Kernreactoren – Een overzicht van Generatie III kernreactoren

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KERNREACTOREN –
EEN OVERZICHT VAN GENERATIE
III+ KERNREACTOREN
Frank Bertels – Tractebel Engineering (GDF Suez)
KVAB debatavond: Nieuwe generatie kernreactoren
13 november 2014
CHOOSE EXPERTS, FIND PARTNERS
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KVAB - Overzicht GENIII+ reactoren
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TABLE OF CONTENT
• Introduction
– Generation I
– Generation II
• Generation III/III+
– Origin/definition
– EPR
– AP1000
– Other Designs
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Source: Generation IV International Forum
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INTRODUCTION
Generation I
– Early prototypes of power reactors
– Shippingport, Fermi I, Magnox, Dresden I, …
– BR-3 Mol
• prototype BR-3 PWR
• First PWR built in Europe (1962)
• 11 MWe
– Mostly decommissioned
Source: SCK-CEN
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Source: Generation IV Forum
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INTRODUCTION
Generation II
– PWR (incl. VVER)
• Westinghouse
• Babcock and Wilcox
• Combustion Engineering
• Framatome
• Siemens
• Gidropress
• …
– BWR
– CANDU
–…
Nuclear generating capacity by reactor type, 2013
Source: Word Nuclear Association
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INTRODUCTION
The different technologies
Pressurized water reactors (PWR)
(including VVER)
– The predominant technology
– Uses water as moderator and coolant
– Water is under pressure (155 bar)
– Heat is transferred to the secondary side
via a steam generator
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INTRODUCTION
The different technologies
Boiling water reactors
– Uses water as moderator and
coolant
– Water is boiling
– Turbine hall is controlled area
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GENERATION II+
Belgian NPPs
– Doel & Tihange
– Westinghouse & Framatome design
– Original Advanced Features:
• Double wall containment
• Liner on primary containment
• Bunkered safeguard systems
• Air plane crash
• Explosion Pressure Wave
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Source: Generation IV Forum
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GENERATION III
• Europe - Technical guidelines for the next generation - Groupe Permanent chargé
des réacteurs nucléaires
– Significant improvement safety – Severe accident – Focus on Probability of Releases
– Design based on Probabilistic Safety Assessment analysis
– Evolutionary designs
• USA - Single Combined Construction and Operating License (COL)
– Improve Licensing Process Efficiency, Predictability
– Reduces Financial Risk
– COL Granted Prior To Beginning Of Construction
– Cf. Generic Design Assessment process in UK
• WENRA safety objectives for new NPP designs
• EUR - European Utility Requirements (US – Utility Requirements Document)
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EUR DOCUMENT AND REACTOR
ASSESSMENTS
Volume 1
Volume 2
Main policies
& objectives
Generic
nuclear island
requirements
revision A: 03/1994
revision B: 11/1995
revision C: 04/2001
revision D: 10/2012
Volume 3
Applications of EUR
to specific designs
BWR 90 subset: 06/1999
EPR subset: 12/1999
EPP subset: 12/1999
ABWR subset: 12/2001
SWR 1000 subset: 02/2002
AES92 subset: 06/2006
AP1000 subset: 06/2006
Standard EPR subset: 06/2009
EU-APWR subset: 2014
Volume 4
Generic
conventional island
requirements
revision A: 11/1996
revision B: 03/2000
revision C: 10/2007
revision D: 10/2012
Source: EUR Public web site
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EUR / URD UTILITY REQUIREMENTS AND
REACTOR DEVELOPMENT
Reactors with
Active Safeguards
URD
(US)
EUR
(EU)
Reactors with
Passive Safeguards
System 80+
VVER AES92
EPR
APWR
ABWR
SWR1000
AP1000
PWR
ESBWR
BWR
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EUR / URD UTILITY REQUIREMENTS AND
REACTOR DEVELOPMENT
Reactors with
Active Safeguards
URD
(US)
EUR
(EU)
Reactors with
Passive Safeguards
System 80+
VVER AES92
EPR
APWR
ABWR
SWR1000
AP1000
PWR
ESBWR
BWR
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GENERATION III
• Features of Generation III reactors
– Standardization/harmonization of NPP designs
– Supplier of Nuclear Steam Supply System  Supplier of Nuclear Island
– Design Basis Conditions completed by Design Extension Conditions
• Multiple failure accidents
• Station Blackout – Loss Of Ultimate Heat Sink – Anticipated Transient without SCRAM
• Containment by-pass accidents
• Severe accidents – Probability reduction of early and late releases
• Air Plane Crash / Earthquake
• Consideration of the human factors
– Reduced O&M costs and capital costs,
– Higher fuel burn-up, higher thermal efficiency and higher availability,
– Better flexibility and longer operating life.
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EPR - AREVA
Source: Nuclear Street web site
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EPR - What’s the EPR?
• The European Pressurized Reactor is a product of Areva NP (merge of
Framatome ANP and the nuclear activities of Siemens).
• It is a 1650 MWe 4-loops PWR
• EPR design built on experience feedback to improve safety and
performance (evolutionary concept).
• New features
– Accessibility of the reactor building
– 4 safety trains concept
– Corium retention area – “Core Catcher”
– Standstill Seal System
– Improved operating capability.
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EPR
• Quadruple Redundant
Safeguard Systems
– 4 x 100% for main safeguards
• Each safety trains is
independent and located
within a physically separate
building.
• Shield wall – protection
against external hazards
Shield Wall
Source: AREVA
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Source: AREVA
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Source: AREVA
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EPR – Severe Accident Management
If molten core escaped
from the reactor vessel,
it would be collected,
retained and cooled in a
special designed area –
the Core Catcher.
Sacrific ial Material
Protective Layer
IR
Spreading Compartment
Sacrific ial Material
-7.80m
Basemat Cooling
Melt Dis charge Channel
Protective Layer
Melt Plug
Source: Wikipedia
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EPR
Construction
techniques
– Rebar works on site
– New concrete pouring
methods
Source: Nuclear News
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EPR – Taishan-1
Source: Nuclear Bussiness Forum
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AP1000/EPP - Westinghouse
Source: Westinghouse
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AP1000
• Approximate electric capacity
1154 MWe (2 loops)
• Design features
– Uses the forces of nature and simplicity
of design to enhance plant safety and
operations and reduce construction
costs
– Passive systems are used for core
cooling, containment isolation and
containment cooling
– Main Control Room Emergency
Habitability System
Source: Wikipedia
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AP1000 - Westinghouse
• Passive Core Cooling System
– Passive Residual Heat Removal
– Passive Safety Injection
• Gravity drain core make-up tanks
• N2 pressurized accumulators
• Gravity drain RWST
• Gravity drain containment sump
• Automatic depressurization valves
– Passive Containment pH Control
– Passive Spent Fuel Pool Cooling
Source: Westinghouse
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AP1000 – Severe Accident Management
• In-Vessel Retention
– If core melt occurs, corium is relocated to the reactor vessel bottom hemisphere
– Reactor vessel wall is cooled by passive reactor cavity flooding
Source: Nuclear Street
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AP1000 – Design Simplification
• Simplified Design
– Passive Safeguard Systems in
Containment
– No active Safeguard Systems
– Compact Building Layout
– Reduction of (Safety Grade) Equipment
– Reduction of Maintenance
Source: Westinghouse
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AP1000
Parallel Tasks on
Modular AP1000
Shorten
Construction
Schedule
Source: Daily Tech
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AP1000
Source: Giaoduc web site
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The AP1000 is Smaller and Simpler than GenII
Plants
Sizewell B
AP1000
74147A
Source: Daily Tech
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AP1000 – SANMEN-1
Source: WNN
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21-10-2010
OVERVIEW OF GEN III+ - PWR
Vendor
Reactor
Size MWe
WestinghouseToshiba
(USA)
(AP600)
AP1000
(600)
1150
Areva NP
(FranceGermany)
EPR
US-EPR
1600-1650
Finland: Olkiluoto-3
France: Flamanville-3
China: Taishan-1, 2
AREVAMitsubishi
(France-Japan)
ATMEA 1
1100
Turkey: Sinop (4)
KEPCO(South Korea)
APR-1400
1400
S-Korea: Shin-Kori-3, 4
UAE: Barakah-1, 2
VVER-1000 (AES-92)
VVER-1200 (AES-2006)
1000
1200
Russia: Leningrad, Novovoronezh
China: Tianwan-1, 2, 3, 4
AtomStroyExport
(Russia)
Construction
China: Sanmen-1, 2 / Haiyang-1, 2
USA: Summer-2, 3 / Vogtle-3, 4
UK: Moorside 1, 2, 3
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OVERVIEW OF GEN III+ - BWR
Vendor
Reactor
Size MWe
Under Construction
GE-Hitachi
(USA-Japan)
ESBWR
1550
USA: Fermi / North Anna
GE-Hitachi
(USA-Japan)
Toshiba
(Japan)
ABWR
1300
Japan: Kashiwazaki Kariwa-6, 7 /
Shimane-3 / Ohma
Taiwan: Lungmen-1, 2
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Generation III+ - Other Designs
• ATMEA 1
– Approximate electric capacity 1000
– 1150 MWe (3 loops)
– Designed by AREVA - Mitsubishi
– 3-train safety system with
advanced accumulators
– 4th partial safety train division for
on-power maintenance
– EPR severe accident features
– Use of prefabricated modules
– Accessible reactor building in
operation
Source: WNN
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Generation III+ - Other Designs
• VVER-1200/V-491 AES2006
– Approximate electric capacity
1160 –1200 MWe (4 loops)
– Designed by Rosatom (ASE)
– System functioning is based
on “passive”principles.
System design ensures
completely independent
operation without operator’s
intervention for at least 24
hours
Source: Rosatom
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Generation III+ - Other Designs
• APR 1400
– Approximate electric capacity 1400 MWe (2 loops)
– Designed by Dosam (KHNP)
– 2-loop arrangement, with two very large Steam Generators loops
– (2 hot-legs, 4 cold-legs, 2 SGs)
– Passive design features
– Prefabrication and modularization
Source: Atom Info
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Generation III+ - Other Designs
• ESBWR
– Economic Simplified Boiling
water reactor (BWR reactor)
– Approximate electric capacity
1550 MWe (4 pipes for steam
+ 2 for feed water – no
pumps)
– Uses Passive systems
– Designed by General Electric
and Hitachi
Source: NRC
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Generation III+ - Other Designs
• ACR-1000
– Advanced CANDU Reactor –
evolutionary class pressure
tube
– reactor, light-water-cooled,
heavy-water-moderated
– Approximate electric capacity
1200 MWe (4 loops)
– Designed by Atomic Energy of
Canada Limited (AECL)
Source: Canteach
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Generation III+ - Other Designs
• APWR
– Approximate electric capacity 1538
MWe (EU-APWR and USAPWR 1700
MWe) (4 loops)
– Developed by Mitsubishi Heavy
Industries and Westinghouse
– Derived from the Japan PWRs.
– The improvements in passive system
have led to the elimination of the
Safety Injection system, an active
system.
Source: WNN
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Generation III+ - Other Designs
• ABWR
– Advanced boiling water reactor ABWR
– Approximate electric capacity 1350 MWe
– Designed by General Electric
(cooperation Hitachi and Toshiba)
Source: NRC
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Source: Generation IV Forum
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