Politecnico di Milano

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Politecnico di Milano
Dipartimento di Energia– MRT Fuel Cell Lab
1° Workshop Italiano su Celle a Combustibile – 22/23 Ottobre 2012
Department of Energy
AIM
to carry out advanced research
activities on energy sciences and
technologies
STAFF
110 researchers
120 PhD students + young researchers
5 DIVISIONS
Chemical Technologies and Processes - Nanotechnology
Electrical
Nuclear Engineering
Fluid Dynamic Machines, Propulsion & Energy Systems
Thermal Engineering & Environmental Technology
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
MRT Fuel Cell Lab
AIM
To improve PEM Fuel Cell focusing on
transport phenomena, through:
•  understanding of critical phenomena
•  innovative components development
•  operation and life-time optimization
HOW
Combined experiments and modelling approach
Multiscale: components – single cell – system
Research Lines
DMFC – single cell and components
HT-PEM – single cell and components
LT-PEM CHP – system
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
3
4
MRT Fuel Cell Lab
?
STAFF
Andrea Casalegno
Lab Leader
Renzo Marchesi
MRT Group Leader
Fabio Rinaldi
Researcher
Samuele Galbiati
Post-doc fellow
Matteo Zago
Fausto Bresciani
PhD candidate
PhD candidate
Andrea Baricci
PhD candidate
PRODUCTS (since 2005)
ISI journal
15
Master of science thesis
12
PhD thesis
3
Funding (2005-2014)
€ 850’000
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
5
Facilities
2 DMFC single cell setups
•  Overall & anode polarization
•  Mass transport (CO2 & H2O balance)
•  Degradation 24h/24h (anode & overall)
•  Membrane resistance (at 1 kHz AC)
2 HT-PEM single cell setups
•  Overall & anode polarization
•  Mass transport (H2O balance)
Electrochemical measures
•  Degradation 24h/24h (anode & overall)
•  EIS (anode & cathode)
•  Membrane resistance (at 1 kHz AC)
•  CV
•  LSV
Mass transport setup for GDL
•  Gas phase: diffusivity
•  Liquid phase: permeability, capillarity
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
Gas composition - µGC
•  syngas simulation
•  mass balance
6
On going projects
DMFC
2011-2014
PREMIUM ACT – FP7 JTI FCH
Degradation / mass transport
2012-2013
Collaboration with DAPOSY (DK)
Degradation / mass transport
2012-2013
Collaboration with [email protected]
Innovative components
2011-2014
Microgen30 – Industria2015 (?)
Performance / degradation
PEM-CHP
(ICI Caldaie Sidera 30 kWe - 45 kWth)
2009-2014
Real FC – Regione Lombardia
Performance / degradation
2011-2014
STAR – Ricerca di sistema
Optimization
HT-PEFC
FOCUSING ON
DEGRADATION AND MASS TRANSPORT
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
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DMFC: PREMIUM ACT
Partners
CEA, DLR, Polimi, IRD, JRC, ICI, Soprano
Experiments
– degradation of performance in DMFC
Method
– Leader of
How to separate components degradations?
How to distinguish permanent and temporary degradations?
Fundamentals
Which mechanisms are more relevant?
Which is operating condition influence?
– development of accelerated test protocols
How to shorten test?
Modelling
– reproduce degradation in performance and EIS spectra
How to simulate EIS spectra?
Which physic-chemical parameters are affected?
– predictive modelling validation
How to predict and maximize lifetime?
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
DMFC: anode temporary degradation
8
Appropriate cycles give
considerable reduction
Operating conditions (i=0.25 A·cm-2 T=75°C).
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
9
DMFC: degradation mechanisms
Reference MEA anode spectra in
time (i=0.25 A·cm-2 T=75°C)
Linear branch extension and
mass transport effect
Temporary Degradation suspected origin:
consumption of CH3OH and H2O accumulated in GDL
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
Anode EIS spectra modelling
+
,
.
α
#η &
#η &
#
&
% (
% (
Cmet
∂η
∂i
b
(( ⋅ (1− γ CO )⋅ e$ 1 ' + i*2 ⋅ CH 2O ⋅ γ CO ⋅ e$ b2 ' + Cdl ⋅
= i*1 ⋅ %%
∂x
∂t
$ Cref '
Electrode model:
2D dynamic
∂η i
=
∂x σ t
GDL model:
2D dynamic two-phase
multi-mechanisms
∂2 C
∂C
D 2 =ε⋅
∂t
∂x
Γ
∂γ CO
i
i
= x1 − x 2
∂t
4⋅F 2⋅F
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
10
DMFC: Mass transport
Experimental characterization of
pore obstruction
Casalegno, A., Bresciani, F., Groppi, G., Marchesi, R.
2011 J. of Power Sources 196 (24) , pp. 10632-10639
Water transport and flooding
mechanisms modelling
Zago, M., Casalegno, A., Santoro, C., Marchesi, R.
2012 J. of Power Sources 217 , pp. 381-391
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
12
HT-PEM
Collaboration with DAPOSY (DK) on Degradation
PREMIUM ACT approach:
Experiments + Modelling
Collaboration with IIT on Innovative components
New electrode concept
realized by deposition (PLD, sputtering)
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
PEM-CHP
20 ppm
13
320 V
Regione Lombardia 2009-2014
ICI Caldaie Sidera 30 kWe - 45 kWth
EXPERIMENTS FOR
Performance and
degradation
in real conditions
2 ppm
220 V
440 V
System improvement
for next generation CHP
200 V
Ricerca di Sistema 2011-2014
Trigenerative Sidera with desicant cooling
MODELLING for optimal system and operation
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
0A
120 A
!
14
Future projects
TOPICS
Degradation and its origins
expensive, time consuming
Syngas and impurity
expensive
Fundamental models for diagnostics
hard work
STRATEGY
Consolidate our approach
More work with material developers
high risk – high impact
More international partnerships
more stable funding
A. Casalegno - MRT Fuel Cell Lab
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