Global Marketing Management, 4e
Chapter 4 & 6
Global Cultural
Environment and Buying
(pp. 122(2)-140(1))
Global Marketing
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1. Defining Culture(문화의 정의)
2. Elements of Culture(문화의 요소)
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons(문화간
4. Adapting to Cultures(문화에 적응)
5. Cultures and the Marketing Mix(문화와
마케팅 믹스)
6. Organizational Cultures(조직문화)
7. Introduction of Global Marketing
Research(글로벌 마케팅조사 개요)
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 Buyer behavior and consumer needs are largely driven by
cultural norms(구매자행동 및 소비자 니즈는 상당부분 문화적
행동 양식에 의해 결정).
 Global business means dealing with consumers, strategic
partners, distributors, and competitors with different cultural
mindsets(글로벌 비즈니스는 다른 문화적 사고방식을 갖고 있는
소비자, 전략적 파트너, 유통업자 및 경쟁자와의 관계를 의미).
 Within a given culture, consumption processes can include four
stages: access, buying behavior, consumption characteristics,
and disposal (한 문화 내에서 소비과정은 네 단계로 구성: 접근,
구매행동, 소비특성, 처분) (see Exhibit 4-1).
 Each of these stages is heavily influenced by the culture in
which the consumer thrives(소비과정의 각 단계는 소비자가
성장한 그 문화에 의해서 엄청난 영향을 받음).
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1. Definition of Culture
 There are numerous definitions of culture. In this text,
culture (in a business setting) is defined as being a
learned, shared, compelling, interrelated set of symbols
whose meanings provide a set of orientations for
members of society(사회구성원의 일련의 행동양식에
의미를 제공하는, 학습되고, 공유되고, 따르지 않을 수
없고, 서로 연관된 상징들의 체계).
 Cultures may be defined by national borders, especially
when countries are isolated by natural barriers(국가가
특히 자연적 장벽에 의해서 고립된 경우에는 문화는
국경에 의해서 완전히 달리 정의될 수 있음).
 Cultures contain subcultures that have little in common
with one another(문화는 공통성이 없는 하위문화를 함유).
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. Elements of Culture
 Culture consists of many interrelated components(상호
연관된 여러 요소들). Knowledge of a culture requires a
deep understanding of its different parts. Following are
the elements of culture:
– Material life(물질적인 삶) (technologies that are used
to produce, distribute, and consume goods and
services: 재화와 서비스의 생산, 유통 및 소비에
사용되는 기술)
– Language(언어) (language has two parts: the spoken
and the silent language: 명시적 언어와 묵시적 언어)
– Social Interaction(사회적 상호작용) (social
interactions among people; nuclear family, extended
family; reference groups: 준거집단)
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. Elements of Culture
– Aesthetics(미학) (ideas and perceptions that a culture
upholds in terms of beauty and good taste: 아름다움과
고상함에 대해서 갖고 있는 사고나 인식)
– Religion(종교) (community’s set of beliefs that relate to
a reality that cannot be verified empirically; 실증적으로
확인될 수 없는 존재와 관련된, 집단의 신념체계)
– Education(교육) (One of the major vehicles to channel
from one generation to the next; 한 세대에서 다음
세대로 이어지는 소통의 주요 수단)
– Value System(가치체계) (values shape people’s norms
and standards; 사람들의 행동 양식과 기준을 형성하는
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons
(문화간 비교)
 Cultures differ from one another, but usually share certain
aspects(각국의 문화는 다르지만 공통된 측면도 있음).
Recent social psychology research reveal key cultural
differences between East (high) and West (low) context
cultures in how people perceive reality and reasoning(최근
사회심리학 연구는 사람들의 현실 인식과 사고 방식에서
핵심적인 문화차이를 발견) (see below).
 High-context cultures(암시적 문화): Interpretation of
messages rests on contextual cues(문맥상 단서들에
의존하여 메시지를 해석); e.g., China, Korea, Japan.
 Low-context cultures(명시적 문화): Put the most emphasis
on written or spoken words(써 있거나 말해진 그 단어들을
가장 중시); e.g., USA, Scandinavia, Germany.
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Contextual Background of Various Countries
High context
Latin American
English (UK)
English (US)
Low context
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons
(문화간 비교)
 Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Classification
Scheme(홉스테드의 분화분류체계) (see Exhibits 47A & 4-7B):
– Power distance(권력의 거리): The degree of
inequality among people that is viewed as being
equitable(권력분포의 불평등관계를 수용하는 정도)
– Uncertainty avoidance(불확실성 회피성향): The
extent to which people in a given culture prefer
structured situations with clear rules over
unstructured ones(불확실한 상황에 비해서 확실한
상황을 선호하려는 정도)
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons
– Individualism(개인주의 성향): The degree to
which people prefer to act as individuals rather
than group members(집단의 구성원보다는
개인으로서 활동하는 것을 선호하는 정도).
– Masculinity(남성성 정도): The importance of
“male” values (assertiveness, success,
competitive drive, achievement) versus “female”
values (solidarity, quality of life) (여성성 가치에
비해서 남성성 가치의 중요성).
– Long-term orientation versus short-term
focus(장기지향성): Future versus past and
present orientations
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons
 Project GLOBE (Global Leadership and
Organizational Behavior Effectiveness)
– Project GLOBE is a large-scale ongoing
research project that explores cultural values
and their impact on organizational
leadership(문화적 가치와 조직 리더쉽에 대한
영향) in 62 countries (see Exhibit 4-8).
– The first three dimensions (uncertainty
avoidance, power distance, and collectivism)
are the same as Hofstede’s constructs.
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons
– The remaining six dimensions include:
collectivism II(집단내 결속), gender
egalitarianism(양성평등), assertiveness(대립성),
future orientation(미래지향성), performance
orientation(성과지향성), and humane
 World Value Survey:
– The WVS is organized by the University of
– The WVS has been conducted multiple times
and the population covered is much broader
than in other
similar studies.
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Cross-Cultural Comparisons
 The WVS encompasses two broad categories:
traditional versus secular values, and the quality of
life (see Exhibit 4-9).
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
4. Adaptation to Cultures
 Global marketers need to become sensitive to
cultural biases that influence their thinking,
behavior, and decision making.
 Self-reference criterion (SRC: 자기중심적 선입견):
Refers to the people’s unconscious tendency to
resort to their own cultural experience and value
systems to interpret a given business situation.
 Ethnocentrism(자민족중심주의) refers to the
feeling of one’s own cultural superiority.
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
5. Culture and the Marketing Mix
Culture is a key pillar of the marketplace.
Product Policy: Certain products are more
culture-bound(문화결합적) than other products.
Food, beverages, and clothing products tend to
be very culture-bound.
 Pricing: Pricing policies are driven by four Cs:
– Customers(고객)
– Company (costs, objectives, strategy)(기업)
– Competition (경쟁)
– Collaborators (e.g., distributors)(협력기업)
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
5. Culture and the Marketing Mix
Distribution(유통): Cultural variables may also
dictate distribution strategies.
Promotion(촉진): Promotion is the most visible
marketing mix(가장 두드러진 마케팅믹스).
Culture will typically have a major influence on a
firm’s communication strategy. Local cultural
taboos and norms(문화적 금기사항 및 행동양식)
also influence advertising styles.
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
6. Organizational Cultures
 Organizational Culture(조직문화): Most companies
are characterized by their organizational
(corporate) culture.
 A model of organizational culture types includes
the following four cultures (see Exhibit 4-11):
– Clan culture(관계지향문화)
– Adhocracy culture(혁신지향문화)
– Hierarchy culture(위계지향문화)
– Market culture(과업지향문화)
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
6. Organizational Cultures
Chapter 4
Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
7. Introduction of Global Marketing Research
글로벌 시장조사
 Given the complexity of the global marketplace, solid
marketing research is critical for a host of global
marketing decisions.
 Most of the cultural blunders(문화적 실수) in global
marketing stem from inadequate marketing research.
 Six steps in conducting global market research:
1. Define the research problem(s)(문제의 정의)
2. Develop a research design(조사의 설계)
3. Determine information needs(필요정보결정)
4. Collect the Data (secondary and primary)(자료의 수집)
5. Analyze the data and interpret the results(자료분석 및
6. Report and present the findings of the study(연구결과의
보고 및 발표)
Chapter 6
Copyright (c) John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
7. Introduction of Global Marketing Research
 Major challenges faced by global marketing
1. Complexity of research design due to environmental
differences(환경차이에 따른 시장조사설계상 어려움)
2. Lack and inaccuracy of secondary data(2차자료의 부족
및 부정확성)
3. Time and cost requirements to collect primary data
4. Coordination of multicountry research efforts
5. Difficulty in establishing comparability(비교가능성)
across multi-country studies
Chapter 6
Copyright (c) John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
See you next week!
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