Chapter 8

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Chapter 8
Management
Essentials
© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF)
and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Diversity
Diversity: variety of people and their backgrounds,
experiences, opinions, religions, ages, talents, and abilities.
 Stereotypes are generalizations that individuals make
about particular groups that assume that all members of
that group are the same.
 Prejudice is a general attitude toward a person, group, or
org. on the basis of judgments unrelated to abilities.
 Many groups of people, however, have common beliefs,
such as religion, or share common ways of acting. These
groups have cultural tendencies to do some things based
on their beliefs and their habits.
 Managers should set a climate in which employees honor
cultural tendencies and break down stereotypes.
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Diversity (cont.)
 a manager needs to help break down the stereotypes
that people hold and manage activities that impact
diversity.
 Managers should model expected employee behavior. A
manager who encourages and honors diversity helps to
establish a hospitable and welcoming environment for all
employees.
 Encouraging positive cross-cultural interaction, or
meaningful communication among employees from
diverse cultures and backgrounds, helps break down
stereotypes and prejudices, and improves the workplace
environment.
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Respectful Workplaces
Two critical aspects of a positive work environment are
respectfulness and equal treatment for all employees.
 Harassment happens when slurs or other verbal or
physical conduct related to a person’s:
 1. race
5. religion
 2. gender
6. sexual orientation
 3. color
7. disability
 4. ethnicity religion
 Managers are legally liable for maintaining a
harassment-free environment.
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Teamwork
 Teamwork uses each member’s strengths, so the group
has more success working together than working alone.
 Teamwork benefits:
 Learn from each other
 Bring different skills and experiences
 Get more done than working individually
 Provides support for team members
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Leadership
Leadership: to inspire and motivate employees to support
the vision of an organization.
Good leaders demonstrate these behaviors:
 Provide direction
 Lead consistently
 Influence others
 Motivate others
 Coach and develop others
 Anticipate change
 Foster teamwork
 People skills are also known as interpersonal skills.
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Motivation
Motivation is comprised of the reasons why a person
takes action or behaves in a certain way.
 A leader motivates and influences other people through
his or her own actions every day.
 Internal motivation: personal drive to do your best with
or without rewards
 External motivation: drive to do well comes from desire
for rewards (paychecks, bonuses)
 Professionalism is the combination of the knowledge,
skills, attitudes, and behavior a person shows while
performing a job.
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Problem Solving
Successful managers recognize a problem when it occurs.
Then they:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
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Define the problem.
Determine the root cause.
Determine alternative solutions and consequences.
Select the best solution.
Develop an action plan.
Implement the action plan.
Document the problem and solution for future
reference.
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Professional Development
Professional development is the sum of activities a person
performs to meet goals and/or to further his or her career.
 Managers must keep pace with changes in the
workplace.
 Continuous learning is key to professional
development and goal setting.
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Ethics
Ethics are a set of moral values that a society holds.
 Ethics are typically based on the principles of honesty,
integrity, and respect for others.
 Workplace ethics serve as guiding principles that
effective leaders use in setting the professional tone and
behavior in their operations.
 Many establishments have created written codes of
ethics. These codes act as a safety check for evaluating
decisions before making them. (p. 490)
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Organizational Goals
Goals are statements of desired results. Management uses
them to measure actual performance within an organization.
 Organizational goals provide structure for an operation,
and help evaluate the operation’s progress.
 An objective is a specific description or statement of what
a manager wants to achieve.
 A vision statement describes what an organization wants
to become and why it exists.
 A mission statement refines the vision statement by
stating the purpose of the organization to employees and
customers.
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Job Descriptions
A job description is a document that defines the work
involved in a particular assignment or position. (p. 501)
 Many job descriptions also include educational and
legal requirements for holding the position.
 Positions that are exempt (managers, chefs) from the
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) are not paid
overtime or minimum wage (they are salaried)
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Interviewing
Job Applicants
 The process of selecting and interviewing applicants is
strictly regulated by laws that protect the civil rights of job
applicants.
 To avoid charges of discrimination, employers should
use identical application forms and tests for everyone
who applies for the same job.
 Questions that can’t be asked during interview:
 1. Marital status
5. religion
 2. Children
6. Former name
 3. Age
7. national origin
 4. race
8. parents’ name
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Interviewing
Job Applicants (cont.)
 Interviewers need to keep all job requirements and
interview questions directly related to the job.
 The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
(EEOC) and other government agencies enforce laws that
ensure everyone, regardless of race, age, gender, religion,
national origin, color, or ability/disability, gets a fair chance
at any job opening.
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Interviewing
Job Applicants (cont.)
 Hiring tools used by managers include:
 Job application
 Screening interviews
 Cover letters and résumés.
 Some applicants go through a series of interviews as
part of the screening process for a job. This is known
as successive interviewing.
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Lawful Hiring Practices
 Managers for restaurant or foodservice operations need
to know the legal environment in which they operate.
 Antidiscrimination laws can impact job descriptions,
recruiting, screening, hiring, employee development,
training, and promotions.
 A zero-tolerance policy means that no violation is
forgiven.
 The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), established
protections related to wages and child labor.
 Child labor laws restrict the hours young employees can
work and the type of work they can do.
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Onboarding
Onboarding is the process that a company uses to
integrate new employees into an organization.
 Onboarding programs give companies a better chance at
making sure the people they hire stay in their jobs.
 There are typically four phases of onboarding:
 Hiring
 Orientation (learn policies and meet team members)
 Training (role playing, videos)
 Scheduled follow-up
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Orientation
Orientation is the process that helps new employees learn
about the procedures and policies of the operation and
introduces them to their coworkers.
 The type of orientation employees receive depends on the
size of the organization.
 Orientation programs usually have two focuses: providing
information about the company and providing information
about the job.
 An employee manual contains general information about
employment, including company policies, rules and
procedures, employee benefits, and other topics related to
the company.
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Training
Training improves the skill, knowledge, and attitude of
employees and encourages employees to work together as
a team
 Training should:
 Improve quality of work
 Promote employee growth
 Keep employees challenged
 Create talent to help organization grow
 Cross-training: when employees learn the functions of
another job within the operation making them more
productive.
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Training (cont.)
 On-the-job training (OJT) is appropriate for teaching skills
that are easily demonstrated and involves equipment
(preparing menu items, operating cash registers, using
tools and equipment)
 Before trainers can demonstrate a task, they themselves
must be able to perform the task very well.
 Group training is usually the most practical choice when
many employees need the same type of training.
 Benefit of group training:
• Training is uniform (everyone hears the same thing)
• Encourages group discussion
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Performance Appraisals
 An employee performance appraisal is a formal evaluation of a
person’s work performance over a specific period of time.
 Formal evaluations give the manager and employee a chance to
communicate, discuss how well the employee is doing, and set
performance goals.
 The most effective way to rate employee performance is to use a
performance appraisal form.
 Self evaluation form: provides info. from the employee and the
manager so they can work together to create goals
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Management Equipment
 Point-of-sale (POS) systems allow servers to enter
orders and prompts for other order information
(temperature of steak, etc.)
 POS systems also allow managers to track the number
of menu items sold and employee activity, and analyze
worker productivity.
 Advanced POS systems are networked and integrate
with inventory tracking and purchasing systems.
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