Sheltered instruction - Ector County Independent School District

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SHELTERED INSTRUCTION
Part I
Pilar Moreno-Recio
Executive Director of Bilingual/ESL Education
ECISD

8:00-11:30 TRAINING
10:00-10:15Break

11:30-1:00 LUNCH BREAK

1:00-4:00 TRAINING
2:00-2:15 Break
Content Objectives:
At the end of this two-day training . . .
You will have an awareness of some challenges ELLs, as
well as other students, and teachers of ELLs face in the
classroom. You will become cognizant of some
strategies for overcoming these challenges.
Language Objectives:
During this two-day training . . .
You will interact with your fellow educators
demonstrating your new understanding of terms
associated with second language acquisition and
sheltered instruction.
Background on English Learners
Improving Instruction
Second Language Acquisition
Getting Started with Sheltered
Instruction
LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE:
In this section, you will work in collaborative
groups to write down the ideas you already have
about sheltered instruction and/or SIOP,
compare them to the new information, and
develop a working vocabulary relating to second
•L1–
a student’s primary or home language
•L2 –
a student’s second language or language of acquisition
•LEP -
Limited English Proficient
•ELL/EL –
English Language Learner/English Learner
•TELPAS
•LPAC –
•ELPS
–
•BICS –
•CALP –
Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System
•Language Proficiency Assessment Committee
•(English Language Proficiency Standards) – replaced the ESL TEKS; is
now the responsibility of all content-area teachers to give instruction
that supports development of listening, speaking, reading, and writing
•(Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) – the language of
everyday conversations
•(Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) – the language of the
classroom or of the academic content
One
challenge
ELL face
is…
 1:5 students in the U.S. is the child of an immigrant (Capps et al.,
2005)
 General student population grew 2.6% between 1995-2005 vs. ELL
student population grew 56% (Batalova, Fix & Murray, 2007)
 79% of ELs speak Spanish as their L1 followed by:
Chinese/Cantonese, Vietnamese, Hmong, Korean and all other
languages (National Clearinghouse for English Language
Acquisition, 2006a).
 ELLs struggle in school more than any other group except those
identified for special education (Gandara & Hopkins, 2010).
 More than 80% of ELLs are born in the U.S. and are U.S. citizens
(Gandara & Hopkins, 2010).

The States with the highest growth in ELLs are: SC, NC, TN, GA & IN.
Only 30% of all secondary students read
proficiently, but for students of color, the situation is
worse: 89% of Hispanic students and 86 % percent of
African American middle and high school students
read below grade level (Perie, Grigg, & Donahue,
2005).
-
Since NCLB in 2001, increased number of high
school ELs not receiving a diploma because they
failed high-stakes tests despite fulfilling all other
graduation requirements (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004;
Center on Education Policy, 2005; Edley & Wald,
2002).
-
Above the surface
How can this
picture possibly
relate to second
language
acquisition?
I think this picture relate to
second language acquisition …
What you see is NOT
ALWAYS what you get.
Common Underlying Proficiency Theory
la hipotenusa
el cateto
Elevada a la segunda
potencia
mas
es
hypotenuse
leg
squared
plus
is
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Motivation (yours and the students’)
First language development in ELL students
Access to the language
Age
Personality and learning style
Quality of instruction
We think ______ affects second language
acquisition because…..
1.
.
2
What are the factor(s) that we CANNOT control?
What factor(s) can we control and
why?
Look at the list of factors which we can control.
Which ONE do we have the most control over?
Are We Prepared?
“The lack of success in educating
linguistically and culturally diverse
students is problematic because federal
and state governments expect all students
to meet high standards . . .
. . .and have adjusted national and state
assessments as well as state graduation
requirements to reflect new levels of
achievement and to accommodate requirements
of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001).”
- Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)
“Academic programs are not well-established,
sheltered curricula, and appropriate
resources are not readily available; most
importantly, many teachers are not trained
to meet the needs of these second language
learners.”
-Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)
“41.2 % of the 2,984,791 public school
teachers reported teaching ELLs, but only
12.5% had had 8 or more hours of training in
the past three years on how to support ELLs.”
- Schools and Staffing Survey, NCES, 2002
What is Sheltered
Instruction (SI)?
Can sheltered
instruction
benefit NonLEP students?
Level of rigor
is
maintained
(higher order
thinking)
English
learners
access gradelevel content
(TEKS)
Socio-cultural
awareness is
infused
Content is
Comprehensible
(scaffolding)
Sheltered
Instruction (SI)
Class makeup:
ELLs + native
English speakers
or just ELLs
Academic
English language
is developed
Make content comprehensible
Develop academic language
High
Context
(Many clues)
Low
Context
(Few Clues)
Low Cognitive
Demand (easy)
High Cognitive
Demand (difficult)
(easiest)
Immediate and very
concrete allowing
one to use his/her five
senses to understand
his/her environment
, but not quite necessitating
higher order thinking.
B.
A.
Immediate and very
concrete with regard
to manipulating aspects
of one’s environment,
and one is able to learn
complex concepts through
more
than just auditory or visual
input.
C. Abstract in terms of
D. (most difficult) Abstract
physical or sensory input,
with regard to natural
yet not necessitating the use sensory input with the added
of complex cognitive
challenge of seeking to
functions, such as analysis,
understand content or ideas
synthesis, evaluation, or
that are distant and not
creation.
immediate.
Low Cognitive
Demand (easy)
High Cognitive
Demand (difficult)
(easiest)
Immediate and very
B.
High
Context
A.
(Many clues)
allowing one to use his/her
five
senses to understand
his/her
environment, but not quite
necessitating higher
order thinking.



concrete
Tracing, Singing for fun,
Push-ups while counting
Follow simple directions
Face-to-face conversations
Immediate and very concrete
with regard to manipulating
aspects of one’s environment,
and one is able to learn
complex concepts through
more
than just auditory or visual
input.



Demonstrations
Audio-visual assisted
lesson
Science experiments
Low
Context
(Few Clues)
Low Cognitive
Demand (easy)
High Cognitive
Demand (difficult)
C.
Abstract in terms of
physical or sensory input,
yet not necessitating the
use of complex cognitive
functions, such as analysis,
synthesis, evaluation, or
creation.
D. (most difficult)
Abstract with regard to
natural
sensory input with the added
challenge of seeking to
understand content or ideas
that
are distant and not
immediate.



Demonstrations
Audio-visual assisted
lesson
Science experiments



Demonstrations
Audio-visual assisted
lesson
Science experiments
High
Context
(Many clues)
Low
Context
(Few Clues)
Low Cognitive
Demand (easy)
High Cognitive
Demand (difficult)
(easiest)
Immediate and very
concrete allowing
one to use his/her five
senses to understand
his/her environment
, but not quite necessitating
higher order thinking.
B.
A.
Immediate and very
concrete with regard
to manipulating aspects
of one’s environment,
and one is able to learn
complex concepts through
more
than just auditory or visual
input.
C. Abstract in terms of
D. (most difficult) Abstract
physical or sensory input,
with regard to natural
yet not necessitating the use sensory input with the added
of complex cognitive
challenge of seeking to
functions, such as analysis,
understand content or ideas
synthesis, evaluation, or
that are distant and not
creation.
immediate.
QUIZ:
Look at the following quiz. When you have
answered each of the questions, please put
your pencil down.
1. What is a blue tick?
2. What is the best way to
catch catfish?
3. What is a hahna bata?
4. What is jan ken po?
QUIZ: ANSWERS
Is this test culturally biased????
1. A dog (in Appalachia)
2. Electrofishing (in Appalachia)
3. A runny nose (in Hawaii)
4. Rock, paper, scissors (in Korea)
LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE:
In this section, you will work in collaborative
groups to write down the ideas you already
have about sheltered instruction and/or SIOP,
compare them to the new information, and
develop a working vocabulary relating to
Please complete the self-assessment . . . .
In this training, we will discuss in detail the following:
-Introduction/Background on ELLs
-Lesson Preparation
-Building Background
-Comprehensible Input
-Strategies
-Interaction
-Practice and Application
-Lesson Delivery
-Review and Assessment
-Introduction
-Lesson Preparation
-Building Background
1. Content Objectives Clearly
Defined, Displayed, and
Reviewed with Students
3. Content Concepts
Appropriate for Age and
Educational Background
5. Adaptation of Content
to All Levels of Student
Proficiency
2. Language Objectives Clearly
Defined, Displayed, and
Reviewed with Students
4. Supplemental Materials
Used to a High Degree
6. Meaningful Activities That
Integrate Lesson Concepts
with Language Practice
Opportunities
KNOW YOUR STUDENTS’ NEEDS.
“ . . . remember, that the first step in the
instructional process is comprehensive
and thoughtful lesson design.”
-Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)
LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE:
In this section, you will write a content and
language objective using the ELPS “cheat
sheet”.
1. Content Objectives
Effective instruction requires that “concrete content
objectives that identify what students should know and be
able to do must guide teaching and learning.”
-Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)
What do we call
the State standard
for “what
students should
know”?
TEKS
The skills that the
students should “be able
to do” are part of the
TEKS, and are referred
to as . . .
Student Expectations (SEs).
TEK 4.18 – Students write expository and
procedural or work-related texts to
communicate ideas and information to
specific audiences for specific purposes.
4.18(A)(i) – STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO:
create brief compositions that establish a
central idea in a topic sentence
 Written in a student-friendly format :
• Written in terms of what students will learn or do
• Stated simply, both orally AND in writing
 Reflects “WHAT” the students need to know
• Must be tied to specific grade-level content
standards (TEKS/SEs)
• Limit to one or two per lesson to reduce the
complexity of the learning task (reflects something
that can be taught and learned in a lesson or two)
Content Objectives put the pieces of the lesson
together – a succinct summarization.
1.Start with a specific TEK,
2.Focus on the goal of your lesson that
covers that specific TEK, and
3.Write a statement in student-friendly
language that expresses the overall goal of
the lesson (remember it should be a
measurable goal)
Ask yourself: Does this content objective
clearly identify what students should know
and be able to do? Will it help guide
instruction and learning?
 Written in a student-friendly format :
• Written in terms of what students will learn or do
• Stated simply, both orally AND in writing
 Reflects “WHAT” the students need to know
• Must be tied to specific grade-level content
standards (TEKS/SEs)
• Limit to one or two per lesson to reduce the
complexity of the learning task (reflects something
that can be taught and learned in a lesson or two)
Content Objectives put the pieces of the lesson
together – a succinct summarization.
“While carefully planning and delivering content objectives,
Sheltered Instruction teachers “must also incorporate in
their lesson plans activities that support students’ language
development.”
-Short (1999)
ESL
TEKS
2007
ELPS





Revised ELPS were approved by the State Board of
Education in the 2007-2008 school year.
The ELPS are part of the state-required curriculum.
The ELPS outline the instruction school districts
SHALL provide to ELLs in order for ELLs to have the
full opportunity to learn English and succeed
academically.
The ELPS are to be implemented as an integral part
of the instruction in each foundation and enrichment
subject of the TEKS.
Teachers teach BOTH, the content area TEKS and the
ELPS, in instructing ELLs.




The ELPS define the English language proficiency
levels of beginning, intermediate, advanced, and
advanced high.
The proficiency levels are in regard to the 4 domains
of language which are: listening, speaking, reading,
and writing.
TELPAS measures the ELPS student expectations
from the cross-curricular second language acquisition
knowledge and skills and uses the ELPS proficiency
level descriptors as assessment rubrics.
The ELPS may be found at
http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.h
tml
English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)
Written in a student-friendly format :
•
Written in terms of what students will learn or do
•
Stated simply, both orally AND in writing
 Reflects “HOW” the students will practice language
during the lesson:
•
Must be tied to specific proficiency level language
standards (ELPS)
•
Limit to one or two per lesson to reduce the
complexity of the learning task

“We learn primarily through language, and use
language to express our understanding.”
-Echevarria, Vogt & Short (2008)
1. Start with a specific domain that will fit with
your lesson focus (listening, speaking, reading
or writing)
2. Find an ELP that matches your focus domain
and your lesson, and
3. Write a statement in student-friendly language
that expresses the overall language goal of the
lesson (remember, it should be measurable)
Ask yourself: Does this language objective
clearly identify what students should be able
to do linguistically? Will it help guide
language instruction and learning?
When You finish your language objective.
Please stand up.
As the music plays, you will move around the
room. When the music stops, you will introduce
yourself to the closest person to you. It must be
someone with whom you’ve not spoken today.
You will share you content, language objective,
content concepts and sentence stems. You will
listen to the feedback offered by the other
person. The other person will follow the same
“An objective is not the
by-product of an
activity, but the
foundation of one.”
-Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)
“An objective is not the
by-product of an
activity, but the
foundation of one.”
-Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)
1. Content Objectives Clearly
Defined, Displayed, and
Reviewed with Students
3. Content Concepts
Appropriate for Age and
Educational Background
2. Language Objectives Clearly
Defined, Displayed, and
Reviewed with Students
REMEMBER THIS . . .
You MUST know your students.





L1 literacy
L2 proficiency
Reading ability
Cultural and age appropriateness of
the L2 materials
Difficulty level of the material to
be read
-Gunderson (1991)
Accommodate the lesson for language. You might
provide the following:
 Substantial background building,
 Small group mini-lesson which precedes the
whole class lesson,
 Introduction and/or preview vocabulary that is
critical to the lesson
 Picture or book walks
 Peer tutors in heterogeneously designed classes
 Hands-on, experimental activities



Supplemental materials are important
for students who do not have gradelevel academic backgrounds and/or
who have language and learning
difficulties.
A variety of supplementary materials
supports different learning styles and
multiple intelligences.
Supplemental materials can bridge
prior experiences with new learning.

Please refer to the handout for a list of
examples . . . .
“We must find ways to make the text and
other resource materials accessible for
all students, adapting them so that the
content concepts are left intact.”
-Short (1991)
Several strategies that are recommended for
students with reading difficulties also work well
for ELLs. These methods can be used throughout
the lesson.

Please refer to the handout for a list of
examples . . . .
“Students are more successful when they are able to make
connections between what they know and what they
are learning by relating classroom experiences to their
own lives.”
-Echevarria, Vogt & Short (2008
Meaningful activities . . .
What
students
know.
New
information
KNOW YOUR STUDENTS’ NEEDS.
“ . . . remember, that the first step in the
instructional process is comprehensive
and thoughtful lesson design.”
-Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)
LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE:
In this section, you will read about the
English Language Proficiency Standards
(ELPS) and how they relate to language
objectives.
-Introduction
-Lesson Preparation
-Building Background
1. Concepts Explicitly Linked to
Students’ Background
Experiences
2. Links Explicitly Made
between Past Learning and New
Concepts
3. Key Vocabulary Emphasized
LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE:
In this section, you will listen to a video
clip to see demonstrations of the features
of Building Background in action.
If you are one of those who thought you
would see an automatic in the 911 “when
pigs fly,”
May we suggest you duck?
One of the challenges of teaching ELLs is
that student in the same class vary in
the amount of prior knowledge they
possess related to a topic.
Examples of ways to link past concepts to new
learning are:
•Questioning strategies
•Charts/Reference Points
•KWL
•Quick writes/Graffiti writes
Many students do not automatically make
connections between previous lessons
and concepts to today’s lesson.
Teachers must make connections explicitly.
Explicitly preserve and refer to or integrate:
•Questioning strategies
•Word banks/Word walls
•Outlines
•Charts/Graphs
•Maps
•Graphic organizers
Terms drawn from National Standards
Subject
Area
Level 1
(K-2)
Level 2
(3-5)
Region XV ESC
Level 3
(6-8)
Level 4
(9-12)
TOTAL
S
Math
80
190
201
214
685
Science
100
166
225
282
773
Gen. History 162
US History 0
W. History 0
560
154
245
319
123
301
270
148
297
1311
425
843
ELA
83
245
247
223
798
TOTALS
425
1560
1416
1434
4835
History
Social
Language
BICS
ELA
Math
Science
Social
Studies
Guess
Way
Principle
Take away
Substract
Individual
What words would an
artist use to describe
this photo?
What words would a
scientist use to
describe this photo?
What words would a
mathematician use to
describe this photo?
If I were an artist, I would use the words…
Academic language has three key elements:
Content words
(ex: key voc. assoc. with content)
Process/Function words
ACADEMIC LANGUAGE
(ex: functional language, sequence words)
Words and word parts that teach
English structure
(ex: root words and affixes, cognates)
Another useful source for teaching vocabulary is in a scheme
designed by Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002). They describe
three Tiers of words:
TIER THREE: uncommon words,
found rarely in texts; teachers need
spend little time on them.
TIER TWO: words that students need to know for
comprehending school texts and achieving
academically, and they should be taught explicitly
to ELLs and most native-speaking students.
TIER ONE: common words, such as simple nouns, high-frequency
words, and sight words.










Word sorts
Contextualizing Key Vocabulary
Personal Dictionaries
Word Wall
Concept Definition Map
Cloze Sentences
List-Group-Label
Word Generation
Word Study Books
Vocabulary Games
“Taking a few minutes to jump-start
students’ schemata and past learning,
to explicitly find out what they know
or have experienced about a topic, and
then explicitly linking their
knowledge directly to the lesson’s
objectives will result in greater
understanding for ELLs.”
-Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)
LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE:
In this section, you will listen to a video
clip to see demonstrations of the features
of Building Background in action.
-Introduction
-Lesson Preparation
-Building Background
END OF PART ONE
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