Chapter 5 (1) - The Studio for Learning

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Educational Psychology
Twelfth Edition
Anita Woolfolk
© 2013, 2010, 2005, 2001, 1997
Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 5
Language Development, Language Diversity,
and Immigrant Education
Overview
I.
The Development of Language
II. Diversity in Language Development
III. Dialect Differences in the Classroom
IV. Teaching Immigrant Students and English Language
Learners
V.
Special Challenges: ELL Students
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
5-3
What Would You Do?
Read “What Would You Do?”
•
What is the real problem here?
•
How would you help the class (and yourself) to feel more
comfortable with each other?
•
What are your first goals in working on this problem?
•
How will these issues affect the grade levels you will teach?
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
5-4
Objectives
5.1: Understand how language develops and know how to
support emergent literacy.
5.2: Discuss what happens when children develop two
languages.
5.3: Address whether dialect differences affect learning and
discuss what teachers can do.
5.4: Discuss whether English immersion or bilingual instruction
is better for English language learners.
5.5: Explain who the Generation 1.5 students are and describe
their learning characteristics.
5.6: Define sheltered instruction and explain how it works.
5.7: Discuss how teachers can recognize special learning needs
and talents when they do not speak their students’ first
language.
5
The Development of Language
Language and Cultural Differences
•
Cultures create words for the concepts that are important to
them.
•
Children develop language as they build on other cognitive
abilities by actively trying to make sense of what they hear,
looking for patterns, and making up rules.
•
Built-in biases and rules may limit the search and guide the
pattern recognition.
•
Reward and correction play a role in helping children learn
correct language use, but the child’s thought processes also
are important.
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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5-6
The Development of Language
•
Sounds and Pronunciation
– By age 5, most children have mastered the sounds of their
native language.
•
Vocabulary and Meaning
– By age 6, most children understand up to 20,000 words and
can use about 2,600.
– As cognitive abilities develop, children begin to understand
words that express abstract ideas and hypothetical
situations.
•
Grammar and Syntax
– Initially, new rules may be applied too widely:
○ (“broked” instead of “broken”)
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
5-7
The Development of Language
•
Pragmatics
– Knowledge about how to use language
– When, where, how, and to whom to speak
•
Metalinguistic Awareness
– Explicit understanding of language and how it works
– Begins to develop around age 5
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
5-8
The Development of Language
Emergent Literacy
•
Two categories of skills important for learning reading
•
Understanding sounds and codes
– Decoding units of print into units of sound, and units of
sound into units of language (inside-out skills)
•
Oral language skills
– Understanding auditory derivations, and placing them in
correct conceptual and contextual framework (outside-in)
•
Supporting emergent literacy
– Reading with children
– Retelling stories and talking about them
– Limiting time spent watching television
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
5-9
Diversity in Language Development
Dual Language Learning
•
Children can learn two languages at once if they have
adequate opportunities in both languages.
•
There are many cognitive advantages to learning more than
one language.
•
People of any age can learn a new language.
– The best time to learn accurate pronunciation is early
childhood.
•
People who can communicate in both a spoken and a signed
language or in two different signed languages are considered
bilingual.
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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Diversity in Language Development
•
Bilingualism
– Speaking two languages
•
Cultural Differences
– Might interfere with developing academic English and
content understanding
– Beliefs about learning are shaped by culture and previous
experiences, which may explain why English Language
Learners seem quiet and reluctant to speak in class.
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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Dialect Differences in the Classroom
•
Dialect
– Any variety of a language spoken by a particular group
– Includes variation in vocabulary, grammar, and
pronunciation
– Differs by region, even within small distances or
communities
•
Genderlect
– Differences between how males and females speak
•
Accent
– Inflection, tone, or choice of words unique to an individual
or group of individuals
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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5-12
Dialect Differences in the Classroom
•
Dialects and Teaching
– Teachers need to be sensitive to their own stereotypes
about children who speak a different dialect.
– Ensure comprehension by repeating instructions, asking
students to paraphrase instructions, and giving examples.
– Focus on understanding and accepting students’ language
while teaching alternative forms of English used in formal
writing and work settings.
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
5-13
Teaching Immigrant Students and English
Language Learners
•
Immigrants
– People who voluntarily leave their country to become
permanent residents in a new place
•
Refugees
– A special group of immigrants who also relocate voluntarily,
but are fleeing their home country because it is not safe
•
“Melting Pot”
– Old view that minority group members and immigrants
should assimilate completely into the American culture
•
Multiculturalism
– Celebrates cultural diversity
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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Teaching Immigrant Students and English
Language Learners
Four Profiles of English Language Learners
•
Balanced Bilinguals
– Speak, read, and write well in their first language and in
English
•
Monolingual/literate Students
– Literate in their native language, but speak limited English
•
Monolingual/preliterate Students
– May not read or write in their native language, or may have
very limited literacy skills
•
Limited Bilingual
– Students can converse well in both languages, but for some
reason have trouble learning academically.
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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Teaching Immigrant Students and English
Language Learners
Generation 1.5
•
Students whose characteristics, educational experiences, and
language fluencies are somewhere between those of
students born in the United States and those of students
who are recent immigrants
•
Have lived most of their lives in the United States
•
Language at home sometimes not English
•
Often can speak in fluent conversational English
•
Academic English sometimes not well developed
•
Tend to be “ear learners”
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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5-16
Teaching Immigrant Students and English
Language Learners
•
Names for English Learners
– Limited-English Proficient (LEP)
– English Language Learners (ELL)
– English as a Second Language (ESL)
○ classes devoted to teaching these students English
•
Bilingual Education
– Works best if students are not forced to abandon their
native language
– The more proficient students are in their first language, the
faster they will master the second.
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
5-17
Teaching Immigrant Students and English
Language Learners
Teaching ELL Students
•
Begin instruction with a formative assessment.
•
Use small group interventions to focus instruction on the
areas of need.
•
Target teaching essential vocabulary.
– Both content and common words
•
Directly teach academic English.
•
Make wide use of peer-assisted learning, particularly working
in pairs, to complete academic tasks.
Woolfolk
Educational
Psychology, 12e
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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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