HUKUM TATA NEGARA - Heru Susetyo Nuswanto

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HUKUM TATA NEGARA
24 Oktober 2011
Heru Susetyo, SH. LL.M. M.Si.
Pengertian
•
•
Adalah hukum mengenai susunan suatu negara
Negara adalah suatu organisasi yang mengatur
keseluruhan hubungan antar manusia satu sama lain
dalam masyarakat, dan menegakkan aturan tersebut
dengan kewibawaannya.
•
Negara memperlihatkan 3 kenyataan :
1. Kekuasaan tertinggi
2. Wilayah
3. Warga Negara
(Dedi Soemardi, Pengantar Tata Hukum Indonesia)
Negara sebagai Kekuasaan
Tertinggi
1. Teori Teokrasi; mendasakan legitimasi
kekuasaan negara pada kehendak Tuhan,
tidak mungkin diadakan pemisahan antara
negara dan agama.
2. Negara sebagai organisasi ekuatan belaka;
3. Teori perjanjian; menitikberatkan kekuasaan
negara atas suatu perjanjian yang diadakan di
antara anggota masyarakat.
4. Teori perjanjian Jean Jacques Rousseau;
bahwa negara bersifat sebagai wakil rakyat
yang mempunyai kekuasaan tertinggi adalah
rakyat.
5. Teori kedaulatan negara; hukum ada karena
negara menghendakinya, setiap tindakan
pemerintah merujpakan kehendak negara,
tindakannya tidak dapat dibatasi oleh hukum
karena hukum buatan negara.
6. Teori kedaulatan hukum; negarapun tunduk
terhadap hukum.
Negara berdasarkan dua asas pokok :
1. Asas legalitas
2. Asas perlindungan kebebasan dan hak
pokok manusia
HTN
HAN
• Negara dalam
keadaan diam
• Negara dalam
keadaan bergerak
POLITICAL SYSTEM
• Presidential representative democratic republic
• President is both head of state and head of
government
• Multi-party system (there were last election in 2009
• Executive power is exercised by the government
• Legislative power is vested in both the
government and two People’s Representative
Councils
• The judiciary is independent of the executive and
the legislature
• The 1945 constitution provided for a limited
separation of executive, legislative and judicial
power
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
POLITICAL SYSTEM (2)
Legislative Branch
• People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR)
• Regional Representative Council (DPR) > 560 members
• People’s Representative Council (DPD) > 4
representatives from each provinces =
Judicial Branch
• Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)
• Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) established
in 2003
• Judicial Commission (Komisi Yudisial) established in
2003
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
Administrative Divisions
•
•
•
•
Provincies (Propinsi)
Regencies/ Cities (Kabupaten/ Kota)
Districts (Kecamatan)
Villages (Desa)
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONS
1945 - 2011
• 1945 CONSTITUTION (1945 – 1949) and
(1959 – now)
• REPUBLIC OF UNITED STATES OF
INDONESIA CONSTITUTION (1949 –
1950)
• TEMPORARY CONSTITUTION (1950 –
1959)
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
FORMAL AMENDMENTS
• Took place a year after political revolution
in 1998 (reform movement)
• Conducted by MPR (People’s Consultative
Assembly) through MPR General
Assembly in 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2000
• There were four amendments up to now
(1999, 2000, 2001, and 2001)
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
• The People Consultative Assembly (MPR)
insisted to keep the original name of the
constitution as 1945 Constitution though
it had been amended for four times (19992000-2001-2002)
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
WHAT ARE REMAINED
UNCHANGED
• Three things which remain unchanged from
the entire amendment processes (1999 –
2002) are :
1. State’s Basic Foundation : PANCASILA (five
pillars)
2. The original preamble of 1945 Constitution
3. Keeping the country as a United country not
as a federal or United of States, with the
name of Negara Kesatuan Republik
Indonesia (The Unitary State of Republic of
Indonesia).
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
AMENDMENT MODEL
• Substantially the amendment model of
Indonesian Constitution 1945 (through MPR
General Assembly 1999,2000, 2001, 2002)
can be classified into three groups :
1. Abolishment and annulment some
chapters/articles;
2. Adding some provisions or new state
institutions
3. Modification of old provisions or old state
institutions.
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
Some provisions which were
annulled :
• People Consultative Assembly (Majelis
Permusyawaratan Rakyat) was no more
the highest state institution as its previous
status.
• The legislative and judicative power of the
president of Republic of Indonesia are
limited and the power of legislative/
parliament were extended.
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
Some newly provisions and
institutions
• The establishment of Regional Representative
Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah)
• The establishment of Constitutional Court
(Mahkamah Konstitusi)
• New provisions on General Election on the
constitution (previously only enacted in the Act)
• The establishment of Judicial Commission (Komisi
Yudisial)
• New provision on The Central Bank on the
constitution (previously only appear on the Act)
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
Some modification of provisions
and institutions :
• Repositioning of the status and role of MPR
(Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat – People
Consultative Assembly)
• The Presidential and Vice President elections
model were changed to direct election by the
eligible voters.
• Additional provisions on human rights issues
(ten sub articles)
• Additional provision on amendment of
constitution.
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
The Amendment of Constitution in
Indonesia - Heru Susetyo 2011
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