17
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Methods for Studying Language
Comprehension



Pre-linguistic infants: ______________
(looking time) to a stimulus as a dependent
measure of language comprehension
Older children: ________ as a dependent
measure of language comprehension
Act out a series of sentences using ________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-18
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Questions that Language
Theories Should Attempt to
Answer

How children go about learning their native
language



Theoretically: _________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
Practically: ___________________________
______________________________________
General helpfulness for providing an
explanation of language development
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-19
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Questions that Language
Theories Should Attempt to
Answer Cont.

1.
2.
3.
Adequate theory: __________________
___________________________________:
What do infants bring to the task of ______
______________?
What mechanisms drive ________________?
What types of input support the __________
_________________?
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-20
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
What do Infants Bring to the
Task of Learning Language?

Nature versus nurture debate: infants
arrive in the world _____________ to acquire
language vs. infants learn language through
_______________ and do not come into the
world with innate language capabilities

Most theories of language development lie
somewhere in between the _______ and
__________ ends of the continuum
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-21
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Major Theories of Language
Development

“Nurture-inspired:” __________________;
humans gain all knowledge through
experience


“Blank slate”
“Nature-inspired:” ____________; much of
our knowledge is innate and genetically
transmitted, rather than learned by
experience

Underlying language system is in place at birth
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-22
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nuture-Inspired” Theories:
Behaviorist Theory





B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): all learning is the
result of ____________________
Operant conditioning: _______________
____________________________________
Language is not a ________________
_________ in the environment elicit verbal
responses, or language from children
Each step in the process serves to _______
___________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-23
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Theory to Practice: Applied
Behavioral Analysis (ABA)





Principles of operant conditioning: stimulus,
response, and reinforcement
Can be intensive and time-consuming
Requires training in ABA
May require several hours per week of oneon-one therapy
Discrete trial training (DTT): _________
____________________________________
____________________________________

Application in building language skills
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-24
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nurture-Inspired” Theories:
Social Interactionist Theory



Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934): ___________
___________________________________
___________________________________
All human knowledge exists first on a _____
_______ and then on a _________________
Language as a uniquely human ability that
exists independent of general cognition
starting at about ______________.
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-25
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nurture-Inspired” Theories:
Cognitive Theory



Jean Piaget (1896-1980): genetic
epistemology, the study of the development
of knowledge
Series of _____________ that children
experience; emphasized that achievements in
_________ must occur ________________
_____________________
Language: ability that follows closely behind
children’s_____________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-26
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nurture-Inspired” Theories:
Cognitive Theory Cont.


“Cognition hypothesis:” ____________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Children as active agents in constructing their
understanding of language


Egocentric: ____________________________
______________________________________
True dialogue once children are able to take the
_________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-27
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nurture-Inspired” Theories: The
Intentionality Model of Language
Acquisition



Children’s abilities in _____________,
_____________, _______, __________, and
___________ develop in tandem
Child is responsible for driving language
learning __________
Children learn language when what they have
in mind differs from what others around them
have in mind, _______________________
___________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-28
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nurture-Inspired” Theories: The
Competition Model



Language development draws heavily on the
_____________
Multiple language forms compete with one
another until the _____________________
___________________________________
___________________________
Overgeneralization:___________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-29
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nurture-Inspired” Theories:
Usage-Based Theory



Children learn language because they have
__________________
Emergence of intentionality during the first
year of life
“Intention reading:” ________________
____________________________________
____________________

Corresponding to the increasing capacity of the
infant to engage communicatively with others
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-30
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nature-Inspired” Theories:
Modularity Theory



Organization of the brain’s cognitive
infrastructure as comprising a series of
_________________________________
_________________________________
__________ that is localized to domainspecific processors that are encapsulated in
their functions from other processors
Language development in different areas is
driven forward by __________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-31
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nature-Inspired” Theories:
Universal Grammar


Noam Chomsky (1965): system of
grammatical rules and constraints consistent
across all the world’s languages
Language acquisition depends on an ______,
____________ that is dedicated to language,
and not other forms of learning


Language Acquisition Device
Language is _________________________

Born with linguistic competence; mistakes and
omissions in speech are indicative of performance
difficulties and not a lack of competence
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-32
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nature-Inspired” Theories:
Syntactic Bootstrapping



Syntactic bootstrapping: __________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________
Focused specifically on ______________
Children arrive at the task of language
learning with knowledge of syntactic
categories and utilize it to ____________
_____________________________________
____________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-33
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nature-Inspired” Theories:
Semantic Bootstrapping

Semantic Bootstrapping:
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-34
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
“Nature-Inspired” Theories:
Connectionism


Attempt to visually approximate the innerworkings of the brains, and model and
simulate the mechanisms responsible for
language growth in relationship to input
Models: simulations that are composed of 2
important elements within a larger network:
nodes and connections

Nodes:_____________________________
___________________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-35
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Linking Theory to Practice

It is important to determine:



_______________________________
________________________________
________________________________
____________________________
_______________________________
___________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-36
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Teaching English as a Second
Language: Theory and Practice

Principles of instruction:




Audiolingual Method


________________
________________
________________
_____________________________________
Silent Way

_______________________________________
________________________
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-37
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Practices Informed by Theories of
Language

Prevention: inhibit ____________
from emerging and reduce the need to
resolve such difficulties later in life


Fostering phonological awareness in young
children
Intervention and remediation:
_________________ used to help
individuals who exhibit difficulties with
some aspect of language development
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-38
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Practices Informed by Theories
of Language Cont.

Enrichment: process through which
teachers, clinicians, and other adults provide
children with an __________________
environment that both builds upon existing
skills and promotes the development of new
and more advanced language abilities

Learning Language and Loving It- The Hanen
Program for Early Childhood Teachers and
Educators
Language Development from Theory to
Practice, 2e
Khara L. Pence Turnbull and Laura M. Justice
2-39
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
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