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Chapter Preview
Section 1: Deviance and Social Control
Section 2: Functionalism and deviance
Section 3: Symbolic Interactionism and
Deviance
Section 4: Conflict Theory and Deviance
Section 5: Crime and Punishment
Chapter Preview · Section 1
Deviance and Social Control (pages 204–208)
Deviance is the violation of social norms. It is
difficult to define because not everyone agrees on
what should be considered deviant behavior.
Chapter Preview · Section 2
Functionalism and Deviance (pages 209–213)
According to functionalists, deviance has both
negative and positive consequences for society.
Functionalism also forms the basis for two important
theories of deviance: strain theory and control theory.
Chapter Preview · Section 3
Symbolic Interactionism and Deviance (pages 214–217)
The symbolic interactionist perspective yields two
theories of deviance. We learned in Chapter 3 that
culture is learned. Sociologists believe that deviance is
also culturally transmitted. Labeling theory holds that
an act is deviant only if other people deem it so.
Chapter Preview · Section 4
Conflict Theory and Deviance (pages 218–223)
The conflict perspective looks at deviance in terms of
social inequality and power. The most powerful
members of a society determine who is regarded as a
deviant. Conflict theorists point out the relationship
between minorities and crime.
Chapter Preview · Section 5
Crime and Punishment (pages 224–232)
Crime statistics in the U.S. come from two major
sources: the FBI and the Census Bureau. Four
approaches to crime control are deterrence, retribution,
incarceration, and rehabilitation.
Deviance is the violation of social norms. It is
difficult to define because not everyone agrees
on what should be considered deviant
behavior.
• deviance
• negative deviance
• positive deviance
• deviant
• social control
• social sanctions
Do you think all illegal activity is
deviant behavior?
A. Strongly agree
B. Somewhat agree
C. Somewhat disagree
D. Disagree
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
The Nature of Deviance
• The term deviance refers to behavior that
departs from societal or group norms.
• It is a subjective term, or a matter of social
definition.
The Nature of Deviance (cont.)
• Negative deviance involves behavior that
fails to meet accepted norms.
• Positive deviance involves overconformity
to norms, which leads to imbalance and
extremes of perfectionism.
Two Types of Youth
Deviance
The Nature of Deviance (cont.)
• A deviant is a person who has violated
one or more of society’s most highly
valued norms.
Is constantly washing your hands a
positive or negative deviance?
A. Positive
B. Negative
C. Both
D. Neither
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Social Control
• Without social control—ways to promote
conformity to norms—social life would be
unpredictable, even chaotic.
Social Control (cont.)
• Types of social control:
– Internal social control lies within the
individual; we know the difference between
right and wrong due to the socialization
process.
– External social control is based on
sanctions (formal and informal)—rewards
or punishments designed to encourage
desired behavior.
Social Control (cont.)
• Social sanctions are rewards or
punishments designed to encourage
desired behavior.
• There are both positive and negative
sanctions.
Violent Crime
Which is a formal negative sanction?
A. Gossip
B. Ridicule
C. Smiling at someone
D. Imprisonment
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
According to functionalists, deviance has both
negative and positive consequences for
society. Functionalism also forms the basis for
two important theories of deviance: strain
theory and control theory.
• anomie
• strain theory
• control theory
Do you agree that deviance can have
positive effects on society?
A. Agree
B. Disagree
C. Not sure
0%
A
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
B
0%
C
Costs and Benefits of Deviance
• Negative effects of deviance:
– It erodes trust.
– It can cause nonconforming behavior in
others.
– It is expensive.
Costs and Benefits of Deviance (cont.)
• Benefits of deviance:
– It clarifies norms by exercising social
control to defend its values.
– It can be a temporary safety valve or
relieve societal pressures.
– It increases unity within a society or group.
– It promotes needed social change.
Do you use any of the following as a
way to relieve pressure from
authority figures?
A. Listen to music
B. Wear unique clothes
C. Watch television
D. Other
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Strain Theory
• Anomie is a social condition in which
norms are weak, conflicting, or absent.
Strain Theory (cont.)
• Strain theory is most likely to occur when
there is a gap between culturally desirable
goals, such as money and prestige, and a
legitimate way of obtaining them.
• Conformity is when people accept the goal
and the means to achieve it.
Merton’s Strain Theory
Strain Theory (cont.)
• These four responses to strain are
considered deviant even though they
might display conformity:
– Innovation—illegal means used to achieve
success
– Ritualism—success rejected, but
legitimate means still used
Strain Theory (cont.)
– Retreatism—both goals and means
rejected
– Rebellion—rejected goals and means, but
a new set of goals and means formed
Which of the following is the most
widespread response to strain?
A. Innovation
B. Ritualism
C. Retreatism
D. Rebellion
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Control Theory
• According to Travis Hirschi’s control
theory, conformity to social norms
depends on the presence of strong bonds
between individuals and society.
Control Theory (cont.)
• The social bond has four basic
components:
– Attachment
– Commitment
– Involvement
– Belief
Which basic element of social bonds
do you think is most prevalent for
conformity to social norms?
A. Attachment
B. Commitment
C. Involvement
D. Belief
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
The symbolic interactionist perspective yields
two theories of deviance. We read in Chapter 3
that culture is learned. Sociologists believe that
deviance is a learned behavior that is culturally
transmitted. Labeling theory holds that an act is
deviant on if other people name it so.
• differential association theory
• labeling theory
• primary deviance
• secondary deviance
• stigma
Do you think petty theft is deviant
behavior?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Not sure
0%
A
A. A
B. B
C.0% C
B
0%
C
Differential Association Theory
• Differential association theory emphasizes
the role of primary groups in transmitting
deviance.
Differential Association Theory (cont.)
• Three characteristics affect differential
association:
– A person who spends considerable time
with deviants is more likely to learn deviant
behavior.
– A person is more likely to copy deviant
behavior from a significant other than from
people less important to him or her.
Differential Association Theory (cont.)
– Younger children learn deviant behavior
more quickly than older children.
Which characteristic do you think is
most responsible for deviant
behavior?
A. The ration of deviant
to nondeviant individuals
B. Whether the deviant
behavior is practiced by
significant others
0%
C. The age of exposure
A
A. A
B. B
C.0% C
B
0%
C
Labeling Theory
• Labeling theory explains why deviance is
relative. Sometimes, if two people break
the same norm, only one may be labeled a
deviant.
• Deviant behaviors are always a matter of
social definition; they are relative.
Labeling Theory (cont.)
• Primary deviance is when a person
engages only in isolated acts of deviance.
• Secondary deviance refers to deviance
as a lifestyle and as a personal identity.
Labeling Theory (cont.)
• Labeling has negative effects:
– Stigma—an undesirable characteristic or
label used by others to deny the deviant
full social acceptance.
Where do you think the majority of
responsibility should be given to in
the example of teenage pregnancy?
A. Female
B. Male
C. Both
D. Society
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
The conflict perspective looks at deviance in
terms of social inequality and power. The most
powerful members of a society determine who
will be regarded as a deviant. Conflict theorists
point to some disproportional statistical
relationships between minorities and crime.
• victim discounting
• white-collar crime
Do you think a suspect’s race is likely
to have an impact on their treatment
in the criminal justice system?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Not sure
0%
A
A. A
B. B
0%
C. C
B
0%
C
Deviance in Industrial Society
• From the conflict perspective, deviance in
an industrial society is behavior that those
in control see as threatening to their
interests.
Deviance
Deviance in Industrial Society (cont.)
• The following are considered deviants in
an industrial society:
– Critics of an industrial society.
– Those who will not work.
– Those who threaten private property.
– Those who show a lack of respect for
authority.
Deviance in Industrial Society (cont.)
• The following is encouraged:
– Certain activities, such as violence in
sports, depending on how well they fit
within the industrial society.
Whom do you think suffers the most
due to social inequities?
A. African Americans
B. Poor people
C. Hispanics
0%
A
A. A
B. B
0%
C. C
B
0%
C
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime
• Supporters of the conflict perspective
believe that minorities receive unequal
treatment in the American criminal justice
system.
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime (cont.)
• Reasons for unequal treatment:
– Minorities generally do not have the
economic resources to buy good legal
advice.
– Crimes against whites tend to be punished
more severely than crimes against
minorities.
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime (cont.)
• Victim discounting is the process of
reducing the seriousness of the crimes
that injure people of lower status.
What percent of inmates under the
death penalty are African Americans?
A. 15
B. 23
C. 36
D. 42
0%
A
A.
B.
0%
C.
D.
B
A
B
0%
C
D
C
0%
D
White-Collar Crime
• White-collar crime is any crime committed
by respectable and high-status people in the
course of their occupations.
• These people tend to be treated more
leniently than other criminals.
How many months was Martha
Stewart sentenced to for obstructing
an investigation into illegal stock
trading?
A. 5 months
B. 12 months
C. 18 months
D. 24 months
0%
A
A.
B.
0%
C.
D.
B
A
B
0%
C
D
C
0%
D
Crime statistics in the U.S. come from two
major sources: the FBI and the Census Bureau.
Differences in statistics between the two
agencies are due to differences in methods of
collecting data. Four approaches to crime
control are deterrence, retribution,
incarceration, and rehabilitation.
• crime
• criminal justice system
• deterrence
• retribution
• incarceration
• rehabilitation
• recidivism
Which violent crime do you think is
the worst?
A. Murder
B. Forcible rape
C. Aggravated assault
0%
A
A. A
B. B
0%
C. C
B
0%
C
Measurement of Crime
• Crime—acts in violation of statute law—is
widespread in the United States.
• The major source of American crime
statistics is the Federal Bureau of
Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports.
FBI’s Crime Clock:
2003
Crimes in the United
States, 2003
Measurement of Crime (cont.)
• Nine types of crime are tracked:
– Murder
– Forcible rape
– Robbery
– Aggravated assault
– Burglary
Types of Crimes
Americans Commit
Measurement of Crime (cont.)
– Larceny-theft
– Motor vehicle theft
– Arson
– Hate crimes
Types of Crimes
Americans Commit
Measurement of Crime (cont.)
• The UCR statistics are reliable in the fact
that experienced police officers decide
which incidents should be reported.
Measurement of Crime (cont.)
• The limitations are as follows:
– The lower classes are overrepresented.
– Smaller crimes are not as likely to be
reported.
– Prostitutes and intoxicated persons can
easily hide.
Measurement of Crime (cont.)
– About two-thirds of crimes are not reported
at all.
– Crime reporting varies, and white-collar
offenders are seldom included.
Measurement of Crime (cont.)
• The National Crime Victimization Survey
was launched in the 1970s in response to
the aforementioned limitations.
Measurement of Crime (cont.)
• Two advantages to the NCVS:
– It helps make up for underreporting of
crime.
– Its surveys are more scientifically sound.
In the U.S., how often is a murder
committed?
A. Every 6 minutes
B. Every 32 minutes
C. Every 50 minutes
0%
A
A. A
B. B
0%
C. C
B
0%
C
Juvenile Crime
• Juvenile crime refers to legal violations
among those under 18 years of age.
• Juvenile offenders are the third largest
category of criminals in the U.S.
• Violent juvenile crime reached its lowest
level in a decade in 2003.
Juvenile Arrests in the
United States, 2003
Juvenile Crime (cont.)
• Reasons:
– A decline in the demand for crack cocaine.
– Remaining crack gangs that provided guns
to juveniles have reached truces.
– Repeat violent offenders have been given
stiffer sentences.
– Police are cracking down on illegal guns
on the street.
What do you think is the main reason
juvenile crime has gone down?
A. Decline in demand
for crack cocaine
B. Gang truces
0%
D
A
B
C0%
D
C
0%
A
D. More police enforcement
A.
B.
0%
C.
D.
B
C. Stiffer sentences for
repeat offenders
Approaches to Crime Control
• The criminal justice system is made up
of the institutions and processes
responsible for enforcing criminal statutes.
• Police, courts, and the correctional system
comprise the criminal justice system.
Approaches to Crime Control (cont.)
• Deterrence—threat of punishment used to
discourage criminal actions.
• Deterrence works if the lawbreakers know:
– they are likely to get caught
– the punishment will be severe
Approaches to Crime Control (cont.)
• Capital punishment is not an effective
deterrent, but most people still tend to
support it.
Death Penalty
Policy
Approaches to Crime Control (cont.)
• Retribution—a type of punishment
intended to make criminals pay
compensation for their acts.
• Incarceration—keeping criminals in
prisons.
Top Ten Countries in
Number of Prisoners
Approaches to Crime Control (cont.)
• Rehabilitation—an approach to crime control
that attempts to resocialize criminals.
• However, there is a high rate of recidivism,
or a repetition of or return to criminal
behavior.
Approaches to Crime Control (cont.)
• Reasons for recidivism:
– The basic nature of the offender
– Influences of more hardened criminals
– The stigma of being an ex-convict
Approaches to Crime Control (cont.)
• Some alternatives to rehabilitation in
prisons:
– A combination of prison and probation,
or shock probation
– Community-based programs
– Diversion strategy
Which approach to crime control do
you think is most effective?
A. Deterrence
B. Retribution
C. Incarceration
D. Rehabilitation
0%
A
A.
B.
0%
C.
D.
B
A
B
0%
C
D
C
0%
D
Two Types of Youth Deviance
Source: Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, “Healthy Youth!” (2004).
Title
FBI’s Crime Clock: 2003
How often do American’s commit crimes?
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform
Crime Reports, 2003.
Crimes in the United States, 2003
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform
Crime Reports, 2003.
Types of Crimes Americans Commit
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform
Crime Reports, 2003.
Juvenile Arrests in the United States, 2003
Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of
Justice Programs, 2005.
Top Ten Countries in Number of Prisoners
Source: British Home Office Online Research and
Development Statistics, 2004.
Violent Crime
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigations, Uniform
Crime Reports, 2003.
Death Penalty Policy
Source: Amnesty International Online, 2005.
Sociology Chapter
Transparencies
Distribution of Deviance Curve
Major Assumptions of Labeling Theory
Control Theory
Strain Theory
Juvenile and Adult Crime Labels
Violence and Guns
Who’s on Death Row?
Annual Application of Capital Punishment
deviance
behavior that departs from societal or group
norms
negative deviance
involves behavior that under-conforms to
accepted norms
positive deviance
involves behavior that over-conforms to social
expectation
deviant
a person who breaks significant societal or
group norms
social control
ways to encourage conformity to society’s
norms
social sanctions
rewards or punishments that encourage
conformity to social norms
anomie
a social condition in which norms are weak,
conflicting, or absent
strain theory
theory that deviance is more likely to occur
when a gap exists between cultural goals and
the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate
means
control theory
theory that compliance with social norms
requires strong bonds between individuals
and society
differential association theory
theory that individuals learn deviance in
proportion to the number of deviant acts they
are exposed to
labeling theory
theory that society creates deviance by
identifying particular members as deviant
primary deviance
deviance involving occasional breaking of
norms that is not a part of a person’s lifestyle
or self-concept
secondary deviance
deviance in which an individual’s life and
identity are organized around breaking
society’s norms
stigma
an undesirable trait or label that is used to
characterize an individual
victim discounting
process of reducing the seriousness of the
crimes that injure people of lower status
white-collar crime
job-related crimes committed by high-status
people
crime
acts committed in violation of the law
criminal justice system
system comprising institutions and processes
responsible for enforcing criminal statutes
deterrence
discouraging criminal acts by threatening
punishment
retribution
punishment intended to make criminals pay
compensation for their acts
incarceration
a method of protecting society from criminals
by keeping them in prisons
rehabilitation
process of changing or reforming a criminal
through socialization
recidivism
a repetition of or return to criminal behavior
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