Introduction to SAR - Ohio Special Response Team

advertisement
The following power point training
presentations must be viewed at
unit training and/or under the
supervision of an OSRT Officer.
Members viewing the presentations must sign a
OSRT sign in sheet. The completed sign in sheet
must be submitted to the OSRT Planning (Training)
Section to receive credit for the training.
Introduction to Search
and Rescue
Course developed by
Richard Vasquez
Introduction to Search and Rescue
The materials contained in this training are
intended to equip the person with the skills
needed to function as a introductory “Basic”
searcher level. This is comparable to the
SAR Technician III. The assumption is
made that the person has mastered those
Basic Skills that are also included in the 24
hour civilian version of this training.
Introduction to Search and Rescue
Basic Skills not Included:
•Survival skills
•Improvising
•Outdoor & personal equipment
•Land navigation
•Ropes and knots
•Helicopter operations
What is Search and Rescue?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Long hard hours of physically demanding
Fatigue
Frustration
Anxiety
Sweat
Deep inner feeling of satisfaction for a job well
done
“Search and Rescue is
finding and aiding people in
distress, relieving pain and
suffering”
Fundamentals of Search and Rescue
“Search and Rescue (SAR) is the
use of available resources to assist
persons and property in potential or
actual distress.”
National SAR Plan
SEARCH IS ABOUT THE
SUBJECT
• The focus of SAR is NOT
• Heroism
• Money
• Fame
• If you are looking for one of these, you do not
belong here!
L.A.S.T.
• L – Locate
• Find the subject
• A – Access
• Get to the victim; begin “size up”
• S – Stabilize
• Mediate any life threat
• T – Transport
• Get the victim to a safe area
Location
• Two part function
– Getting in
• Locating the subject
• Assessing the route as you go
– Locating hazards, extrication friendly routes, shelter
sites in the event immediate extrication is not
available
– Getting out
• Communicating your location to Search Ops so other
rescue personnel can locate you and aid in extrication
ACCESS
• Getting access to the subject
• Conducting a “Size-up”
– Victim’s general condition
– Immediate life threats
– Hazards to the subject
– Hazards to the rescuers
STABILIZATION
• Providing medical stabilization
• Generally, should be done prior to
transportation
– Exceptions are few
• May require special skills
– Medical Knowledge and skills
– Rope rescue
– Extrication
TRANSPORT
• Getting the patient to a safe area
– Subject “Packaging”
• To facilitate safe extrication of the subject
• Ongoing assessment and treatment of the
subject as needed
– Mode of transportation
• Based upon weather, type and nature of the
injuries
• Overall urgency
• Terrain
• Available Resources
COMPONENTS OF SAR
•
•
•
•
•
•
Preplanning
Notification
Planning and Strategy
Tactics and Operations
Suspension
Critique
PREPLANNING
• Pre-incident preparation
• Technically ends upon initial notification of
an incident
• Enhances safety of all operations
– Training
– Equipment
– Organization
– Management
NOTIFICATION
• Critical component
• May come in a variety of forms
–
–
–
–
Phone call
Radio report
SOS or “May Day”
FAA report of a downed aircraft
• Planning of the incident begins
PLANNING AND STRATEGY
• Every phase begins with situation specific
planning and strategy
– Investigation
• Timely gathering of accurate facts
– List of options and contingencies is developed
– Determination of search urgency
• Based upon many factors
– Establishment of goals and objectives
TACTICS AND OPERATIONS
• Implementation of plans
• Tactical assignments are made
– Passive
• Investigation
• Confinement
• Attraction
– Active
• Field searching
• Tracking
• Dog Teams
SUSPENSION
• Once the victim is located, the search is
suspended and the access phase can
commence
• Mission suspension occurs when the incident is
“called off”
– Demobilization of resources to “Ready Status”
• Dismantling facilities
• Completion of documentation
• Returning to service
CRITIQUE
• Every incident should be critiqued
– Formal
• Every participant involved
• Structured meeting
– Informal
• Brief discussion of events
• Evaluation and learning
– What went well
– What can be improved upon
– Overall lessons were learned
SAR in the U.S.
Who are the searchers?
National Search Plan
• Drafted and adopted in 1986
• Specifies federal roles and responsibilities
• Is the basis for the National Search and
Rescue Manual (Federal agencies)
–
–
–
–
Search and rescue organization
Resources
Methods
Techniques
Overall Objective of the plan:
To provide a cooperative network
between SAR organizations and
resources coordinated by a single
federal agency.
• Appropriate agreements are made and
signed between federal and state SAR
organizations.
• Local and state government agencies are
expected to assume responsibilities for
their initial SAR response.
• Federal role is one of coordination and
intermediary between local, state and
federal agencies
PARTICIPATING FEDERAL
AGENCIES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Department of Transportation (DOT)
Department of Defense (DOD)
Department of Commerce (DOC)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Department of the Interior (DOI)
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA)
United States Air Force
• Operates the Air Force Rescue
Coordination Center (AFRCC)
– THE federal agency responsible for
coordination of SAR activity in the 48
contiguous states (Inland Region)
– Coordinates both military and civilian
personnel
– 24/7 manning with trained SAR personnel
U.S. Coast Guard
• Responsible for the Maritime Region
– U.S. waters (navigable)
– Hawaii
– Specific areas of Canada (south of Alaska)
– High Seas
Federal Aviation Administration
• Monitors and follows aircraft filing flight
plans in the inland region.
• Air Route Traffic Control Centers
(ARTCC)
• Flight Service Stations (FSS)
• Works closely with AFRCC
Civil Air Patrol
• Provides the majority of response to downed or
missing aircraft situations throughout the U.S.
• Provide resources to search management
– mission coordinators,
– aircraft pilots and observers
– Ground search teams
– Base camp support
– Communications networks
State SAR Authorities
• Emergency Management
– Provides one-stop-shopping for resources
– Provides coordination among local, state and
federal agencies
– Can provide contact information for
specialized resources
Local SAR Authorities
• Authority having jurisdiction
– Usually law enforcement
• Every search is considered a criminal investigation until
proved otherwise
• State and Federal lands are governed by the agency
delegated by either state or federal agency having jurisdiction
– May be delegated to the Fire Service
• Search is generally considered a life threat
– Unified command is common
Would you be a good
search professional?
Let’s find out…
“Just the P.H.A.C.K.S”
• P - Professional
– Using a professional manner
• H - Humble
– Don’t talk about doing a good job…do it
• A - Able
– Capable of performing physically and mentally
• C - Competent
– Well trained; properly qualified
• K - Knowledgeable
– Both experienced and learned
• S - Solicitous
– Concerned, attentive and eager
Priorities in SAR
• Yourself
• Companions
• The victim
• Without you and your fellow rescuers, the victim
may not survive
• You must be skillfully trained
• Without assistance you may not be able to carry
out the mission
• If fellow rescuers are in need of your help, until they
are cared for, you will not be focused
Risk Analysis
• Risk verses benefit
• Urgency
• Training
• Proficiency
• Weakest Link
• Knowing your limitations is probably the #1
life saver in SAR
• Not knowing your limitations is the #1 killer
Fitness
S.A.F.E.
• S – STRENGTH
• A – AGILITY
• F – FLEXIBILITY
• E – ENDURANCE
Fitness
• Mental Fitness
– Physical and MENTAL fitness are integral to
the primary SAR objective of working for the
victim
– PMA - Positive Mental Attitude
– Admit your limitations
Incident Command
• A standardized emergency management
system
• Resulted from interagency forest
firefighting
• Provides a logical approach for the
delivery of coordinated emergency
services
• Provides personnel accountability
ICS Requirements
• Must be flexible to meet the needs of incidents
of any kind & size
• Must be suitable for day to day operations as
well as for large incidents
• Must be standardized among agencies to
enhance interagency operations
• Must be cost effective
Incident Command
PIO
SAFETY
LIAISON
Operations
BRANCHES
Planning
RESTAT
Logistics
Finance/ Admin
SERVICE
SUPPORT
SITSTAT
SUPPLY
COMMUNICATIONS
STRIKE TEAM
DOCUMENTATION
FACILITIES
MEDICAL
TASK FORCE
DEMOBILIZATION
GROUND SUPPORT
FOOD
CUVUSUIB
SINGLE RESOURCE
Who’s in charge??
• The Incident Commander (IC) = (OIC)
– The authority having jurisdiction or his/her
designee
– May be local law enforcement
– May be local fire department
– May be the park service
– May be a state or federal agency
Management Functions
•
•
•
•
•
Command-Incident Commander
Operations
Planning
Logistics
`
Finance
NOTE: This is not an exact 1:1 comparison of duties. Some duties handled by in
one function area might be split by their counterpart.
Command
•
•
•
•
•
Sets objectives and priorities
Has overall responsibility for the incident
Designates the command post
Appoints command staff
May be a unified command
Operations
• Conducts tactical operations to carry out
the plan
• Develops the tactical objectives
• Develops tactical organization
• Directs all resources
Planning
• Develops the Incident Action Plan to
accomplish the objectives
• Collects and evaluates information
• Maintains resource status
Logistics
• Provides support to meet incident needs
• Provides resources
• Provides all other services needed to
support the incident
Finance / Administration
•
•
•
•
•
Monitors costs related to the incident
Provides accounting
Facilitates procurement
Conducts time recording
Conducts cost analysis
Command Staff
• Liaison Officer
– Primary contact between the IC and other agencies
• Safety Officer
– Monitors safety conditions and assures personnel
safety
• Information Officer
– Serves as the point of contact for the media or other
organizations seeking incident information
Unity of Command
Every individual has a designated
supervisor
Unified Command
The process which allows all agencies who
have jurisdictional or functional responsibility
for the incident to jointly develop a common
set of incident objectives and strategies
without giving up agency authority,
responsibility or accountability
Organizational Terminology
• Standardized to “put people on the same
page”
• Positions have distinctive titles
• Positions titles are used as opposed to
personnel names
• Resources are classified according to by
type which indicates their capabilities
Staging
• Staging is the area where resources are
gathered until they are needed at the
incident
– Prevents free-lancing
– Provides accountability
– Provides a more efficient way to track and use
resources.
– Staging uses and maintains the RESTAT
board
Incident Facilities
•
•
•
•
Incident Base Camp
Camps
Command Post
Staging Area
• **MUST BE CLEARLY MARKED AND THEIR
LOCATIONS KNOWN TO ALL RESCUERS
Span of Control
The number of individuals on
supervisor can effectively manage
at one time
Personnel Accountability
• Check in
– Mandatory at all incidents
• Unity of Command
– Ensure each individual only has one supervisor
• Resource Status Unit
– Maintains status of all assigned resources
• Division / Group
– Identifies resources with active assignments In the
Ops section
• Unit Log
– Record of all personnel assignments
Integrated Communications
• Three different ways to look at
communications
– Hardware systems
– Planning for the use of all available
communication frequencies and resources
– Information transfer procedures and
processes
Search Philosophy
• WE ARE HERE FOR ONE REASON AND ONE
REASON ONLY…
– TO REDUCE THE SUFFERING ANS PAIN
FOR THE MISSING OR INJURED SUBJECT
“These things we do so that others may live”
The Cardinal Points of Information
•
•
•
•
Search is an emergency!!!
Search is a classic mystery
Search for clues as well as subjects
Concentrate on aspects that are
– Important to search success
– Under your control
• Know if the subject leaves the search area
• Use close-spaced grid search as a last resort
• Effective searching requires:
• An alert mind
• An able body
• Acute senses
• Every Searcher must be:
•
•
•
•
Rested
Conditioned (Mentally and Physically)
Well nourished and hydrated
Well trained
Search Tactics
• Tactics are all techniques employed to
actually find a lost subject or clues
– Active
• Actively searching for a lost subject or clues
– Detection
– Passive
• Do not involve physically looking for the subject
– Investigation
– Attraction
– Confinement
Confinement
An effort to establish a search perimeter which
encompasses the subject and beyond which he
or she is likely to pass without being detected
Attraction
Efforts taken to cause the subject to be
attracted to a desired location, such as using
noise, lights, vehicles.
(Assumes the subject is mobile)
Investigation
The gathering of accurate information through
interviewing bystanders, family, coworkers or
any other individual with possible pertinent
knowledge, as well as the analysis of physical
evidence if available.
Initial Attack
Immediate field efforts to locate the victim.
This includes the use of specialized resources
such as trackers, SAR Dogs, Hasty teams and
aircraft combined with passive techniques.
Point last seen (PLS)
This is the confirmed location of
the last time the victim was
sighted
Last Known Point (LKP)
This is the last place that the
victim is known to have been
Probability of Area (POA)
The probability that the subject is
in the search area
Probability of Detection
(POD)
The percentage of chance that if the
victim were in your search area that
you would have found him/her
Probability of Success
POA X POD = POS
How do I know what POA, POD and POS is
and why is it important?
• You must practice regularly to gain knowledge of
your accuracy
• You determine POD by thinking: If there were
ten clues in the area, how many would I have
found?
• Based upon the POD that your give a search
manager, he/she may decide the area is clear or
have it re-searched
Hasty (Type I) Search
• Accent is on speed rather than efficiency
or thoroughness. Searchers need to be
highly clue conscious.
• Objectives are: to quickly check high
probability areas and obtain information
about the search area
• Offers and immediate show of efforts
• Helps define the search area via clue
gathering
• Victim is usually assumed to be responsive
at this point
• Often narrows down areas to search
• Pre-planning is critical to assure availability
and proper use of resources
Hasty Search Techniques
• Thorough check of PLS (point last seen) or LKP (last
known point)
• Following known or suspected route
• Perimeter check in conjunction with confinement
• Sign cutting
• Checking hazard areas, attractions, drainages,
buildings, trails roads
• Hasty teams are usually 3-6 searchers which may,
but usually do not spread out in an area
• Usually used at the outset of the search or in
response to unconfirmed sightings or upon
discovery of sign
• Most effective hasty search resources include:
Skilled hasty teams, Trackers, SAR Dogs, aircraft
Efficient (Type II) Search
• Relatively fast, systematic search of high
probability segments of the search area
that produce high probabilities of detection
per hour of searching.
• Emphasis is efficiency as opposed to
speed or thoroughness
• Efficient searchers are used after hasty search in
some areas, especially if clues are found
• Victim responsiveness is assumed to still be high
• Efficient searches often yield clues
Efficient Search Techniques
• Open-spaced grid or “sweep” search with
wide spacing between searchers
• Compass bearings or specific guides are
often used to control search direction
• A team usually consists of 3-7 searchers
• Spacing is dependent upon terrain,
vegetation and visibility
• Most effective efficient searchers are clue
conscious teams, dog teams, trackers,
sign-cutters aircraft and trained grid
searchers.
Control Line
A line, perpendicular to the
direction of travel, on which
searchers line up
Guide line
A line parallel to the direction of
travel that the search team follows
to guide their search
Guide right/left
The direction in which the searcher
looks for guidance as to the status of
the search line or control line
Guide person
The person on which the search team
guides. Generally, found at the end of
the control line, but occasionally is in
the center of the line
Thorough (Type III) Search
• Slow, highly systematic search using the most
thorough techniques to provide the highest
probability of detection.
• The focus is on thoroughness, not speed or
efficiency
• This type of searching is extremely destructive to
clues
• Should be used only as a last resort
• These searches are very resource taxing
• Assumes the victim is not mobile or
responsive
• Trained searchers should be utilized if
possible
Grid Naming System
• Only used for Efficient or Thorough searches
• System consists of Number-Word-Number
– First number is the # of searchers on the line
– Word is either “compass” or “guide” which indicates
what the line is guiding on
– The second number is the Average spacing between
searchers
– i.e. 6 - guide (right) – 30 (six searchers guiding right on
something with average spacing of 30’
Thorough Search Techniques
• Closed-space gridding with small between searcher
spacing
• String lines are almost always used
• Overlap of search areas is common
• Usually this team is made up of 4-7 persons
• Adjacent searchers should be in visual range
Guidelines for searching
• We are working for the victim
• Use all of our senses when searching
• Use the “searcher cube”
• Yell and make noise occasionally, then stop and listen!
• Always be prepared
• Wear bright colored clothing
• Learn the names of the other searchers
• Never shine your flashlight or head lantern into you eyes or
that of a fellow searcher
• Always check the obvious
• Let the PIO do the talking with family or media
• Search for clues, not just subjects
• YOU ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN YOUR PARTNER; YOUR
PARTNER IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE VICTIM AND THE
VICTIM IS THE REASON WE ARE HERE.
CLUE
CONSCIOUSNESS
Clues are facts, objects, information or
some type of evidence that help solve
a mystery or problem
6 Element of Clue Orientation
Theory
•
•
•
•
•
•
The clue generator
The clues themselves
Where the clues are located (search area)
The clue seeker
Chronological or of events
Methods used to locate clues
Clue Generator (the subject)
• Virtually every person that passes through
an area leaves evidence of their passing
• Common problem is not the lack of clues,
but determining which are important
The Clues
• Four categories of clues
•
•
•
•
Physical
Recorded
People
Events
• Four messages that a lost subject can convey:
•
•
•
•
The present location of the subject
The previous location of the subject
The destination of the subject
A total lack of clues
Search area
• Includes ALL clues
• Confinement should be achieved early
• If clues are found outside the area, the
search area needs to be expanded
The Searcher
• Must be clue conscious
• Must be trained
• Must be able to handle clues correctly
Chronological order of events
• All clues should be placed on a time line
that includes all relevant clues and
messages so that a chronology can be
developed to better reconstruct the
scenario surrounding the incident
• All events of the search should be placed
on a time line as well
Search Methods
• Sign-cutting is a method long used by
trackers to eliminate areas from
consideration by traveling well ahead of
the present track
Sources for Specific Clues
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Category of Subject
PLS & LKP
Circumstances of the loss
Physical and mental health of the subject
Equipment subject may have with them
Terrain evaluation
Mission Critique
Tracking and sign-cutting
Remember…search for
clues, as well as victims
1. There are more clues than subjects
2. Clue detection substantially reduces
search difficulty
Search Operations
A Lesson in Anatomy
Components of a SAR
Incident for the searcher…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pre-planning
Notification
Check-in
Assignments
Check out
Return to Service
Mission Critique
Pre-planning
• Know what is expected of you
• Understand the fundamentals that are
necessary to perform safely, efficiently and
effectively
• Have the proper equipment and know how
to use it properly
• Be physically and mentally prepared
First Notice
• Two part step
– Initial notice of the incident
• Generally this involves the person who initially took
the report
• Could be an SOS, May Day, walk in family
member, cell phone, handheld radio
– First personnel notice
• Callout of SAR personnel to initiate a search
Notice of the Incident
• If you are taking the report for the first
notice of incident
– Get the needed information
• Fill out the Lost Person Questionnaire
– Determine initial urgency
• Fill out the urgency determination form
– Contact the right people
• Legal authorities, SAR Team, etc
• Contact “SAR Manager”
• Make a “call out sheet”
Initial Information needed by
the SAR Manager:
•
•
•
•
•
Is there a problem?
How serious is it?
Where is the problem?
How did it happen?
When did it happen?
Personnel Callout
• Notification of SAR personnel that their
services are needed
• Information must be passed on so that the
SAR personnel can assure that they are
appropriately equipped for the mission
• Description of the situation, who is in charge and person making the
report with a call back number
• Brief description of terrain, weather, projected weather, elevation of
the site
• Expected duration of deployment
• Special Equipment needs
• Map information ( type, scale)
• Staging place and detailed directions
• Person to report to upon arrival
• Any other pertinent information
Information for the notifying source
•
•
•
•
How long you will be available
What equipment do you have
What are your physical limitations
Do you need transportation or can you
supply
• Describe training limitations
• Any other pertinent information that is
requested of you
Check-in
• Check-in is mandatory for all searchers so that all
personnel can be accounted for
• Check-in is where the searcher finds out where to go
– Staging, Camp, Assignment
• Check-in (formal verses informal)
– Varies upon complexity of the incident
– Check-in should be written
– Searchers should then be directed to staging
Briefing
• After check-in, general briefing takes place
• Personnel are given all pertinent
information with reference to orientation of
the facilities, weather advisories, overview
of the incident, operations periods, etc.
• The Plans Chief, or his designee is
generally responsible for the briefings
Briefing Tips
•
•
•
•
•
Ask questions
Take notes
Get copies of appropriate information
Get a map
Use a briefing checklist
Assignment
• Individual Responsibilities
– All members should have their own gear
– All members should be dressed properly and
have appropriate back up gear
– All members should be mentally and
physically
– Skills and skill limitations should be
immediately relayed to the team leader
• Team Responsibilities
– Every team should immediately assign the
following positions, prior to deployment
•
•
•
•
Navigator
Tally
Time keeper
Team leader
– Team leader will usually be assigned before
the group is assembled
Debriefing
• Should be done at the end of each
incident
• Focus should be on planning for the future
based upon what is learned from the
present
• Is not meant to be a finger pointing
session
General Debriefing Guidelines
• Plans Chief or his/her designee is responsible for
debriefing
• Team Leaders may debrief their teams
• Field personnel should be debriefed individually as soon
as possible upon exiting the field
• Debriefing should be done in writing, when possible to
reduce confusion & misunderstandings)
• All pertinent information should be
solicited and conveyed during debriefing
– Description of areas covered and tactics
– Estimate of POD for the search
– Locations of clues
– Difficulties with the search
– Hazards encountered
– Suggestions, recommendations and ideas for
further activities in the search area
Check out
• Assures accountability of all personnel
• Details for formal critique is passed on
Return to Service
• Make certain all paperwork is complete
– Debriefing forms
– Injury claim
– Expendable supply use
– Personal supplies for re-imbursement
– How can you help others get back in service
• Replace, Replenish, and clean all gear to
ready it for the next incident
Lost Person Behavior
Search Manager’s Role
• Lost Person Questionnaire
• NASAR Field Guide
• Various other statistical studies
Lost Person Behavior for the
Searcher
• What might the subject do to effect the
survivability & detectability
– Can they build a fire
– What equipment do they have
– Apparel (type, color, intended use)
– Travel paths of least resistance
• Searchers should put themselves into the
victim’s shoes
– What would you do?
– Where would you go”
– How would you act or react?
– What are they thinking?
Tracking
Search and Rescue’s near lost art
Why Track?
• Tracking has many uses
– To determine the direction of travel
• Narrows the search area
• Tags a “high probability area”
– To gather evidence or clues
• All searches are criminal investigations until
proven otherwise
– To supplement other searcher skills
– To enhance a searcher’s clue consciousness
Tracking is…
Following the evidence or “sign”
left by another. It works because
it is logical
Sign cutting is…
A type of searching which
emphasizes finding every type of
clue, no matter how small or
seemingly insignificant.
Sign cutting benefits
• Often the first trace of evidence is
gathered from sign-cutting
• Once sign is located, trackers can search
the area more carefully to look for tracks
• Sign-cutting and tracking entwined often
yields very good results
When and Where to track
• Should be done in the early stages of the
search when the scene is least
contaminated
• Should also be used throughout the
search as new sign is cut
• The LKP and PLS are crucial areas to
search for sign and tracks
A Track or Print
Is an impression left by a person
passing through the area that can
positively identify them as being
human
Prints
• May be complete
• May be partial
• May be identifiable
Types of Tracking
• Sign cutting
• Jump Tracking
– Involves luck, not skill
– Not recommended
• Step by step
– Very disciplined
– Uses stride to determine where to look for the
next step
– Highly skilled
• Bracketing
– An occasionally accepted method
– Meant as a stop gap measure
Remember: Anyone can learn to track. All it
takes beyond learning the basics of Sep by
Step approach
Factors Affecting Tracks
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Surface
Moisture
Size of victim
Terrain
Vegetation
What is being carried
Light
Temperature
Equipment
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clothing including a broad brim hat
Walking stick
Measuring device such as a tape measure
Note pad and pencil
Trail tape
Flashlight
Mirror
Detecting sign
•
•
•
•
•
•
Visual cues
Outline
Shape
Contrast
Color
Texture
Sign Specifics
• Length and width
• General type of sole
• Measurements of particular parts of the
sole
• Several prints in a row helps determine
length of stride which helps tell you where
to look for the tracks
• Draw a pring
When is the best time to track
• When the sun is low in the sky
• Mid day is generally the worst
Where are the best places…
•
•
•
•
•
•
Roads
Trails
Sand
Game trails
Man-made
Other
Tracking considerations
• Only a tracker decides when not to us
tracking
• Do not think that tracking will always work
• Tracking is most effective when used
within
• All searchers must be track aware
• Be track away
– There are thousands of clues out there.
Reference
This course and material has been developed by Ranger
Richard Vasquez, (USNPS Ret.) with the support of Lt.
Lou Ann Metz (SFD) and Summit SAR Inc. Use of this
material without the specific approval is not permitted.
Richard Vasquez
[email protected]
Download
Related flashcards

Management

42 cards

System administration

65 cards

Management

61 cards

Create Flashcards