Two categories of decision making models
Two categories of decision making models
• Descriptive Theories describe or explain the
choices that an individual
makes when deciding on
career choices; usually
based on adolescent or
adult decision making.
• Example: spiritual
approach – life and
career are related
• Prescriptive Theories focus on the ideal
approach to decision
making; originate with
psychological decision
making theory or
observations of cognitive
decision making
• Example: Peterson et
al.’s cognitive
information processing
Personal and Common Realities
• Reality concerns the awareness of one’s
career decision-making
– Personal reality - an individual’s sense of
what is right
– Common reality - what others say the
individual should do
• Spirit – an essential principle that gives
life to physical being
• See work as a place where one’s spirit
can be nourished and person can develop
• When individuals experience the
wholeness of living; spirituality develops
Lifecareer Theory (Miller-Tiedeman)
• Sees each person as his own theory maker
• You are not looking for a career, you have one¼life is
our career
• By trusting inner wisdom that comes from your
intellectual ability, previous experiences, and intuition
into past experiences, you can experience your career
• Lifecareer is the dynamic lived-in-the-moment process
defined by each person in individual moments
• The client decides what works and what doesn’t, not the
Seven themes that people can use to better
understand their lives and the career decisions
that are a part of their lives
Change - when change occurs by chance, it is called synchronocity; can be internal or
external; many feelings and emotions
Balance - seek balance; it is natural to maintain balance between work, play, and other
Energy - needed in order to bring about change and balance in one’s life; many sources of
energy (from others, from self, etc.)
Community - 3 types: (1) communities of companionship – immediate and extended family,
Calling - finding one’s ideal work
Harmony - finding the work that will bring about a true sense of appreciation and
Unity - to believe in unity is to trust the universe
close friends, (2) communities of culture – neighbors, classmates, coworkers, (3) cosmic
community – those which concern large ideas, such as environment, poor, etc.
A Holistic Approach to Life Planning - Hansen
• Task 1: Finding Work that Needs Doing in a Changing Global
• Task 2: Weaving our Lives into a Meaningful Whole
• Task 3: Connecting Family and Work
• Task 4: Valuing Pluralism in Individuality
• Task 5: Managing Personal Transitions and Organizational Change
• Task 6: Exploring Spirituality and Life Purpose
• Spiritual approach - Focus on internal
decision-making process
• Be aware of different approach to
decision-making fo counselor and client
• Avoid “shoulds”, attend to client’s
personal reality
• Peterson et al. – tried to help individuals
understand the way that they think and how
that influences their career decision making
Prescriptive point of view
• - prescribe or suggest ways that
individuals can think about career
decision making that will improve their
ability to make good career decisions
Four assumptions:
• 1. Both affect and cognitive processing are important
components of career decision making.
• 2. Individuals not only need to know about themselves and the
world of work, but also information about thinking and how it
affects decision making.
• 3. Information about self and the world of work is constantly
• 4. By improving one’s information processing capabilities,
clients can improve their career problem-solving abilities.
The Pyramid of Information
• Based on Sternberg’s approach to understanding
human intelligence; Three basic components:
• knowledge domain (knowing oneself and knowing
about world of work),
• decision-making skills domain (learn how to make
• and the executive processing domain (become aware of
how their thoughts influence their decisions)
Decision-Making Skills
The capabilities that enable people to process information about themselves and
occupations. Also known as CASVE:
Communication – when people get input from within themselves or from
the environment, the communication process begins
Analysis – examining the self-knowledge and occupational knowledge
Synthesis – when information is analyzed, then people can pursue courses
of action; synthesizing information through elaborating or crystallizing
what they have analyzed
Valuing – the client evaluates or values possible actions or career
Execution – once choices have been evaluated or have undergone the
valuing process, then a plan or strategy can be formulated to implement
the choice
The Executive Processing
Domain – top section of pyramid;
refers to higher order functions
• Three major ways of decision making
– Self-Talk - internal messages that we give ourselves about
career choice and other issues; can be positive or negative
– Self-Awareness - individuals can be more effective problem
solvers when they are aware of what they are doing and why
they are doing it
– Monitoring and Control - people can monitor the way in which
they go through the CASVE process and control how much time
they give to each of these stages or phases
The Career Thoughts Inventory
• Three scales
• Decision-Making Confusion - indicates the difficulty that
individuals have in initiating or sustaining career
decision making; relates to difficulties involved in CAS
steps of CASVE
• External Conflict - difficulty in balancing one’s own
views of information about self and occupations with
the views of others; relates to V in CASVE
• Commitment Anxiety - fear or anxiety that comes with
the difficulty in implementing a career choice and
addressing problems in moving from the valuing stage
to the execution stage
Seven-Step Service Delivery Sequence
Represents a structured model of career counseling that is more
organized than most
Initial Interview – information is gathered about client’s career
problem; rapport; CASVE explained
Preliminary Assessment – screening instrument (e.g. Career
Thoughts Inventory) is given and readiness for counseling is assessed.
Define Problem and Analyze Causes – problem is clarified and
defined so that goals can be developed
Formulate Goals – together form goals; Goals become basis for
Individual Learning Plan (ILP)
Develop Individual Learning Plan – together develop an ILP that lists
the activities that are to be completed by the client in order to achieve her
Execute Individual Learning Plan – with counselor’s help, clients
follow through on the ILP which is integrated with the CASVE cycle
Summarize Review and Generalization – after client has completed
ILP, together discuss progress towards reaching goals
• Cognitive Information Processing Theory
Avoid too much structure
Consider seven step delivery model
Decide whether or not to assess career
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