Cognitive Development - FacultyWeb Support Center

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Presentations for
Seventh Edition
Philip G. Zimbardo
Robert L. Johnson
Vivian McCann
Prepared by
Beth M. Schwartz
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including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any
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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Chapter 7
Development over the Lifespan
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display,
including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any
rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Developmental Psychology
Developmental Psychology
• The psychology study of growth, change,
and consistency through the lifespan
Examines these changes from multiple
perspectives:
•
•
•
•
physical
emotional
cognitive
sociocultural
Examines how both heredity and
environment influence these changes
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The Nature–Nurture Issue
Nature- Nurture Controversy
• Long-standing discussion over relative
importance of nature (heredity) and nurture
(environment) in their influence on behavior
and mental processes
• E.g., ADHD-genetic component vs.
environmental causes
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The Nature–Nurture Interaction
Twin Studies
• Developmental investigations in which
twins, especially identical twins, are
compared in the search for genetic and
environmental effects
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The Nature–Nurture Interaction
Adoption Studies
• Studies in which the adopted child’s
characteristics are compared to those of the
biological family and the adoptive family
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What Innate Abilities
Does the Infant Possess?
Newborns have innate
abilities for finding
nourishment, avoiding
harmful situations, and
interaction with others—all of
which are genetically
designed to facilitate
survival.
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Prenatal Development
Prenatal Period
• The developmental period before birth
• zygote
• embryo
• fetus
Placenta
• An organ that develops between the
embryo/fetus and the mother
Teratogens
• Toxic substances that can damage the
developing organism
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Neonatal Period
(from Birth to One Month)
Sensory Abilities
• Visual and auditory preferences
Social Abilities
• Mimicry
Innate Reflexes
•
•
•
•
Postural reflex
Grasping reflex
Rooting reflex
Stepping reflex
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Infancy (from One Month to about
Eighteen Months)
Neural Development
• Sensitive periods
• Brain development
• synaptic pruning
Maturation
• The unfolding of genetically programmed
processes of growth and development over
time
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo.
Responds to sound
Becomes quiet when picked up
Vocalizes occasionally
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo.
Smiles socially
Recognizes mother
Rolls from side to back
Lifts head and holds it erect and
steady
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo.
Vocalizes to the smiles and talk
of an adult
Searches for source of sound
Sits with support, head steady
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo.
Gaze follows dangling ring, vanishing
spoon, and ball moved across table
Sits with slight support
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo.
Discriminates strangers from familiar
persons
Turns from back to side
Makes distinctive vocalizations
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.
Lifts cup and bangs it
Smiles at mirror image
Reaches for small object
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.
7 mo.
Makes playful responses to
mirror
Sits alone steadily
Crawls
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.
7 mo. 8 mo.
Vocalizes up to four different
syllables
Listens selectively to familiar
words
Pulls to standing position
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.
7 mo. 8 mo. 9 mo. 10 mo.
Plays pat-a-cake
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.
7 mo. 8 mo. 9 mo. 10 mo. 11 mo.
Stands alone
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Maturation Timetable for Locomotion
Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.
7 mo. 8 mo. 9 mo. 10 mo. 11 mo. 1 year
Walks alone
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Figure 7.1 Maturational Timetable for Motor Control
This figure shows average ages at which each behavior is performed. There are considerable individual differences in
the rate of development, so the time at which each response occurs is variable. Most infants, however, closely follow
the sequence of development outlined here.
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Infancy (from One Month to about
Eighteen Months)
Contact comfort: physical contact
• Harlow (1965): the stimulation
and reassurance derived from
physical touch
• Field (1986): massage for
premature babies
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Infancy (from One Month to about
Eighteen Months)
Attachment
• Emotional relationship between child and
parent
• Lorenz: imprinting
• Bowlby (1969): human attachment is innate.
• Ainsworth (1989): attachment style
• Secure attachment
• Anxious-ambivalent attachment
• Avoidant attachment
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Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
Age/Period
Principal Challenge
0 to 1 1/2 Years
Trust vs. Mistrust
1 1/2 to 3 Years
Autonomy vs. Self-Doubt
3 to 6 Years
Initiative vs. Guilt
6 Years to Puberty
Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescence
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Early Adulthood
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Late Adulthood
Ego-Integrity vs. Despair
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What Are the
Developmental Tasks of
Childhood?
Nature and nurture work
together to help children
master important
developmental tasks in the
areas of language, acquisition,
cognitive development, and
development of social
relationships.
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How Children Acquire Language
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
• Structure in the brain innately programmed
with some of the fundamental rules of
grammar
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How Children Acquire Language
Babbling stage: repetitive syllables
Vocabulary and Grammar
•One-word stage
•Two-word stage
•Telegraphic speech (short, simple
sentences)
•Morphemes (meaningful units of language
that make up words)
•Overregularization (e.g., using “hitted” and
“feets”)
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How Children Acquire Language
Other language skills:
•Social rules of conversation (e.g., listening)
•Abstract words (e.g., hope, truth)
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Figure 7.2 Growth in Grade School Children’s Vocabulary
The number of words in a child’s vocabulary increases rapidly during the grade school years—an even faster rate
of increase than during the preschool years. The chart shows total vocabulary, including words that a child can
use (production vocabulary) and words that a child can understand (comprehension vocabulary). These data
were reported in 1995 by J. M. Anglin of the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
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Cognitive Development
Cognitive Development
• The process by which mental abilities
emerge and change over time
• Piaget’s stage theory
Schemas
• Mental structures that guide your
interpretation of concepts and events
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Cognitive Development
Assimilation
• Mental process that incorporates new
information into existing schemas
Accommodation
• Mental process that modifies schemas in
order to accommodate new information
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Piaget’s Stages of
Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete
Operational
Formal
Operational
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Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
Development
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete
Operational
Formal
Operational
• Birth to about age two
• The child relies heavily
on innate motor
responses to stimuli.
• Sensorimotor
intelligence
• Mental representations
• Object permanence
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Testing Infants for Object Permanence
Figure 7.5 Testing Infants for Object Permanence
In this innovative test of object permanence, infants are shown a series of “possible” and “impossible” events. In
(a), a short carrot approaches a screen with a window at the top, then moves behind the screen, and finally
emerges from the other side of the screen. In (b), a tall carrot does the same thing. The top of the short carrot
is not visible through the window as it passes (because it is shorter than the window), but the top of the taller
carrot is visible as it passes the window. Because both of these scenarios are logical, they represent the
“possible” events. In (c), a tall carrot approaches and passes behind the screen, but this time the carrot top is
not visible through the window (as it should be). Three- to 4-month-old infants gaze longer at this “impossible”
scenario than they do at the “possible” events, indicating what may be the beginnings of object permanence.
Source: Adapted from Fig. 1, Baillargeon, R., & DeVos, J., 1991, Object permanence in young infants: further
evidence. Child Development, 62, p. 1230. © The Society for Research in Child Development.
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Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
Development
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete
Operational
Formal
Operational
• About age two to age
six or seven
• Marked by welldeveloped mental
representation and the
use of language
•
•
•
•
Egocentrism
Animalistic thinking
Centration
irreversibility
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Piaget’s Three Mountain Task
Figure 7.3 Piaget’s Three-Mountain Task
In Piaget’s Three Mountain task, a child is shown a figure of three mountains. One mountain has a red cross at
the top, one has a small house, and the third is snow-capped. On the other side of the figure (across the table
from the child) sits a doll. When asked which mountain view the doll has, the preoperational child typically thinks
the doll’s view is the same as the child’s own view. Piaget used this task to illustrate egocentrism or the inability
to understand that others’ perspectives may differ from our own.
Source: Berk, L. E. (2007). Development through the lifespan. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Copyright ©
2007 by Pearson Education. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
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Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
Development
Sensorimotor
Concrete
Operational
• About age seven to
about age eleven
• The child understands
conservation, but is
incapable of abstract
thought.
Formal
Operational
• Conservation
• Mental operations
Preoperational
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Conservation of Liquid Task
Figure 7.4 Conservation of Liquid Task
Preoperational thinkers cannot understand that the amount of liquid remains the same when poured into a
different-sized container. Mastery of this conservation task marks the transition to the concrete operational
stage.
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Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
Development
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete
Operational
Formal
Operational
• From about age twelve on
• Abstract thought appears.
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Beyond Piaget: Theory of Mind
 An understanding that others may have
beliefs, desires, and emotions different
from one’s own
 Underlies your expectations about how
people will act in certain situations
 Enables empathy, deception, and sound
judgments about people
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Social and Emotional Development
Temperament
• An individual’s inherited, “hard-wired”
pattern of personality and behavior
Socialization
• The lifelong process of shaping an
individual’s behavior patterns, values,
standards, skills, attitudes, and motives to
conform to those regarded as desirable in a
particular society
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Social and Emotional Development
Most approaches to childrearing fall into
one of the following four styles:
•
•
•
•
Authoritarian parents
Authoritative parents
Permissive parents
Uninvolved parents
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Social and Emotional Development
Other factors influencing a child’s
development may include:
• Effects of daycare
• Leisure influences
• Gender differences
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What Changes Mark the
Transition of Adolescence?
Adolescence offers new
developmental challenges
growing out of physical
changes, cognitive changes,
and socioemotional changes.
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The Transitions of Adolescence
Adolescence
• Developmental period beginning at puberty
and ending at adulthood
Rites of Passage
• Social rituals that usually take place at
about the time of puberty and serve as a
public acknowledgement of the transition
from childhood to adulthood
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Physical Maturation in Adolescence
Puberty
• Onset of sexual maturity
Menarche
• Onset of menstruation, which signals
puberty in girls
Around puberty, boys and girls become
more aware of their physical
attractiveness.
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Adolescent Sexuality
Sexual issues in adolescence often include
the following:
Masturbation
Sexual Orientation
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Neural and Cognitive Development
in Adolescence
The amygdala is fully developed, but the
frontal lobe is not.
• A teenager reacts more emotionally than
does an adult.
Increases in hormonal levels
• Estrogen and testosterone
This leads to sensation seeking and risk
taking, as well as preoccupation with body
image and sex.
Piaget’s final stage of cognitive growth
(abstract and complex thought)
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Neural and Cognitive Development
in Adolescence
• Brain regions not adequately
stimulated are pruned/trimmed.
• The brain becomes gradually less
adept at learning.
• Piaget’s final stage of cognitive
growth
• formal operational stage (abstract
and complex thought)
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Kohlberg’s Stages of
Moral Development
Development of our sense of right and
wrong using moral dilemmas
• Responses fell into six categories/stages
I. Preconventional Morality
Stage 1: Reward/punishment
Stage 2: Cost/benefit orientation; reciprocity
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Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral
Reasoning
II. Conventional Morality
• Stage 3: “Good child” orientation
• Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation
III. Postconventional (Principled) Morality
• Stage 5: Social contract orientation
• Stage 6: Ethical principle orientation
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Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning
Critiques of Kohlberg’s theory:
• Culture and morality
• Gender and morality
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Social and Emotional Issues
in Adolescence
The increasing influence of peers
Identity crisis
Period of turmoil?
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Marcia’s Stages of
Identity Development
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What Developmental
Challenges Do Adults Face?
Nature and nurture continue to
interact as we progress thorough
a series of transitions in
adulthood, with cultural norms
about age combining with new
technology to increase both the
length and quality of life
for many adults
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Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
Age/Period
Principal Challenge
0 to 1 1/2 Years
Trust vs. Mistrust
1 1/2 to 3 Years
Autonomy vs. Self-Doubt
3 to 6 Years
Initiative vs. Guilt
6 Years to Puberty
Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescence
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Early Adulthood
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Late Adulthood
Ego-integrity vs. Despair
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Early and Emerging Adulthood
Intimacy versus Isolation
• Intimacy: capacity to make a full
commitment
• Isolation: inability to connect with others
in meaningful ways
Exploration and Experimentation
• work, lifestyle, worldviews
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Challenges of Midlife
Peak period of life as opposed to “over the
hill”
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Generativity
• To make meaningful and lasting
contributions to family, work, society, or
future generations
Most do not undergo a midlife crisis.
Most do not experience the “empty nest
syndrome.”
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Late Adulthood:
The Age of Integrity
According to Erikson, the final crisis
involves ego-identity vs. despair.
Ego-Identity
• The ability to look back on life without
regrets and to enjoy a sense of wholeness
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Late Adulthood Developmental Issues
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Vision
Hearing
Thinking, learning, and problem solving
Memory
Sexual functioning
Social interaction
Emotions
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Keys to Successful Aging
• Social contact/support
• Physical activity
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