Using Management Information Systems Chapter 2

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Using MIS 3e
Chapter 2
Collaboration
Information Systems
David Kroenke
Chapter Preview
•
•
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One of the best ways of improving team meetings is to use collaboration
information systems, as you’ll learn in this chapter.
We begin by defining and describing collaboration. Given that definition,
we’ll then look at the five components of a collaboration system and
consider the procedure and people components in particular. Then, we’ll
examine how three different types of collaboration system can be used
to facilitate communication, manage the team’s work product, and
control team workflow. We’ll then consider collaboration in the business
context. We’ll examine how information systems improve collaboration
for problem solving, project management, and decision making.
As you read this chapter, keep in mind (from Chapter 1) that
collaboration is one of the four critical skills that Robert Reich identified
for twenty-first-century workers. As you’ll see, the ability to use
collaboration systems is a key part of modern collaboration skills.
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Study Questions
Q1
What is collaboration?
Q2.
What are the components of a collaboration information
system?
How can you use collaboration systems to improve team
communication?
How can you use collaboration systems to manage
content?
How can you use collaboration systems to control
workflow?
How do businesses use collaboration systems?
2020?
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
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Chapter Opening Scenario
• Does that FlexTime meeting sound like
meetings you have with fellow students?
• It doesn’t have to be that way.
• One of the best ways of improving team
meetings is to use collaboration.
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What Is Collaboration?
• Collaboration occurs when two or more
people work together to achieve a common:
 Goal
 Result
 Work product
• Greater than individuals working alone
• Involves more than coordination and
communication alone
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Importance of
Feedback and Iteration
• Feedback and iteration provide an opportunity for
team members to:
 Proceed in a series of steps (iterations) by
continuously reviewing and revising one another’s
work.
 Learn from one another rather than working in
isolation.
 Change the way they work and what they produce.
 Ultimately, produce a product that’s greater (and
better) than an individual could accomplish working
alone.
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Critical Collaboration Drivers
•
Effectiveness of a collaborative effort is
driven by three critical factors:
1. Communication
2. Content management
3. Workflow control
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Communication
• Communication skills and abilities of group
members
• Key Elements
 Ability to give and receive critical feedback?
 Availability and use of effective
communication systems
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Content Management
• Users need to manage content in order to
avoid conflicts.
• Need to know who made what changes,
when, and why. Content-management
systems track and report such data.
• Members have different rights and privileges.
 Information systems play a key role in
enforcing such restrictions.
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Workflow Control
• Workflow is a process or procedure to create,
edit, use, and dispose of content.
• It specifies the particular ordering of tasks.
• It includes processes for handling rejected
changes and exceptions.
• It ensures tasks are completed in an orderly
manner.
• Ad hoc groups—communication most
important drive, rather than formalize
workflows.
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Study Questions
Q1
What is collaboration?
Q2. What are the components of a
collaboration information system?
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
How can you use collaboration systems to improve team
communication?
How can you use collaboration systems to manage
content?
How can you use collaboration systems to control
workflow?
How do businesses use collaboration systems?
2020?
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Components of a Collaboration
Information System
• Hardware
 Client hardware
• Computers and other communication devices
(iPhones, Blackberries)
 Server hardware
• Computers installed and operated by IT
professionals that support the collaboration
system.
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Software
• Google Docs & Spreadsheets
 Free, only need Web browser to use
• Microsoft Groove
 Must be installed on the client computers of all
group members
• Microsoft SharePoint
 Setup on a server computer
 User need only browser to use
 Integrated with Microsoft Office
 Can be expensive for business users
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Components of a Collaboration
Information System
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Data
• Collaboration data consists of documents,
discussions, tasks lists, and other types of team data.
• Google Docs & Spreadsheets will store and manage
Word and Excel documents.
• Groove allows users to store almost any kind of
computer file including Word, Excel, PowerPoint,
Acrobat, pictures, drawings, other document types,
multiparty chat, chat session logs, VoIP.
• SharePoint can store discussion lists, task lists,
announcements, calendars, and more. SharePoint
supports team Wikis and team member blogs.
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Types of Collaboration
Procedures
1. Procedures for using the collaboration
software:

Perform basic tasks like creating announcements,
reading and storing documents, adding items to
lists, responding to surveys and so forth.
2. Procedures for conducting a collaborative
project:

Concerns how the team will perform its
collaborative work.
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Collaboration Procedures
•
•
•
•
•
Starting phase
Planning phase
Doing
Wrapping-up
Iteration and feedback—loop is nature and
power of collaboration
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Starting Phase
• Set ground rules
• Consider team authority—set goal/objectives
and determine how to accomplish them
• Set expectations for team members
 Role each will play
 Authority for each member
• Establish procedures for meetings
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Planning Phase
•
•
•
•
Determine “who will do what and by when”
Identify task dependencies
Evaluate alternatives
Make clear assignments of tasks to team
members:
 To ensure that team members know when,
and by whom, tasks will be accomplished.
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Doing
• Ensure that tasks are accomplished on time
• Identify schedule problems as early as
possible
• Add, delete, modify tasks, change task
assignments, add or remove task labor and so
forth, as necessary
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Wrapping-Up
• Document results
• Document the “learnings” for future teams
• Close down the project and disband
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Decisions and Procedures
for Project Phases
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Important and Not-Important
Characteristics of a Collaborator
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Study Questions
Q1
Q2.
What is collaboration?
What are the components of a collaboration
information system?
Q3. How can you use collaboration systems
to improve team communication?
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
How do businesses use collaboration systems?
2020?
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Types of Communication
• Synchronous communication
 Team members meet at the same time, but not
necessarily at the same geographic location.
 It may include conference calls, face-to-facemeetings, or online meetings.
• Asynchronous communication
 Team members do not meet at the same time or in
the same geographic location.
 It may include discussion forums or email
exchanges.
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Technology Available to Facilitate
Communication
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Virtual Meetings
• Don’t require everyone to be in same place at same
time
• Virtual meeting tools
 Conference calls—can be difficult to arrange the right time
 Multiparty text chat—easier to arrange if everyone has mobile
texting
 Videoconferencing—requires everyone to have the proper
equipment
 Email—most familiar but has serious drawbacks in content
management
 Discussion forums—content is more organized than email
 Team surveys—easy to manage but don’t provide very much
interactive discussion
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Students Should Forgo
Face-to-Face Meetings
• Group calendar—Outlook, Evite
• Virtual meetings—Synchronous
 Conference calls
 Webinars—WebEx, SharedView
 Multiparty text chat—Groove
• Videoconferencing—Live Meeting
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User Participating
in NetMeeting
• Figure 2-5
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Communicating Asynchronously
• Email:
 Problem of too much freedom, too easy to
hide
 Discussion threads disorganized,
disconnected
 Difficult to find particular emails, comments,
or attachments
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Example of Discussion Forum
Fig 2-6 Example of Discussion Forum
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Portion of Sample Team Survey
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Study Questions
Q1
Q2.
Q3.
What is collaboration?
What are the components of a collaboration information
system?
How can you use collaboration systems to improve team
communication?
Q4. How can you use collaboration
systems to manage content?
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
How can you use collaboration systems to control
workflow?
How do businesses use collaboration systems?
2020?
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Three Categories of Sharing
Content

Your choice depends on the degree of control your
team needs to complete their tasks
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Shared Content with No Control
• Email attachments are most primitive and
have numerous problems.
 Someone may not receive the email, ignores it,
doesn’t notice it, or does not save the attachments.
 Difficult to manage attachments.
• Shared file server provides a single storage
location for all team members.
 Uses FTP technology to access files
 Known location for finding documents
 Problems can occur if multiple team members try
using same file at same time.
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Shared Content with
Version Management
• Version management—track changes to
documents and provide features and functions
to accommodate concurrent work
Three version-management systems
1. Wikis
2. Google Docs & Spreadsheets
3. Microsoft Office Groove
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Wikis (We-keys)
• Wikis are shared knowledge bases, repositories of
team knowledge that can track changes.
• Simplest version-management systems
• Most famous wiki is wikipedia.org
• Publicly available general encyclopedia
• Tracks who created entry, date of creation, identity of
who changed entry, date, and possibly other data.
• Some users are given permission to delete wiki
entries.
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• Figure 2-9
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Google Docs & Spreadsheets
• Access at http://docs.google.com with a Google
account (not same as Gmail account)
• Google account can be affiliated with whatever email
account you provide.
• Documents are stored on Google servers making
them accessible from anywhere.
• Team members can track revisions and review
change summaries.
• A free service but you must use Google programs for
processing.
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Revisions Shared by Three People
Sample Google Docs & Spreadsheets Document Versions
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Microsoft Office Groove
• A user creates a workspace and invite others to join.
• Workspace has a collection of tools
• Automatically propagates changes to workspace to all group
members’ computers.
• Show all work that was done while user was away
• Does concurrent update control
• Multiuser chat, VoIP
• Use it asynchronously or synchronously
• Use any computer or server to access workspaces
• Each user must have a license and install it on each computer
(may be exceptions).
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Downside of Groove
• Each user must purchase a license for Groove.
• Groove must be installed on each member’s computer.
• Member creates a workspace, which is a collection of tools,
documents, and users. The creator of the workspace invites
others to join by sending them an email.
• Invitee accepts to join the workspace and can view all workspace
contents, including documents, schedules, drawings,
announcements of meetings, and so forth.
• When a user changes a document, Groove automatically
propagates that change to workspaces on other users’
computers.
• Supports multiuser text chat and Voice over IP (VoIP).
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Example of Groove Workspace
Fig 2-11 Example Groove Workspace
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Shared Content with Version
Control
• Each team member is given an account with a set of
permissions.
• More control over changes to documents.
 Uses shared directories (a.k.a. libraries) to store documents.
 Users are given permissions that limit what they can do with the
documents.
 Permissions—user might have read-only permission for library 1;
read and edit permission for library 2; read, edit, and delete
permission for library 3; and no permission even to see library 4.
 Requires users to check out documents and check them back in.
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Example of Document Checkout
Fig 2-11
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Version-Control Applications
• Microsoft SharePoint is the most popular for business
use.
 Requires a publicly accessible server
 Difficult to install
 Has features for creating and managing team work products:
surveys, discussion forums, wikis, member blogs, member
Web sites, and workflow
•
•
•
•
Master Control
Document Locator
CVS—software team use
Subversion—control versions of software code, test
plans, and product documentation
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Checking Out Document
Problem_Definition_Ricky
• Figure 2-12
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Study Questions
Q1
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
What is collaboration?
What are the components of a collaboration
information system?
How can you use collaboration systems to improve team
communication?
How can you use collaboration systems to manage
content?
Q5. How can you use collaboration
systems to control workflow?
Q6.
Q7.
How do businesses use collaboration systems?
2020?
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Types of Workflow
• Sequential workflow
 When a document is reviewed by one group member, then
another, and so forth
• Parallel workflow
 When documents are reviewed simultaneously by multiple
members
• SharePoint site
 Workflows can be defined and SharePoint ensures team
members perform required tasks
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Sample Sequential Workflow
Fig 2-13
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SharePoint Workflow Form
Fig 2-14
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SharePoint Sequential Workflow
Fig 2-15
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Study Questions
Q1
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
What is collaboration?
What are the components of a collaboration information
system?
How can you use collaboration systems to improve team
communication?
How can you use collaboration systems to manage
content?
How can you use collaboration systems to control
workflow?
Q6. How do businesses use collaboration
systems?
Q7.
2020?
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Using Collaboration Systems for
Problem Solving?
• Problem:
 Perceived difference between what is and what
ought to be
 Different people can define/perceive a problem
differently
 Tara defines the problem as Felix doesn’t regularly
come to meetings. Felix defines the problem as the
team is focused on cost savings when it should be
focused on revenue. Other team members might
have other definitions.
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Using Collaboration Systems for
Project Management
Procedures and Decisions for Project Phases
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Using Collaboration Systems for
Decision Making?
• Operational decisions
 Concern day-to-day activities—How many widgets should we order
from vendor A?
 Obtain data from transaction processing systems
 Require very little collaboration
• Managerial decisions
 Focus on the allocation and utilization of resources—How many
engineers should we assign to project B?
 Require some collaboration
• Strategic decisions
 Are broader in their scope and center around organizational
issues—Should we start a new product line?
 Are almost always collaborative
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Two Decision Processes
• Structured Decisions
 Have an understood and accepted method for
making decisions
 Have optimal solution
 Require very little collaboration
• Unstructured Decisions
 No agreed-on decision-making method
 No proven optimal solution
 Are often a collaborative process
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Relationship Between Decision
Type and Decision Process
• Operational decisions tend to be structured.
• Strategic decisions tend to be unstructured.
• Managerial decisions tend to be both structured and
unstructured.
• Unstructured operational decision: “How many taxicab
drivers do we need on the night before the
homecoming game?”
• Structured strategic decision: “How should we assign
sales quotas for a new product?”
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Decision Process and Decision
Type
Fig 2-18
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Decision Making and
Collaboration Systems
• Few structured decisions need collaboration.
 No feedback or iteration are necessary
 Collaboration in routine, structured decisions is
expensive, wasteful, and frustrating.
• Unstructured decisions
 Feedback and iteration are crucial
 Different perspectives required
 Communications systems are very important to the
process.
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Collaboration Needs by Decision
Types
Fig 2-19
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Study Questions
Q1
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
What is collaboration?
What are the components of a collaboration information
system?
How can you use collaboration systems to improve team
communication?
How can you use collaboration systems to manage
content?
How can you use collaboration systems to control
workflow?
How do businesses use collaboration systems?
Q7. 2020?
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How Will Collaboration
Change By 2020?
• Face-to-face meetings (F2F) will be rare.
• Employees not needed to be present on site will work
at home, either full time or at least several days a
week.
• Nearly all corporate training will be online, mostly
asynchronous.
• Business travel will be a shadow of its former self.
• Travel industry will re-organize for nearly exclusively
for recreational travel.
• Conventions will become virtual.
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Ethics Guide: Virtual Ethics?
• Virtual—“Something appears to exist that
does not exist in fact.”
 Is everyone present?
 Is everyone really who they say they are? (No
spoofing)
 Is everyone invited who should be?
 Was everyone, in fact, notified?
 Is it illegal to spoof someone?
 Are your ethics virtual?
• If others cheat on an online exam, are you justified to
cheat too?
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Guide: Securing Collaboration
• Collaboration systems pose serious security risks.
• All documents are stored on Google computers,
which are located, well, who knows where? Does
Google protect those computers appropriately? If
those computers are located in, say, San Francisco,
will they survive an earthquake?
• Wireless traffic is unprotected from wireless snoopers.
Are you processing that data at a local coffee shop?
Do you care that anyone in that shop can copy your
data?
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Guide: Securing Collaboration
• You post data in a Groove workspace so both your advertising
agency and marketing guru can view it. You have just violated
corporate security.
• Marketing guru makes a copy and uses it to improve her
knowledge of consumer behavior. Unknown to you, she also
consults for your chief rival and uses that knowledge to benefit
your competitor.
• SharePoint has extensive security features, if administrator
implemented a proper security plan.
• But, SharePoint makes it easy to download data.
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Ethics Guide: Egocentric vs.
Empathetic Thinking
• Egocentric thinking
 Centers on self
 “I’m right, everyone else is wrong.”
 “I believe sales are declining because our price is
too high. We need to cut the price.”
• Empathetic thinking
 “My view” is one possible interpretation.
 Take time to learn what others are thinking.
 Take time to understand the problem domain as a
system. (What factors can affect sales?)
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Egocentric Thinking
• “Professor Jones, I couldn’t come to class last
Monday. Did we do anything important?”
• Egocentric thinking
 Implies the student isn’t accountable for his actions
 Implies professor lectured on nothing important
 Doesn’t take into account professor’s view of
absences
 Assumes the professor has time to rehash the class
discussions and activities one-on-one
 Puts responsibility on the professor to remember
everything said in class
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Empathetic Thinking
• “I couldn’t come to class, but I got the class notes
from Mary. I read through them, and I have a
question…Oh by the way, I’m sorry to trouble you with
my problem.”
• Empathetic thinking approach




Takes personal responsibility
Minimizes impact of absence on someone else
Considers impact from professor’s side
Considers that the professor must interrupt their
other work to give extra help so you can recover
from your absence
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Active Review
Q1.
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
What is collaboration?
What are the components of a collaboration information
system?
How can you use collaboration systems to improve team
communication?
How can you use collaboration systems to manage
content?
How can you use collaboration systems to control
workflow?
How do businesses use collaboration systems?
2020?
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Case Study 2: Microsoft
SharePoint at Intermountain
Healthcare
• Operates a network of 21 hospitals with over 2,300 staffed
hospital beds
• 130,000 patients and delivered 33,000 babies
• Has more than 150 clinics and employs more than 30,000 people
• Provides free private Web pages for patients or family members
to communicate patient care and health matters to one another
• Provides a facility by which family and friends can send emails to
patients that are printed and delivered to patients
• Web-based portal that patients use to view test results, make
appointments, view medical records, and conduct other
healthcare matters.
• Provides a Web nursery of photos of recently born babies
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Microsoft SharePoint at
Intermountain Healthcare
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Microsoft SharePoint at
Intermountain Healthcare
• Publishes traditional business documents such as
announcements, policies, forms, pay schedules, consolidated
business reports under a SharePoint umbrella
• Employees have one place to go to find and produce reports that
they want.
• Result is reduced costs and better information for employees
• Employees can post new procedures or techniques or new ways
of solving problems and can describe them on SharePoint sites.
• Made it easy for users to create Team Spaces where teams
could collaborate on documents, share calendars, and perform
other collaboration functions
• No formal user training; created a short video that walked users
through process
• Thousands of employees contribute online now
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Microsoft SharePoint at Intermountain
Healthcare
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
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Publishing as Prentice Hall
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