BohonLeslie

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Essential ESL Teaching
Methods:
Comprehensible Input
& Interaction
Leslie Bohon, Ph.D. candidate, College of W&M
[email protected]
VADOE Visions to Practice Institute
July 9, 2013
The Growing ELL population
• 1997-98 school year number of English-language
learners (ELLs) enrolled in U.S. public schools: 3.5
million.
• 2008-2009: increased to 5.3 million
• This is a 51 % increase, as opposed to the general
population increase of 7.2 % (National Clearinghouse for
English Language Acquisition, 2011).
• Virginia is among the top 10 states of growth in ELL
numbers.
Source:
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (2011). The growing number of English learner
students. Retrieved from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/t3sis
2
Purpose of this session
• Content objectives:
– Learn more about comprehensible input and its importance
to your ELLs.
– Practice interactive strategies to add to your classroom tools.
• Language objectives:
– Discuss difference in demonstrations with comprehensible
input vs. none.
– Discuss with partner comprehensible input techniques you
already do and those you wish to improve.
– List interactive strategies you or your colleagues use;
discuss with group.
3
Pre-quiz – complete with partner
• 1. Teachers’ instructional discourse should be clear,
enunciated. Ideal speech rate is normal yet with more
between phrases and punctuation.
• 2. T or F? Because ELLs are learning English, it is
important for teachers to do most of the talking.
• 3. T or F? Interaction helps ELLs learn cultural and social
skills as well as content.
• 4. T or F? Teachers should incorporate at least 2 kinds
of group configurations each day.
Comprehensible input =
making the message
understandable for students
(Krashen, 1982).
–
–
Demonstration: Note the difference between the 2 quick lessons – Krashen-style!
Activity: graphic organizer on comprehensible input
5
Activity: Comprehensible input for
ELLs
Guiding Questions
What is comprehensible input?
Why is it important to use comprehensible input for
ELLs?
When is it important to use comprehensible input?
What are some examples of comprehensible input?
Activity:
•Using the concept map provided to you, please 1) brainstorm
answers individually, 2) share with partner.
Comprehensible Input
• Speech appropriate for students’ proficiency level
• Clear explanation of academic tasks
• A variety of techniques used to make content
concepts clear
Sources:
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2010). Making content comprehensible for
secondary English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford,
UK: Pergamon Press.
Comprehensible Input: Speech
appropriate
HOW teacher speaks: rate, enunciation, pauses
WHAT teacher says: level of vocabulary, sentence
structure, use of idioms, repetition, use of cognates
–Speak at a slower rate for beginners.
–Increase speaking rate with time, but use pauses.
–Enunciate. English is a stress-timed language while Spanish,
Korean, and Japanese are syllable-timed languages.
–Avoid jargon and idiomatic expressions.
–Use cognates. Many two-tiered words are cognates (i.e.,
calculate, television, malfunction).
Sources:
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2010). Making content comprehensible for secondary English learners.
Boston, MA: Pearson.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
Comprehensible Input: Clear
explanation of tasks
How can a teacher provide clear explanations?
Guidelines:
–Practice activities; make them routine.
–Present instructions in a step-by-step manner.
–Model instructions/activities. Peer modeling is wonderful.
–Present the finished product, such as what you want regarding
writing, a research report, a lab, etc.
–Written directions to accompany oral directions.
–Simplify and adapt text.
Sources:
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2010). Making content comprehensible for secondary English learners.
Boston, MA: Pearson.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
Comprehensible Input:
Techniques to make concepts clear
•Modeling
•Hands-on activities
•Demonstrations
•Gestures and body language
•Visuals, graphic organizers
Sources:
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2010). Making content comprehensible for secondary English learners.
Boston, MA: Pearson.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
Interaction
• Frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion
between teacher and students and among students that
encourage elaborated responses about lesson concepts
• Opportunities for students to clarify key concepts in L1 as
needed with peer or L1 text
Source:
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2010). Making content comprehensible for secondary English learners.
Boston, MA: Pearson.
Interaction practice
Directions:
1)
Assign each group member a role (recorder, reporter, facilitator,
time keeper, materials manager).
2) In the spaces below, write an example of
– a technique you use to make speech comprehensible in your
class and one that you wish to improve,
– a technique you use to make explanations clear and one that
you wish to improve, and
– a technique you use to promote comprehensible input and one
that you wish to improve.
3) You have 2 minutes, so work quickly.
16
Students share
•Please listen to what these ELLs share
about what teachers do to help them learn,
including comprehensible input and
interaction.
•Reactions?
Creating Opportunities for Interaction
•Use a minimum of two group configurations
(individual, pair, triads, groups of 4-5, whole group).
•Have all students participate in responding to your
questions (e.g., whiteboards, red-yellow-green cards)
•Encourage more elaborate responses from students
•Elicit more extended responses
•Reduce the amount of teacher talk
Importance of Interaction
•Using the academic language helps solidify
the content for ALL students
•Language development (using English to
communicate)
•Learning is more effective when students
form, express, discuss ideas and opinions.
•ELLs learn social (cultural) skills
Activity (Inner-Outer Circle)
•With a partner, please list three ways that a
teacher can create opportunities for
interaction and cooperative learning among
students. How do you get students to talk
about content in your class?
•Use inner-outer circle to share your
responses.
•Stop when clock is at 0:00.
Post-quiz
• 1. Teachers’ instructional discourse should be clear, enunciated.
Ideal speech rate is normal yet with more _______between
phrases, commas, and periods.
Pauses
• 2. Because ELLs are learning English, it is important for teachers
to do most of the talking.
False. Discussing content helps ALL students learn academic
language.
• 3. Interaction helps ELLs learn cultural and social skills as well as
content.
True
• 4. Teachers should incorporate at least 2 kinds of group
configurations each day.
True
References
Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning (2nd ed.). Newark, DE:
International Reading Association.
Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational
success for language minority students. In California Department of Education (Ed.),
Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework (pp. 3-49). Los Angeles,
CA: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2010). Making content comprehensible for secondary English
learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Gomez, E. (1999). Opinion maker. In D.J. Short (Ed.), New ways in teaching English at the
secondary level. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford, UK:
Pergamon Press.
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (2011). The growing number of English
learner students. Retrieved from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/t3sis
Reiss, J. (2012). 120 content strategies for English language learners: Teaching for academic
success in secondary school (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Vogt, M, Echevarria, J. (2008). 99 ideas and activities for teaching English learners. Boston, MA:
Pearson.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. 22
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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