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Human Growth
and Development
Part 2
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Integrated Approach to Human
Growth and Development
Magnusson and Cairns proposed the following
principles for conceptualizing human growth
and development:
An individual develops and functions as an
integrated organism. The effects of maturation, experience, and cultural influences are
fused; single aspects do not develop in
isolation and cannot be separated from the
An individual develops and functions in a
continuous and dynamic process of interaction
with his/her environment and with other
individuals, groups, and the subculture.
Individual functioning is determined by (and
also influences) the reciprocal interactions
among subsystems within the individual (i.e.,
interactions among perceptual, cognitive,
emotional, and physiological subsystems over
Novel or unique patterns of individual functioning arise during individual development.
Differences in rate of development of
individual components may produce major
differences in the organization and
configuration of psychological functions.
Patterns of psychological functioning are
sensitive to the conditions under which they
were developed. Therefore, patterns cannot be
attributed solely to the structural organization
of subsystems within the individual.
Social and cognitive development follow
organized patterns despite continuous
Theories of human growth and development, all
based on models of healthy human functioning,
are presented next:
Erikson’s epigenetic theory
Maslow’s need hierarchy
Loevinger’s stages of ego development
Jahoda’s characteristics of mental health
Havighurst’s developmental tasks
Social learning theories
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
Perry’s model of cognitive development for
college-age students
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
Gilligan’s theory of women’s moral
Theories of racial identity development
Super’s theory of career development
Adult development and transitions
Family development
Erik H. Erikson
Erikson focused on psychosocial development
that covered the lifespan and was applicable
across cultures, although he was more
successful at the former.
Erikson viewed the life cycle as an eight stage
developmental staircase in which each step
must be mastered before the individual could
move on effectively to the next step.
Erikson viewed the eight steps as provided by
society to help the person move through the life
cycle within the society.
Erikson’s eight stages represent successive age
periods, each of which contains a critical issue
with which the individual must contend.
Erikson identified the successful and
unsuccessful resolution of each stage and the
value achieved through successful resolution of
each stage.
Erikson’s Eight Stages:
Successful Unsuccessful
Trust vs Mistrust
Autonomy vs Shame
Initiative vs Guilt
Elem Sch
Industry vs Inferiority
Identity vs Role Confusion
Young Adult
Intimacy vs Isolation
Middle Adult Generativity vs Stagnation Care
Late Adult
Integrity vs Despair
Abraham H. Maslow
Maslow believed that successful development
meant meeting effectively a series of needs
arranged in a hierarchy.
Needs lower in the hierarchy were considered
more potent.
Maslow proposed that lower order needs must
be fulfilled effectively before the person could
move on to attempt to fulfill higher order needs.
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy:
Belongingness and love
Maslow studied “self-actualized” people and
found them to:
be realistically oriented
be accepting of themselves and others
be spontaneous
be problem-, rather than self-, centered
have a need for privacy
be autonomous and independent
have a fresh, nonstereotypical appreciation of things in their environment
have spiritual experiences
identify with humanity
Self-actualized people continued
have deep emotional relationships with
a few specially loved people
hold democratic values
not confuse means with ends
have philosophical, non-hostile sense
of humor
be highly creative
resist full conformity to the culture
Jane Loevinger
Loevinger proposed four “streams” of human
development: physical, drive, intellectual, and
ego development.
Loevinger focused most of her work on three
aspects of ego development: impulse control and
character development, interpersonal style, and
conscious preoccupations.
Loevinger proposed a seven-stage ego
development sequence:
1. Presocial/Symbiotic, wherein the issue is
distinction between the self and nonself.
In the Presocial substage, animate and
inanimate parts of the environment
are not distinguished.
In the Symbiotic substage, mother is
distinguished from the environment
but the self is not distinguished from
the mother.
2. Impulsive, in which the child distinguishes
separate existence from the mother by exercise
of will. Impulse control is lacking. Interpersonal style is exploitive and dependent. There is
preoccupation with sexual and aggressive drives.
3. Opportunistic, in which rules are obeyed in
anticipation of immediate advantage. Morality
is based in expediency. Interpersonal relations
are manipulative. There is preoccupation with
controlling others.
4. Conformist, in which rules are partially
internalized. The sanction for transgression is
shame. Interpersonal relationships are
superficially reciprocal. There is a
preoccupation with appearance, reputation,
and material possessions.
5. Conscientious, in which morality is
internalized and controlled by moral
imperatives. The sanction for transgression is
guilt. Interpersonal relationships are intense
and responsible. There is preoccupation with
inner feelings and achievements.
6. Autonomous, in which impulse control is no
longer problematic. Moral issues include coping
with inner conflict and tolerating differences.
Interpersonal relationships show concern for
maintaining autonomy. There is preoccupation
with role definition and self-fulfillment.
7. Integrated, in which conflicts are reconciled
and unattainable goals renounced.
Interpersonal relationships cherish
individuality. There is preoccupation with
achievement of an integrated identity.
In Loevinger’s model, people achieve higher
levels by using more adaptive defense
Few people achieve the last two stages, but the
model offers an ideal to strive for.
Marie Jahoda
Jahoda defined adult positive mental health as
persons having:
positive attitudes toward self
integrated psychological functioning
personal autonomy or independence
adequate perception of reality
mastery over personal environment.
Robert J. Havighurst
Havighurst proposed a six-stage model of
developmental tasks to be mastered in order to
achieve healthy and effective growth and
Havighurst proposed that specific tasks had
to be learned at each stage and, therefore,
also had to be taught effectively to each
person at the appropriate time in her or his
For example, the tasks for Havighurst’s first
developmental stage, Infancy and Early
Childhood (about ages 0 - 6), include:
Learning to walk
Learning to eat solid food
Learning to talk
Learning to control elimination of bodily
Learning sex differences and sexual modesty
Forming concepts and learning language to
describe physical and social reality
Infancy and Early Childhood Tasks continued
Getting ready to read
Learning to distinguish right and
wrong and beginning to develop
a conscience
Havighurst’s other stages include:
Middle Childhood, about ages 6 - 12
Adolescence, about ages 12 - 18
Early Adulthood, about ages 18 - 30
Middle Age, about ages 30 - 60
Later Maturity, beyond age 60
Social Learning Theories
Social learning theories hold that people
develop patterns of behavior by observing and
interacting with other people.
As with other learning theories, social learning
theories hold that some behaviors are reinforced
and thus are continued (learned), and some are
not reinforced and tend to be extinguished.
The differentiating characteristic of social
learning theories is the premise that learning
can be vicarious (i.e., achieved by observing
the behaviors of others).
If the observed behavior of a “model” results in
what is perceived to be a positive reinforcement,
the person is likely to attempt to imitate the
The greater the person’s identification with the
model, the more likely the attempt at imitative
Bandura proposed a five-step model for
learning modeled behavior:
1. Paying attention to the model
2. Coding the observed (behavior)
3. Retaining the coded information in
4. Carrying out the modeled behavior
5. Maintaining motivation to engage in
the behavior
Applications of social learning theories are
typically most useful for helping persons to
develop new skills and behavior patterns.
Social learning theories are particularly
useful for counseling to the extent that
counseling is viewed as a psychoeducational
Jean Piaget
Piaget was particularly concerned with
cognitive development, focusing on the
individual’s capacities to accommodate to
external reality, to incorporate information
about that process into intellectual structures,
and to organize those structures into schema
that would permit the individual to solve
Piaget held that new experiences were either
interpreted in terms of existing cognitive
schema (i.e., assimilation) or caused existing
schema to be modified to incorporate the
new information (i.e., accommodation).
Piaget proposed that cognitive development
occurs across four sequential, age-related
stages; each of which builds on accomplishments from the preceding stage.
In the Sensory-Motor stage, ages birth - 2, the
person learns to make adaptive responses to
the environmental stimuli.
In the Preoperational Thought stage, ages 2 6, the person develops the ability to
conceptualize the environment, but the
interpretation is self-centered and not yet
realistic, inclusive, logical, or critical.
In the Concrete Operations stage, ages 6 - 11,
the person develops an organized system of
logical categories for use in conceptualizing
and coping with the present environment.
In the period of Formal Operations, ages 11 15, the person develops the capacity to
formulate hypotheses and to test predictions
about future situations using logic, abstract
thinking, and the capacity to consider
alternatives and possible consequences.
William Perry
Perry developed a sequential, nine-stage
(position) model of cognitive development
specifically applicable to college students.
Perry’s model essentially continues from
where Piaget’s conceptualizations stopped
(i.e., during late adolescence).
The nine positions in Perry’s model are
grouped into four levels.
Level I: Dualism, in which the person views the
world in terms of absolute right or wrong; the
learner’s role is to receive “truth,” and thus the
learner may encounter difficulty with conflicting
Position 1: The world is viewed in polar,
absolute terms.
Position 2: Diversity of opinion is perceived,
but rejected as confusion among unqualified
Level II: Multiplicity, in which the person
acknowledges the possibility of multiple
viewpoints, but lacks criteria to evaluate the
merits of coexisting, and possibly conflicting,
Position 3: Diversity and uncertainty are
viewed as legitimate, but temporary.
Position 4: Uncertainty is perceived as
extensive, and knowledge is viewed as just
personal opinion.
Level III: Relativism, in which the person
views knowledge as relative and not connected
with the concepts of truth or rightness; truth
emerges from both personal experience and
external argument.
Position 5: Knowledge and values are
viewed as relativistic and contextual.
Position 6: The person accepts the need to
establish a personal orientation in a
relativistic world by making some sort of
Level IV: Commitment in Relativism, in
which the person accepts responsibility and
commits to an identity in regard to both an
internal value system and external choices,
such as career or life partner.
Position 7: Initial commitments are made.
Position 8: Implications of commitments
are experienced and issues of responsibility
are explored.
Position 9: Identity is affirmed and
commitment is expressed through lifestyle and
personal values.
Lawrence Kohlberg
Kohlberg was concerned with moral
development, which he viewed as existing over
three sequential developmental levels, each
having two stages.
The first developmental level generally occurs
during childhood, while the last two generally
occur during adolescence or adulthood,
although not all persons achieve the upper
Level I: Preconventional Morality, in which
consequences to the self guide moral behavior.
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment
Orientation, in which the person fears being
caught and the subsequent punishment;
severity of punishment determines badness of
the act.
Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation,
in which rules are followed to satisfy personal
needs; the only obligatory behavior is that
which serves the person.
Level II: Conventional Morality, in which
concern for meeting socially-defined
expectations guides moral behavior.
Stage 3: Interpersonal Concordance
Orientation, in which behavior is conducted
to please and gain approval from others.
Stage 4: Authority, Law, and Duty Orientation,
in which rules are viewed as necessary to
maintain social order, and therefore must be
obeyed for the common good.
Level III: Postconventional Morality, in
which behavior is guided by self-imposed
commitment to moral principles.
Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation, in
which moral principles are examined and
agreed upon by society as a whole but can be
changed by consensus.
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles
Orientation, in which behavior is guided by
self-chosen ethical principles that place high
value on human life, equality, and dignity.
Carol Gilligan
Gilligan offered a theory of moral development
for females as an alternative to Kohlberg’s,
which she determined was applicable primarily
to males.
Gilligan suggested that Kohlberg’s theory was
less appropriate for females because male
development is focused on separation and
individuation, whereas female development is
focused on connections and relationships.
Gilligan also suggested that males base their
morality on principles of justice and
individual rights, whereas females base their
morality on principles of care-giving and
responsibility for self and others.
Gilligan proposed that female moral
development occurred across a sequence of
three levels, with an identified transition
between levels.
Level I: Orientation to Individual Survival,
in which the focus is on the self and
survival. Moral considerations arise only
when needs are in conflict.
First Transition: From Selfishness to
Responsibility, in which the self is defined
in terms of connections with others.
Level II: Goodness as Self-Sacrifice, in which
the view of women as caretakers becomes
predominant. Moral judgments are defined
from social norms, self-sacrifice is viewed as
goodness, and need for approval is joined with
desire to take care of others.
Second Transition: From Goodness to Truth,
in which there is striving to encompass the
needs of both self and others, intention and
consequences of action are viewed as
important, and increased attention is given to
personal responsibility.
Level III: The Morality of Nonviolence, in
which conflicts between selfishness and
responsibility are resolved by adopting
principles of not hurting self or others.
In Level III, caregiving is viewed as a selfchosen universal moral obligation, and
therefore the person takes responsibility for
choices made.
This concludes Part 2 of the
presentation on