Prediction and prevention of the effects of volcanic

Prediction and prevention of the
effects of volcanic eruptions and
.... By forecasting, the design of buildings and
defences, planning and education.
Disaster Prevention Day
This was the moment on September 1, 1923, that the Great
Kanto Earthquake struck Tokyo, Yokohama, and surrounding
Measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale, the quake not only
devastated homes and office buildings but claimed the lives of
140,000 people - many of them being engulfed in the fires that
broke out after the tremor.
Disaster Prevention Day
• On Disaster Prevention Day emergency drills organised
by local governments are held throughout the country.
• Some of these drills consist of ducking under desks to
escape falling objects and evacuating from buildings. At
many elementary and middle schools, September 1 is
the first day of school after summer vacation.
• So a lot of schools carry out an evacuation drill as part of
the back-to-school ceremony.
Task One
10 minutes
• On page 120 there is information about
Disaster Prevention Day.
• From what you have just heard and the
information in the textbook write a short
paragraph about the day.
Buildings in earthquake zones
Which shape of building would be most
‘earthquake proof’?
TASK TWO: Draw and explain your answer.
Earthquake Proof Buildings
10 minutes
Deep foundations into solid
Cross bracing to provide
extra support to the frame
Weights on the roof to
counterbalance shaking
Several emergency
staircases and exits to speed
up evacuations
Shock absorbers in
foundations to absorb
seismic waves
Roof covering the area
immediately outside the
building to prevent
pedestrians being showered
with broken glass.
Differences between MEDCs and
LEDCs after earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions
Task Three
Factors affecting the
damage caused by
1. Which factor/s do you think
is/are the most important?
2. Which factors are related to
the wealth of the country?
3. How can the education of the
population affect the amount
of damage caused by an
Size of the
Building design
and construction
Time of day
Physical landscape
MEDCs can put emergency plans into action
1. Local authority experts assess the seriousness of the
situation and the damage
2. Local citizens are kept informed – they need to be
reassured and told what to do next
3. Immediate emergencies must be dealt with first
– All casualties should be taken to hospital
– Fires must be put out – these are a big problem if gas pipes have
been damaged
4. Disrupted public services such as power, water supply and
sewage disposal must be restored as soon as possible
because there is a risk of disease.
MEDCs can put emergency plans into action
5. Communications such as roads, bridges, railways and
telephones may have been damaged and mending these is
a top priority so that help from outside the area can get in.
6. The efforts of individuals, governments and NGOs (NonGovernmental Organisations) such as OXFAM must be coordinated.
7. Once the situation is clear, and there’s no risk of a further
hazard – life can return to normal.
LEDCs are NOT so well prepared
1. Many people in LEDC hazard zones haven’t been given
information about what to do if there is a hazard.
2. Some LEDCs DON’T prepare plans – the Government
has enough problems already.
3. Communications are bad – many people live in shanty
towns with no proper access roads and badly built
housing which collapses easily causing more injury.
Getting back to normal takes longer too
in LEDC’s
1. There are few experts available to assess the situation.
2. Without plans there will be delays dealing with fires,
deaths, injured people etc.
3. Badly built housing means more damage and allows fires
and diseases to spread quickly.
4. Limited communications mean people still don’t know
what’s happening – this means there will only be a few
emergency services available.
Getting back to normal takes longer too
continued in LEDC’s…
• Water and power supplies are normally poor and
mending them is difficult.
• Roads and transport are poor to start with, so it’s difficult
to bring supplies of food, medicine, clothes, shelter –
even if these are available.
• Lack of money means they have to rely on foreign aid
which takes time to reach them.
• Medical facilities are limited so many people die of
injuries or disease linked to dirty water supply and poor
living conditions.
Task Four
15 minutes
• Describe and explain how MEDC’s (rich) are
better prepared for volcanic eruptions and
earthquake activity than LEDC’s (poor).
(6 marks)
Clean up
Task Five
• Answer the questions on Page 123 of the textbook.
• Remember you should write as many points as possible
in your answers – always look at the mark given.
• DO NOT over complicate your answers – don’t write
too much!
• Either write the question or answer in full sentences
– this will help you when you revise!
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