Chapter 3: Exploring Texas

Lone Star: The Story of Texas
Chapter 3: Exploring Texas: 1519 -1700
Section 1: Spain Prepares for Exploration
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
The Impact of the Spanish Defeat of the Moors on
Overseas Exploration
Chapter 3, Section 1
In A.D. 700 the Moors gain control of Spain.
800 years of struggle, called the Reconquista, begin as Spain
fights to retake the land.
Spain drives the Moors out in A.D. 1492.
The defeat of the Moors inspires Spain to explore other lands.
Spain funds Christopher Columbus’s overseas voyage.
His success leads to the voyages of more explorers.
Columbus’s Voyage
Chapter 3, Section 1
• The king of Portugal turned down
Columbus’s request for support.
• The successful end of the Reconquista in
1492 inspired Queen Isabella and Kind
Ferdinand of Spain to back Columbus’s
• Columbus promised to find new trade
routes to China and India.
Columbus’s Voyage
Chapter 3, Section 1
• Columbus failed to find a direct route to
• He landed in the Caribbean instead.
• The gold and captive Indians he
brought back convinced the king and
queen of Spain that America would
provide the wealth they had hoped to
find in Asia.
Lone Star: The Story of Texas
Chapter 3: Exploring Texas: 1519 -1700
Section 2: Early European Explorations
in the Americas
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
I. The Conquistadors
Chapter 3, Section 2
A. Spanish soldiers who sailed to America were
called conquistadors, or conquerors.
B. People admired soldiers who fought the
C. These fierce, determined soldiers had several
goals as the went to the New World:
1) To bring their religion to “non-believers”
2) To obtain great wealth
3) To obtain glory for the King and themselves
God, Gold, Glory
II. Cortés and the Aztecs
Chapter 3, Section 2
A. Hernán Cortés had several advantages that
helped him defeat the powerful Aztecs in Mexico:
1. Horses - These animals were unknown to the Aztecs.
They enabled soldiers to travel great distances.
2. Weapons - Cortés had steel swords, guns, armor,
and cannons against the Aztecs’ bows and arrows,
clubs, and spears.
3. Allies - The Aztecs forced their conquered enemies
to pay them tribute, a payment of food and other
valuables. Some of these angry, defeated Indians
joined Cortés in his struggle against the Aztecs.
III. The Aztec Empire
Chapter 3, Section 2
A. The Aztec emperor Moctezuma II welcomed
Cortés to the Aztec capital city, Tenochtitlán.
Moctezuma thought Cortés was a god.
B. The Spanish killed hundreds of unarmed
Indians for performing a non-Christian
ceremony. The Aztecs drove them from
C. Cortés and his men responded by attacking
and destroying Tenochtitlán. The Spanish built
Mexico City on the ruins of that once
magnificent city.
IV. After Cortés
Chapter 3, Section 2
A. Within a few years, Spain controlled all the land of
present-day Mexico. This land became the
viceroyalty of New Spain.
B. The Spanish then spread into Central and South
C. Spanish explorers carried common childhood
illnesses with them. The Indians had no resistance
to these diseases, so many died from them.
D. The Spanish completed their conquest of Central
and South America in a matter of a few years.
Lone Star: The Story of Texas
Chapter 3: Exploring Texas: 1519 -1700
Section 3: European Explorations Meet The
Native Texans
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
I. Álvarez de Pineda’s Expedition
Chapter 3, Section 3
A. Captain Alonso Álvarez de Pineda
sailed along the Gulf of Mexico in
search of a water route to the
Pacific Ocean.
B. This voyage gave the Spanish their
first accurate information about the
Texas coast, including a well-drawn
II. The Nárvaez Disaster
Chapter 3, Section 3
A. In 1527, Panfilo de Nárvaez led an
expedition to explore the Gulf Coast
from Florida to northern Mexico.
The expedition was a disaster.
B. Half his crew sailed off, abandoning
the other half who had ventured
inland. Many of those soldiers
suffered sickness and hunger.
Chapter 3, Section 3
C. Desperate to return to Spain,
they set off on homemade rafts.
1. During a storm they were tossed up
on San Luis Island, near Galveston.
2. They were the first known
Europeans to set foot on Texas soil.
III. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Chapter 3, Section 3
A. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of
Texas: 1519 -1700
the few
B. He became a trader and traveled widely
4: Successes
and Failures
C. He later met up with three fellow Narváez
D. They gained a reputation as powerful
I. de niza and estevanico
Chapter 3, Section 4
A. Marcos de Niza was a priest who
led a group to find the legendary
Seven Cities of Cíbola.
1. The Viceroy of New Spain
appointed Estevanico to be the
group’s guide.
2. Estevanico was an enslaved
Moor who traveled through Texas
with Cabeza de Vaca.
Chapter 3, Section 4
B. Estevanico sent back a report that he
had found Cíbola.
C. Soon afterward, he was killed by
D. In fear, Marcos de Niza turned back.
1. He reported that he had seen Cíbola
from the top of a hill.
2. His report convinced many that rich
lands lay waiting.
II. Coronado Heads North
Chapter 3, Section 4
A. Spain sent explorer Francisco
Vásquez de Coronado to conquer
Cíbola and take its treasure.
Coronado found no gold in Cíbola.
B. He continued searching the area
for something of value, with no
luck. In 1542, he returned to
II. Coronado Heads North
Chapter 3, Section 4
C. He reported that the land to the
north offered nothing of value to
the Spanish.
1. Coronado’s men were the first
Europeans to see the Grand
2. Coronado’s treasure hunt
brought him as far north as
present-day Kansas.
III. De Soto and Moscoso
Chapter 3, Section 4
A. For four years, Hernando de
Soto explored the land that is
now the southeastern United
States, in search of riches.
B. Upon De Soto’s death, Luis de
Moscoso Alvarado took over the
Chapter 3, Section 4
C. His group made it their goal to
reach Mexico by land.
D. The Caddoes they met on their
travels greeted them by saying
“Tay-yas,” meaning friends.
 This is probably how Texas
got its name.
III. De Soto and Moscoso
Chapter 3, Section 4
D. Finding no gold, Moscoso’s men went back
to the 3:
and returned
to -1700
Mexico by sea.
E. On that voyage, they stumbled upon
that provides oil,
5: the
gasoline, and other fuels.
F. The Spanish did not immediately recognize
the value of this “black gold.”
I. French Explorers
Chapter 3, Section 5
A. French explorers trapped and
traded furs throughout much of
North America.
B. Along the way, they claimed land
for France.
C. French explorer La Salle searched
for the Northwest Passage, a water
route that would provide a shortcut
to Asia.
Chapter 3, Section 5
D. At this time, France and Spain were
at war.
E. La Salle claimed for France all
the land that drained into the
Mississippi River, including
part of Texas.
F. He named the land Louisiana,
after the French king, Louis
Chapter 3, Section 5
G.La Salle planned to build a fort
at the mouth of the Mississippi
H. He wanted to expand his trade
empire and have a base for an
attack on Mexico.
II. La Salle’s Expedition
Chapter 3, Section 5
A. In 1684, La Salle set sail from France. His
plan was to build Fort St. Louis near the
mouth of the Mississippi River.
B. His expedition faced many problems:
1. La Salle was difficult to get along with and
argued with his naval officers.
2. Pirates and shipwrecks plagued the
3. The Spaniards captured one of his four ships.
4. La Salle lost crew members and supplies.
Chapter 3, Section 5
C. Fort St. Louis
1. Harsh living conditions made many explorers
2. The French had hostile relations with the
local tribe, and so faced danger from the
3. During La Salle’s search for a safer location
for the fort, his men staged a mutiny, a revolt
of soldiers or sailors against their leaders.
4. They murdered La Salle in 1687.
Chapter 3, Section 5
D. Fort St. Louis Destroyed
1. La Salle had taken most of his ablebodied men with him on his search
for the Mississippi.
2. After his death, they ran away or were
killed by Indians.
3. The Karankawas attacked the
vulnerable fort and took the five
remaining settlers captive.
III. Spain Reacts
Chapter 3, Section 5
A. Soon, the Spanish learned about La
Salle’s arrival in their territory.
B. They set out to find the French intruders.
1. Since they did not know the territory they
claimed was theirs, it took them a year to find
La Salle’s fort.
2. The fort was deserted.
3. All this made the Spanish realized that they
would need to pay more attention to Texas if
they wanted to control it.
Chapter 3 Key Terms
• Section 1
• Reconquista
• Indigenous
• Section 2
• Section 3
• bison
• Shamans
• Section 4
• petroleum
• Section 5
• Northwest Passage
• mutiny
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