Terrorism defined…
 The calculated use of violence to instill fear, intended
to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit
of a goal.
Goals of Terrorism
 Political Terrorism
 Religious Terrorism
 Ideological Terrorism
Political Terrorism
 Focuses on
governments. Usually
the terrorists
disagree with a
 World Trade Center & Pentagon bombings - 2001
 USS Cole bombing in Yemen - 2000
 U.S. Embassy attacks in Africa - 1998
 World Trade Center Bombing - 1993
 Bombing of U.S. Army Barracks in Beiruit,
Lebanon - 1983
Religious Terrorism
 Groups feel that their religion is the one true
religion and others are false. Focuses on
attacking other religious groups or non-religious
groups who they feel try to undermine theirs.
Middle East: Jews vs. Palestinians (Muslims)
Hostage Crisis at Munich Olympics - 1972
Ireland: Catholics vs. Protestants
Ideological Terrorism
 Focuses on Beliefs,
theories, and aims of
a particular group.
People commit
terrorist acts because
of their belief in a
certain cause.
 Oklahoma City Federal Building bombing - 1995
 Killing of Abortion Doctors
 Environmental Terrorism
 Militia Groups - unofficial groups of armed
Oklahoma City Bombing
Most common methods
used by Terrorists
 Bombings
 Armed Attacks
 Assassinations
 Kidnappings
Why do they commit
acts of terror?
 Rational Motivation
 Actions --> Desired result
 Psychological Motivation
 Belief that their view is
 Need to belong
 Justification of their own
 To be a “martyr”
 Cultural Motivation
 Culture feels threat to
 Deeply rooted values in
Major Terrorist Groups
 Al-Qaeda: loosely knit group around world
 Hamas: Palestinian group opposed to Israel
 Hezbollah: Palestinian group opposed to Israel
 PLO: Palestine Liberation Organization
**Each of these groups are fighting a holy war or
 IRA: Irish Republican Army: Irish Catholic group
whose aim is to get England out of Northern Ireland
Irish Republican Army
Terrorism in the future
 Higher levels of violence
 Increased technological capabilities
 More use of chemical & biological warfare
 Chemical - toxins (mustard gas, nerve gas, etc)
 Biological - anthrax, plague, small pox, ebola
 Ecological Terrorism
 I.e. blowing up dams, attacks on oil companies