rates of success - Allegheny Intermediate Unit

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Supporting Students in the Secondary
Content Areas
Allegheny Intermediate Unit 3
Adapted from,
PaTTAN Harrisburg
Pam Kastner
Allen Muir
Teresa Stoudt
Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network
PaTTAN’s Mission
The Pennsylvania Training and
Technical Assistance Network is an
initiative of the Pennsylvania
Department of Education working in
partnership with families and local
education agencies to support
programs and services to improve
student learning and achievement.
2
District, IU, Preschool, Agency Policy
Your local district’s policies regarding
paraprofessional job descriptions, duties,
and responsibilities provide the final
word!
3
Agenda
• Introduction and Learner Outcomes
• Overview of Effective Instruction
• Effective Instruction Within SecondaryLevel Reading & Math
– Principles of Effective Instruction
– Strategies for Implementing Effective
Instruction
4
Learner Outcomes
Participants will:
– Identify key principles of effective instruction
– Identify strategies for incorporating the key
principles in a secondary setting
– Clarify the role of a paraprofessional supporting
the teacher in implementing secondary-level
reading and math instruction
5
Two Engagement Strategies
• Think-Pair-Share
• Give 1/Get1
6
Definition of a Strategy
• Individual’s approach to a task
• Systematic “plans” that one uses to
accomplish a learning task
• Cognitive Strategies are the “Tools”
• Metacognitive Strategies are the “Process”
7
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle 1: Engagement Time
Students learn more when they
are actively engaged in instructional tasks.
Ellis & Worthington (1994),Coyne, Kame’enui
and Carnine (2007), Marzano, Pickering and
Pollock (2001)
8
Engagement Time-Definition
• Academic Engaged Time
• The amount of allocated time a student
spends actively engaged in appropriate tasks
that s/he can perform with a high rate of
success.
This is learning!!!
9
Engagement Time
•
Students learn more when they are actively
engaged in instructional tasks
•
Three aspects of time that directly impact
student learning:
1. Time allocated for the activity
2. Degree to which students are engaged
3. Rates of Success that students experience
10
#1: Time Allocated
How much time do we allocate to content
areas?
Based on:
• State Recommendations/Standards
• District/School Goals and Objectives
• Characteristics of students
“We don’t have control over
many of these decisions!”
11
#2: Degree of Engagement
Increase Intrinsic
Motivation - Gain
attention for 10-90 min.
Increase apathy and
resentment Gain attention
for 10 min or <
• CHOICES
• REQUIRED
• RELEVANT
• IRRELEVANT
• ENGAGING
• PASSIVE
We do have control of this aspect of time!
12
#3: Rates of Success
• The rates of success the students experience
while engaged in the activity directly impacts
student learning.
• Success rate is a critical variable: when students
are provided with high rates of success during
instructional activities, student learning is
increased.
• They say that practice makes perfect, but only
perfect practices makes perfect, therefore it is
important to aim for 90% engagement.
13
Engagement Time: Selected Strategies
• Response Cards (yes, no, why)
• Choral Responding
• Think-Pair-Share
• Think-write-pair-discuss
• Reciprocal Teaching
Ellis & Worthington (1994), Coyne,
Kame’enui and Carnine (2007), Marzano,
14
Pickering and Pollock (2001)
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle 2: Incorporate High
Rates of Success
Students who experience high and moderate success
rates are correlated positively with student
learning outcomes.
Ellis & Worthington (1994), Coyne, Kame’enui
and Carnine (2007), Marzano, Pickering and
Pollock (2001)
15
Incorporate High Rates of Success
• High student success rates (and to a less
extent, moderate success rates) correlate
positively with student learning outcomes.
• Low success rates correlate negatively with
student learning outcomes.
16
Incorporate High Rates of Success
• Selected Strategies:
–
–
–
–
“Errorless” Learning
Constructive Feedback
Skill Sequencing
Pacing
Ellis & Worthington (1994), Coyne,
Kame’enui and Carnine (2007), Marzano,
Pickering and Pollock (2001)
17
Incorporate High Rates of Success
• Selected Strategies:
Constructive Feedback
Is…
Is Not…
Highly Specific
Non-Specific advise
blame or praise
Compares current performance
to a standard
Assuming that the
process (instruction,
hard work, advice) is
enough to reach the goal
Frequent, on-going, timely
Delayed or erratic
18
High Rates of Success Activity
• Given a list of potential feedback, identify
examples and non-examples of constructive
feedback.
19
Incorporate High Rates of Success
Selected Strategies:
Formative Assessment
• Formative assessment is assessment for learning.
• Using formative assessment provides students with
feedback that helps students take control of their
own learning and become successful self-regulated
learners.
• paraprofessionals should provide feedback which
includes opportunities to improve and guidance on
how to improve.
20
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle 3: Content Coverage/
Opportunities to Learn
Increased opportunities to learn content is correlated
positively with increased student achievement.
Ellis & Worthington (1994), Coyne, Kame’enui
and Carnine (2007), Marzano, Pickering and
Pollock (2001)
21
Content Coverage/Opportunities
to Learn
Selected Strategies:
• Identify Essential Content
• Reduce Transition Time
• Begin and End Lessons on Time
22
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle 4: Grouping for Instruction
Students achieve more in classes where they spend
the most of their time being directly taught by a
teacher. The manner in which a paraprofessional
delivers instruction is an important instructional
principle that directly impacts student
achievement.
Ellis & Worthington (1994), Coyne, Kame’enui
and Carnine (2007), Marzano, Pickering and 23
Pollock (2001)
Grouping for Instruction
Selected Strategies:
•
•
•
•
Small Group Instruction
Individual Instruction
Whole Group Instruction
Flexible Grouping
24
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle 5: Scaffolded Instruction
Students become independent, self-regulated
learners through instruction that is deliberately
and carefully scaffolded.
Ellis & Worthington (1994), Coyne,
Kame’enui and Carnine (2007), Marzano,
Pickering and Pollock (2001)
25
Scaffolded Instruction
• Skillfully structuring the environment to make
it easier for students to achieve more than
they can on their own.
• Scaffolded instruction serves as a temporary
and adjustable support for students to develop
new skills and abilities.
26
Scaffolded Instruction
Initial instruction
Teacher
assumes most
of the control
Ultimate goal
Independent
self-regulated
learning
27
Scaffolded Instruction: the Process
Student
Mastery
Prompts
Corrective
Feedback
Modeling
Explicit
Independent
Practice
Student
Efforts
Student
Participation
28
Scaffolded Instruction
Examples:
• Guided Notes
• Think Alouds
• Verbal Prompting
• Physical Prompting
29
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle 6: Addressing Forms
of Knowledge
The critical forms of knowledge must be
addressed in order for students to become
independent, self-regulated learners.
Ellis & Worthington (1994), Coyne,
Kame’enui and Carnine (2007), Marzano,
Pickering and Pollock (2001)
30
Addressing Forms of Knowledge
• Declarative (the what) – factual information
• Procedural (the how) – how to use the
knowledge in specific ways
• Conditional (the when and where) – knowing
when and where to apply the knowledge
31
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle #7- Activating and
Organizing Knowledge
Learning is increased when teaching is presented in a
manner that assists students in organizing, storing, and
retrieving information.
– Organizing
– Storing
– Retrieving
32
Activating and Organizing Knowledge
Why the inability to access prior knowledge?
• Students lack sufficient knowledge base.
• Students have poorly organized knowledge
so have difficulty retrieving it.
• Students are unaware of the conditions
under which the knowledge they possess is
relevant.
33
Activating and Organizing Knowledge
• Selected Strategies
•
•
•
•
•
Mnemonics
Note taking
Content Organizers
Study Guides
Instructional Organizers/Graphic Organizers
– Advance Organizers
– Lesson Organizers
– Post-Organizers
34
Activating and Organizing Knowledge
Guided Practice Activity:
• Complete Frayer Diagram 1 to illustrate the
term “Constructive Feedback”.
• Share your results with the Group.
35
Chinese Graphic Organizer
36
Activating and Organizing Knowledge
Independent Practice Activity:
At each Table:
• Set of sample content organizers:
– Timeline
– Compare/Contrast with Summary
– KWLS
• Select one that you would use to support a student
with an instructional task
• Share your work with the group
37
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle #8: Teaching Strategically
Strategic instruction is designed to teach students
how to apply techniques, principles, or rules in
order to solve problems and complete tasks
successfully and independently and will help
students to become more independent, selfregulated learners.
38
Goal of Teaching Strategically
To teach students how to learn effectively
39
Teaching Strategically:
What the Research Says
• Expert learners
– Know how and when
to use specific
cognitive strategies
– Access particular
strategies with
flexibility
– Develop a repertoire
of cognitive and
metacognitive
strategies
spontaneously
• Novice Learners
(ineffective)
– Do not have a
repertoire of
problem solving
strategies
– Do not exhibit
strategy flexibility
– Have difficulty
integrating subskills
Jones, et al (1987)
40
Definition of a Strategy
• Individual’s approach to a task
• Systematic “plans” that one uses to
accomplish a learning task
• Cognitive Strategies are the “Tools”
• Metacognitive Strategies are the “Process”
41
Teaching Strategically
Steps:
• Discuss thinking process associated with strategy
steps.
• Determine opportunities for transfer.
• Highlight empowerment that accompanies use of
strategy.
• Model reflection - allow students to think through
the solutions to their academic problems.
42
Teaching Strategically
Examples:
• Ten-Two
• Card Sort
• KWLS (Know/Want to Know/Learned/Still
want to know)
43
Instructional Principles: Paraprofessionals
44
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle #9: Making Instruction Explicit
Teachers and paraprofessionals can increase their
students’ achievement through instruction
that is explicit.
45
Making Instruction Explicit
Selected Strategies:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Controlled Instruction and Practice
Demonstrate/Model/I do
Guided Practice
Independent Practice
Instructional level match
Opportunities for maintenance and generalization
46
Ten Principles of Effective Instruction
Principle #10: Teaching Sameness
in the Curriculum
Teaching sameness is linking a single concept with
many ideas and providing students with numerous
examples to promote generalization.
47
Teaching Sameness in the Curriculum
Selected Strategies:
•
•
•
•
Thematic units across subject areas.
Teach to generalization and/or transfer.
Scavenger hunts.
Inspirations software – concept webs, graphic
organizers.
48
Learner Outcomes
• Participants Will:
– Identify key principles of effective instruction
– Identify strategies for incorporating the key
principles in a secondary setting
– Clarify the role of a paraprofessional supporting
the teacher in implementing secondary-level
reading and math instruction
49
References
• Ellis, E. and Worthington, L. (1994). Research Synthesis on
Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools
for Educators. National Center to Improve the Tools of
Educators, University of Oregon
• Keller, C., Bucholz, J. & Brady, M.,(2006). Yes, I Can!
Empowering Paraprofessionals to Teach Learning Strategies.
TEACHING Exceptional Children, 39(3)18-23
• Marzano, R.(2003) What Works in Schools. Alexandria, VA:
ASCD
• Thompson, M. (2006) Leadership, Achievement, and
Accountability: Benchmarking to Exemplary Practice. Boone,
NC: Learning Focused Solutions
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Upcoming paraprofessional Training
Please check the PaTTAN website:
www.pattan.net
for upcoming trainings
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Contact Information
www.pattan.net
PaTTAN Harrisburg
717-541-4960
800-360-7282
PaTTAN King of Prussia
610-265-7321
800-441-3215
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Edward G. Rendell, Governor
Pennsylvania Department of Education
Gerald L. Zahorchak, D.Ed., Secretary
Diane Castelbuono, Deputy Secretary
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education
PaTTAN Pittsburgh
412-826-2336
800-446-5607
John J. Tommasini, Director
Bureau of Special Education
Patricia Hozella, Assistant Director
Bureau of Special Education
52
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