If the thymus failed to produce thymic hormones, which population of lymphocytes would be affected? a. B lymphocytes b. T lymphocytes c. monocytes d. antigen-producing cells © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is true of lymphatic capillaries? a. They have smaller diameters than blood capillaries. b. Endothelial cells of lymphatic capillaries are not bound tightly together, but they do overlap. c. They have thicker walls than blood capillaries. d. They form continuous tubes. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All of the following EXCEPT _________ is a function of the lymphatic system. a. producing, maintaining, and distributing lymphocytes b. resisting and overcoming disease c. draining lymph from the bone marrow d. maintaining normal blood composition and volume © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Why do lymph nodes enlarge during some infections? a. because of bacterial invasion and accumulation b. due to accumulation of antibodies c. due to accumulation of circulating T cells d. due to phagocytic and lymphatic cell division © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is a dangerous consequence of lymphedema in a limb? a. accumulation of toxins and pathogens due to stagnant interstitial fluids b. swelling and distension of the limb c. loss of elasticity in connective tissue of the affected limb d. all of the above © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. What effects do pyrogens have in the body? a. release complement b. increase temperature/cause fever c. stimulate NK cells d. release interferon © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic or function of nonspecific defenses? a. are present at birth b. destruction of abnormal cells by NK cells c. dependence on the activity of lymphocytes d. interferons coordinating defenses against viral infections © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. How do interferons increase resistance to viral infections? a. They can respond immediately. b. They recognize abnormal cells by the presence of unusual antigens. c. They interfere with viral replication inside cells. d. All of the above are correct. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Why would the liver, lungs, and CNS be affected by a low monocyte count in blood? a. Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, and microglia are derived from monocytes. b. Lack of monocytes causes NK lymphocytes to attack those structures. c. The liver, lungs, and CNS are secondary parts of the immune system. d. None of the above is correct. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All of the following EXCEPT ________ is an effect of complement activation. a. making target cells easier to engulf b. destruction of target cell membranes c. attracting neutrophils and macrophages d. reducing inflammation © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. A decrease in the number of cytotoxic T cells directly affects which type of immunity? a. acquired immunity b. innate immunity c. humoral immunity d. cell-mediated immunity © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The spleen is _____. a. a fragile organ that can rupture easily b. the site where red blood cells are recycled c. the site where B and T cells can respond to antigens in circulating blood d. all of the above © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following correctly describes the sequence of WBCs responsible for overcoming an infection? a. neutrophils and NK cells → phagocytes/cytotoxic T cells → plasma cells b. memory B cells → plasma cells → NK cells c. phagocytes → plasma cells → antibodies d. B cells → helper T cells → phagocytes → CD8 cells © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. How is the secondary response affected if memory B cells for a particular antigen are absent? a. A pathogen that had previously invaded would be recognized and quickly killed. b. The secondary response would not occur. c. Memory T cells take over the role of the memory B cells. d. CD4 cells would differentiate into B cells. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. How does the absence of helper T cells affect the antibody-mediated immune response? a. Neither B cells nor T cells are stimulated to respond to a pathogen; therefore, no immune response occurs. b. Cytotoxic T cells proliferate. c. Class II MHC proteins appear in the cell membrane. d. Immune response is unaffected by loss of helper T cells. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following conditions can be determined with a skin test? a. if a baby has severe combined immunodeficiency disease b. if a person has been exposed to an antigen c. if a person has an autoimmune disease d. if a person has diabetes mellitus © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which kind of immunity protects a developing fetus, and how is that immunity produced? a. natural active immunity; maternal illness and recovery b. natural passive immunity; the transfer of IgG antibodies from the mother to the fetus through the placenta c. artificial passive immunity; injections of gamma globulins d. artificial active immunity; vaccinations © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The formation of an antigen–antibody complex may cause elimination of the antigen in what way? a. The antibody binds to a site on a virus making the toxin incapable of attaching itself to a cell. b. An antibody binds to antigenic determinant sites on two different antigens. c. Antigens covered with antibodies attract phagocytes. d. All of the above are correct. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Artificially acquired passive immunity _______, while artificially acquired active immunity _______. a. is genetically determined; is conferred by administration of antibodies b. is conferred from mother to infant through breast milk; develops after exposure to antigens in the environment c. is conferred by administration of antibodies; develops after administration of an antigen to prevent disease d. stimulates antibodies against something you might encounter in the future; combats something you’ve already been exposed to © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Which analogy is most appropriate for comparing the interaction of an antibody’s active site binding with an antigen? a. the heavy-chain constant segment’s interaction with the light chain of an antibody b. a drug reaction, such as penicillin allergy c. an enzyme interacting with a substrate molecule d. the binding of a hapten and carrier molecule © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. A tumor cell has developed and begun to divide in Amy’s liver. What type of immune cells will be able to detect and kill the tumor cells? a. macrophages b. basophils c. natural killer cells d. B cells © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. David suffers from rheumatoid arthritis. What is the term for this type of immune disorder? a. autoimmune disease b. allergy c. immunodeficiency d. lymphedema © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. What are the best medications to use for tissue rejection in organ transplants? a. interferon because it will diminish viral interaction b. cyclosporin A because it will decrease helper T cells c. prednisone because it will decrease both inflammation and immunity d. monoclonal antibodies because they are not going to be recognized by T cells © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. How can the presence of an abnormal peptide in the cytoplasm of a cell initiate an immune response? a. by stimulating production of pyrogens, beginning an immune response b. by becoming attached to B cells, which launch an immune response c. by becoming attached to MHC and being presented to T cells d. by altering the genetic programming of the infected cell © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Denise is allergic to pollen. What is an allergy and how is allergy to pollen classified? a. results from treatment with immunosuppressive agents; delayed hypersensitivity b. develops when the immune response targets normal body cells; cytotoxic reaction c. an inappropriate or exaggerated immune response; immediate hypersensitivity d. results from problems of development of lymphoid organs; immune complex disorder © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Why is having both cell-mediated and antibodymediated immunity integral to a healthy immune system? a. T cells defend against pathogens inside cells, while B cells defend against antigens in body fluids. b. Cell-mediated immunity in genetically determined, while antibody-mediated immunity is acquired. c. Cell-mediated immunity is “specific,” while antibody-mediated immunity is “nonspecific.” d. None of the above is correct. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.