Governance in Singapore

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Governance in Singapore
1.
2.
3.
4.
Introduction
Guiding principles of governance
Population growth in Singapore
Ageing population in Singapore
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Introduction
 The basic function of a government is to meet
the needs of the nation and its people
 The government does this by making decisions
and policies
 The way the government manages the
resources of the country is known as
governance
 So when a government does a good job in
managing the country, we say ‘there is good
governance’
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Guiding principles of governance
We are going to study why the government
makes those decisions i.e. the guiding principles
of governance in Singapore because…
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5
Singapore practises
representative democracy
1. An election is held every five years
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. During the election, the people will decide
who they will vote to represent them.
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
National Solidarity Party
(NSP)
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The Workers’ Party
(WP)
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People’s Action Party
(PAP)
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3. The candidates with the most number of votes
will serve as Members of Parliament (MPs).
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4. The leader of the political party with the most
number of MPs in the parliament will become
the Prime Minister.
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
Singapore’s system of government
 The people of Singapore have the power and
responsibility to choose the right leaders for
Singapore
 The government in Singapore is made up of 3
branches
1. Legislature
– Makes laws
2. Executive
– Enforces the laws
3. Judiciary
- Ensures laws are carried out fairly
(Refer to textbook)
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. ‘Leadership
is
Key’
2. ‘Anticipate
change &
stay relevant’
Guiding
principles
of
governance
4. ‘A stake
for everyone,
opportunities
for all’
3. ‘Reward for work
&
work for reward’
15
Sample Question
Here are four guiding principles of governance in
Singapore:
1.
2.
3.
4.
‘Leadership is key’
‘Anticipate change and stay relevant’
‘Reward for work and work for reward’
‘A stake for everyone, opportunities for all’
Which one do you think is the most important? Explain
your answer.
[12]
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. ‘Leadership is Key’
Description:
 ‘Leadership is key’ is an important guiding
principle of governance.
 This means that Singapore looks for capable
and honest people to be our leaders
 Our leaders need to possess moral courage and
integrity to do what is right and not what is
popular
 Besides talent and ability, leaders are also
selected based on their good character
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. ‘Leadership is Key’
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1. ‘Leadership is Key’
19
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1. ‘Leadership is Key’
Explanation:
 ‘Leadership is key’ is an important guiding
principle of governance because good leaders
will be able to make the right decisions and
ensure smooth running of the country
 At the same time, they are able to win the
respect and confidence of the people
 This then leads to prosperity and progress for
the country as the people are supportive of the
government and its policies
21
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. ‘Leadership is Key’
 Thus, the polices that the government
implements will be well-received by the people
and everyone will work together for the
growth of the country
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. ‘Leadership is Key’
 Examples of good leaders in Singapore include
Lee Hsien Loong and Goh Chok Tong who
served as Prime Ministers of Singapore
 Under their leadership, Singapore enjoyed
many years of peace and prosperity
 In this way, ‘leadership is key’ is an important
guiding principle of governance in Singapore
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. ‘Anticipate change and stay relevant’
Description:
‘Anticipate change and stay relevant’
is an important guiding principle of
governance in Singapore.
This means that Singapore is forwardlooking and makes decisions in
anticipation of future challenges
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
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2. ‘Anticipate change and stay relevant’
 Examples of how the government prepares for
the future are NEWater and the building of the
Integrated Resorts (IR)
 Singapore’s water agreement with Malaysia
ends in 2061
 In anticipation of the need to have our own
supply of water, the government produced
NEWater
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. ‘Anticipate change and stay relevant’
 The decision to build the IRs is another
example of how Singapore anticipate changes
 Building the IRs enable us to have a
competitive edge over the other countries in
the tourism industry
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. ‘Anticipate change and stay relevant’
Explanation:
 ‘Anticipate change and stay relevant’ is an
important guiding principle because when we
plan ahead, we are well-prepared to meet
future challenges
 Then, Singapore will not be caught off-guard
by unforeseen circumstances
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
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2. ‘Anticipate change and stay relevant’
 This ensures that our economy will
continuously be able to grow and prosper
 When that happens, Singapore’s future is
guaranteed
 In this way, ‘anticipate change and stay
relevant’ is an important guiding principle of
governance in Singapore
30
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. ‘Reward for work and work for reward
Description:
 ‘Reward for work and work for reward’ is an
important guiding principle of governance in
Singapore.
 Meritocracy is a key part of this principle
 Meritocracy means a system that rewards hard
work and talent
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. ‘Reward for work and work for reward
 It helps to give everyone in society an equal
opportunity to achieve their best and be
rewarded for their performance
 For example, the Edusave Scholarship and
Merit Bursary Schemes reward the top 10% and
25% of students in schools
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. ‘Reward for work and work for reward
Explanation:
 ‘Reward for work and work for reward’ is an
important guiding principle of governance
because it gives every Singaporean a fair
chance to succeed
 Singaporeans know that their talents and
abilities will be recognised and they will be
rewarded
 They will then be encouraged to put in their
best and work hard
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
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3. ‘Reward for work and work for reward
 When everyone puts in their best, Singapore as
a nation will then be able to continue to grow
and achieve success
 Also, there will be racial harmony and social
stability as meritocracy rewards talents,
regardless of race, religion and socio-economic
background
 In this way, ‘reward for work and work for
reward’ is an important guiding principle of
governance in Singapore
34
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. ‘A stake for everyone, opportunities for all’
Description:
 ‘A stake for everyone, opportunities for all’ is an
important guiding principle of governance for
Singapore
 This means that Singaporeans can have a say in
making decision for the country
 For example, many people could voice their
concerns about the government’s plan of having a
casino as part of an Integrated Resort
 This will help to develop in them a greater sense of
belonging
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
35
4. ‘A stake for everyone, opportunities for all’
Explanation:
 ‘A stake for everyone, opportunities for all’ is
an important guiding principle of governance
for Singapore because citizen will have a sense
of ownership and belonging to Singapore
 Every community is treated fairly in Singapore
so that the interests of the various
communities are kept in balance
 Thus, an inclusive society is created
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. ‘A stake for everyone, opportunities for all’
 Citizens will then develop a sense of loyalty and
patriotism
 This will cause them to be rooted to Singapore
 When everyone feels strongly that they are a part of
Singapore, they will be more eager to contribute to
the country
 Then, they will work together for the growth and
prosperity of the country
 In this way, ‘a stake for everyone, opportunities for all’
is an important guiding principle of governance for
Singapore
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
Implementation of the 4 Principles
We will now learn how these principles help
shape the polices to manage:
A. Population growth in Singapore
B. Ageing population in Singapore
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
Video:
Watch the following video to find out more
about the issue of ageing population in
Singapore
http://vimeo.com/45302314
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(A) Population growth in Singapore
 Singapore’s population grew rapidly in 1950s
and 60s
 A rapidly growing population posed many
problems for Singapore
 From 1966 to 1981, three five-year plan were
implemented to control population growth
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
(A) Population growth in Singapore
 By 1980, the fertility rate hit 1.82 children per
woman
 A population that is too small has potential
problems too
 Refer to textbook page 45 - 46
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
Reasons for the need to promote
population growth in Singapore
1. Unattractive to MNCs
2. Ageing population
3. Defence
42
Sample Question
Here are three reasons for the need to promote
population growth in Singapore:
1. Unattractive to MNCs
2. Ageing population
3. Defence
Which one do you think is the most significant? Explain
your answer.
[12]
43
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. Unattractive to multinational companies
Description:
 Becoming unattractive to multinational
companies (MNCs) is a significant reason for
the need to promote population growth in
Singapore
44
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. Unattractive to multinational companies
 With a small population, Singapore would be
unable to produce enough talented people to
sustain its development
 MNCs find it difficult and expensive to recruit
Singaporeans compared to the huge labour
market in countries like China
45
1. Unattractive to multinational companies
 And that will lead to a drop in the standard of
living and quality of life of Singaporeans
 In this way, becoming unattractive to MNCs is a
significant reason for the need to promote
population growth in Singapore
46
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. Unattractive to multinational companies
Explanation:
 Becoming unattractive to MNCs is a significant
reason for the need to promote population
growth in Singapore because without the
investments from MNCs in Singapore, there
would not be growth in Singapore’s economy
 Singapore’s income then will be affected
 This is in turn cause our economy to suffer
47
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Ageing population
Description:
 Ageing population is a significant reason for
the need to promote population growth in
Singapore
 With fewer babies born each year, there would
be fewer young people in the population
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Ageing population
 The number of older people would be
proportionally higher
 This means the country would be faced with an
ageing population
49
2. Ageing population
Explanation:
 Ageing population is a significant reason for
the need to promote population growth in
Singapore because more resources would be
used to take care of the increasing number of
senior citizens
 Resources would be spent in the areas of
healthcare, housing, transport etc
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Ageing population
 This would mean that less resources would be
available for other uses in the country for
example for education and defence
 At the same time, there will also be a reduction
in the labour force as there are now less young
people working in the economy
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Ageing population
 This leads to higher taxes which means less
disposable income for working adults
 In this way, ageing population is a significant
reason for the need to promote population
growth in Singapore
52
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Defence
Description:
 Defence is a significant reason for the need to
promote population growth in Singapore
 With a declining birth rate, there will be fewer
men to recruit for National Service
 The size of our citizen armed force will be
smaller and there will be less soldiers to
defend Singapore
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Defence
Explanation:
 Defence is a significant reason for the need to
promote population growth in Singapore
because Singapore becomes an easy target for
aggressors
 Singapore will also have a weakened defence
force
 Singapore then becomes susceptible and
vulnerable to attacks
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Defence
 When engaged in war, Singapore may be
unable to win easily
 This leads to us potentially losing our
nationhood
 In this way, defence is a significant reason for
the need to promote population growth in
Singapore
55
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. The Graduate
Mothers
Scheme
2. Three or
more if you
can afford it
Ways to
promote
population
growth
4. Attracting
foreign talent
3. Pro-family
measures
56
Sample Question
Here are four ways to promote population growth in
Singapore:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The Graduate Mothers Scheme
Three or more if you can afford it
Pro-family measures
Attracting foreign talent
Which one do you think is the most effective?
Explain your answer.
[12]
57
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. The Graduate Mothers Scheme
Description:
 The Graduate Mothers Scheme (GMS) is an
effective way to promote population growth in
Singapore
 It was suggested by Mr Lee Kuan Yew that
female graduates should have more children
 This is because he felt that there would be a
higher chance of the new generation
workforce being more educated
58
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. The Graduate Mothers Scheme
Explanation:
 The GMS is an effective way to promote
population growth in Singapore because the
incentives given to graduate mothers would
encourage them to be willing to have more babies
 As more babies are born, the population of
Singapore will grow
 In this way, the GMS is an effective way to
promote population growth in Singapore
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. The Graduate Mothers Scheme
(Not part of explanation)
 Unfortunately, the GMS sparked off debate
and unhappiness among the people
 The less-educated were unhappy as they felt
that they would be neglected under the policy
 Eventually, the policy was withdrawn after one
year of implementation in 1985
60
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Three or more if you can afford it
Description:
 Three or more if you can afford it policy is an
effective way to promote population growth in
Singapore
 This policy aimed at bringing Singapore’s
population growth back to the replacement level
of 2.1 children per woman
 To help relieve the financial burden of having
children, the government introduced measures
such as allowing the use of Medisave to pay for
the delivery charges of the first three children
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Three or more if you can afford it
Explanation:
 Three or more if you can afford it policy is an
effective way to promote population growth in
Singapore because the measures help relief the
financial burden of the families
 Married couples would be more willing to have
babies
 In this way, three or more if you can afford it
policy is an effective way to promote population
growth in Singapore
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Three or more if you can afford it
(Not part of explanation)
 Unfortunately, this policy achieved limited
success
 Many married couples continued to have one
or two children
 And many Singaporeans continued to marry at
a later age or remain unmarried
63
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Pro-family measures
Description:
 Pro-family measures is an effective way to
promote population growth in Singapore
 These measures came about as a result of
public feedback
 During the National Day Rally speech in 2004,
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong announced a
package of new marriage and parenthood
measures
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Pro-family measures
 The measures include equalised medical
benefits, grandparent caregiver relief, 5-day
work week for civil service and extended
maternity leave
65
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Pro-family measures
Explanation:
 Pro-family measures is an effective way to
promote population growth in Singapore
because they lighten the burden of young
parents
 The policies allow young parents to spend
more time at home
 And so couples would feel that they are better
able to cope with having children
66
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Pro-family measures
 They would then be willing to have more
babies and this will in turn cause the
population to grow
 In this way, pro-family measures is an effective
way to promote population growth in
Singapore
67
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Pro-family measures
(Not part of explanation)
 Unfortunately, many young couples feel that
monetary aid is not sufficient
 Many feel that the cost of living and pace of life
in Singapore is not suitable for them to have
bigger families
68
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. Attracting foreign talent
Description:
 Attracting foreign talent is an effective way to
promote population growth in Singapore
 In 1989, the government relaxed the
immigration policy to attract foreign talent
with skills to Singapore
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Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. Attracting foreign talent
 Easier entry into Singapore, subsidised housing
and an attractive education package for
children were offered to foreign talent who
were willing to work in Singapore
70
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. Attracting foreign talent
Explanation:
 Attracting foreign talent is an effective way to
promote population growth in Singapore
because many of these foreign talent would
develop an attachment to Singapore
 They would grow used to Singapore and take
up permanent residence or citizenship
71
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. Attracting foreign talent
 That in turn causes our population size to grow
 In this way, attracting foreign talent is an
effective way to promote population growth in
Singapore
72
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. Attracting foreign talent
(Not part of explanation)
 The result of an influx of foreign talents in
Singapore is that our society becomes more
cosmopolitan
 You can find people of different nationalities
living and working in the country
 They have also enriched Singapore’s culture
73
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
(B) Ageing population in Singapore
 Singapore’s population will age rapidly over
the next 30 years
 This is due to post-war baby boomers who by
2030, will be aged 65 years and above,
declining birth rates and Singaporeans are
living longer due to improved health and
nutrition
74
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
(B) Ageing population in Singapore
 An ageing population will result in social,
military and economic impacts on Singapore
 Singapore adopts the ‘Many Helping Hands’
approach where everyone has a part to play in
helping the nation prepare for an ageing
population
 The individual, family, community and
government will all have a role to play
75
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
Sample Question
Here are three ways to manage ageing population in
Singapore:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Individual responsibility
Family support
Community help
Government support
Which one do you think is the most best?
Explain your answer.
[12]
76
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. Individual Responsibility
Description:
 Individual responsibility is a good way to
manage ageing population in Singapore
 To prepare for ageing, an individual is
encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle by
having a balanced diet and regular exercise
 An individual is also encouraged to plan
financially for retirement
77
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. Individual Responsibility
Explanation:
 Individual responsibility is a good way to
manage ageing population in Singapore
because a healthy lifestyle can ensure
longevity and good financial planning will
ensure the senior citizen has enough money to
spend after retirement
78
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
1. Individual Responsibility
 When the individual takes on responsibility to
take of himself after he grows old, this will
relief the burden from the government
 Government’s resources can then be used for
other needs of the nation
 This will in turn benefit the nation as a whole
 In this way, individual responsibility is a good
way to manage ageing population in Singapore
79
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Family support
Description:
 Family support is a good way to manage
ageing population in Singapore
 Family support is an important source of
emotional, social and financial support
 Several measures for example, the Senior
Citizens’ Week and Grandparents’ Day, were
introduced to strengthen family bonds
80
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Family support
Explanation:
 Family support is a good way to manage ageing
population in Singapore because strong
families bring about social stability and
harmony
 This will in turn allow everyone to enjoy peace
in the country
 Elderly folks will appreciate being taken care of
by their own children
81
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
2. Family support
 The families would also be the best people to
take care of the elder because they will know
what he or she needs
 In this way, family support is a good way to
manage ageing population in Singapore
82
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Community support
Description:
 Community support is a good way to manage
ageing population in Singapore
 The community gives social and emotional
support to the senior citizens
 Community support refers to voluntary welfare
organisations that run community-based services
like Ren Ci Hospital and Home Nursing Foundation
for Elders
 They offer free health checks and organise
recreational activities for senior citizens
83
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
3. Community support
Explanation:
 Community support is a good way to manage
ageing population in Singapore because they
help senior citizens remain physically, mentally
and socially active
 When the senior citizens remain healthy, they
will not require as much medical attention
 This lightens the burden on the government
 In this way, community support is a good way
to manage ageing population in Singapore
84
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. Government support
Description:
 Government support is a good way to manage
ageing population in Singapore
 The government made laws and introduced
measures to protect the interests of the senior
citizens
 Some examples include tribunal for the
maintenance of parents, tax relief, central
provident fund (CPF) and public housing schemes
85
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. Government support
Explanation:
 Government support is a good way to manage
ageing population in Singapore because it
reliefs the financial burdens of the families
who have an elderly staying with them
 The CPF ensures that retired elderly have some
money for their old age
86
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
4. Government support
 The elderly can then still be able to lead a
comfortable life after retirement
 In this way, government support is a good way
to manage ageing population in Singapore
87
Governance is too important to be left to the politicians.
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