Chapter 8 from Introduction to Information Systems

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Introduction to Information
Systems, 1st Edition
 Authors: Rainer, Turban and Potter
 Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 Slides by: Hellene Bankowski, Professor, Philadelphia University
Copyright 2007 John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 8
1
Chapter 8
Organizational Information
Systems
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Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 8
2
Chapter Outline
 8.1 Transaction Processing Systems
 8.2 Functional Area Management Information
Systems
 8.3 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems
 8.4 Customer Relationship Management Systems
 8.5 Supply Chain Management Systems
 8.6 Electronic Data Interchange, Extranets, and
Web Services
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Chapter 8
3
Learning Objectives
 Describe transaction processing system.
 Describe management information
systems and the support they provide
for each functional area of the
organization.
 Describe enterprise resource planning
systems.
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Chapter 8
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Learning Objectives (Continued)
Describe customer relationship
management systems.
Describe supply chain management
systems.
Discuss electronic data interchange,
extranets, and Web services.
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Chapter 8
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8.1 Transaction Processing
Systems
 Transaction Processing System (TPS)
monitors, collects, stores and processes data
generated from all business transations.
 Source data automation is the process of
automating the TPS data entry as much as
possible because of the large volume
involved.
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Chapter 8
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TPSs (Continued)
 Batch Processing is when the firm collects
data from transactions as they occur, placing
them in group or batches, then prepares and
processes the batches periodically (say, every
night).
 Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) is
when business transactions are processed
online as soon as they occur.
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Chapter 8
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8.2 Functional Information
Systems
 Functional Information Systems also called
Management Information Systems (MISs)
or Functional Area IS provide information
to managers (usually middle-level managers)
in the functional areas.
 MISs support planning, organizing, and
controlling operations.
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MIS Reports
 Routine reports - scheduled
 Ad-hoc reports – on demand



Drill-down reports
Key-indicator reports
Comparative reports
 Exception reports – outside the norm
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Information Systems for Specific
Functional Areas
 Information Systems that are designed to
support a functional area by increasing its
internal effectiveness and efficiency in the
following areas: accounting, finance,
marketing, operations (POM), and human
resources management functional areas.
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Chapter 8
10
8.3 Enterprise Resource Planning
Systems
 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
systems integrate the planning, management
and use of all resources of the organization.
 ERP’s major objective is to tightly integrate
the functional areas of the organization and
to enable seamless information flows across
the functional areas.
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Chapter 8
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ERP Systems (Continued)
 Business process is a set of related steps or
procedures designed to produce a specific
outcome.
 Business processes supported by ERP
modules include Financial and Accounting
Processes, Sales and Marketing Processes,
Manufacturing and Production Processes and
Human Resources Processes.
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ERP Systems (Continued)
 Best practices are the most successful
solutions or problem-solving methods for
achieving a business objective.
 Drawbacks to ERP systems are that they can
be extremely complex, expensive and timeconsuming to implement.
 Leading ERP software vendors include SAP
(SAP R/3), Oracle and PeopleSoft.
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Chapter 8
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8.4 Customer Relationship
Management
 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is
an enterprisewide effort to acquire and retain
customers.



Includes a one-to-one relationship between a customer
and a seller.
One simple idea “Treat different customers differently”.
Helps keep profitable customers and maximizes lifetime
revenue from them.
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Chapter 8
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CRM Applications
 Customer touch point is a method of interaction
with a customer, such as telephone, e-mail, a
customer service or help desk, conventional mail,
Web site and store.
 CRM systems provide applications in 3 major
areas:


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Sales - sales force automation (SFA).
Marketing – support marketing campaigns & provide
opportunities for cross-selling, up-selling and bundling.
Customer service – can take many Web-based forms.
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SFA & Marketing
 Sales force automation (SFA) functions provide such data
as sales prospect and contact information, product
information, product configurations and sales quotes.
 Marketing

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Cross-selling refers to the marketing of complementary products to
customers.
Up-selling is the marketing of higher-value products or services to
new or existing customers.
Bundling is a type of cross-selling in which a combination of
products is sold together at a lower price than the combined costs of
the individual products.
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Customer Service
 Customer service functions provide
information and tools to make call centers,
help desks and customer support staff more
efficient.
 Customer service can take many forms and
includes:


Technical and other information and services
Customized products and services
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Customer Service (Continued)
Tracking account or order status
 Personalized Web pages
 FAQs
 E-mail and automated response
 Call centers

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8.5 Supply Chain Management
Systems
 Supply chain refers to the flow of materials,
information, money and services from raw
material suppliers, through factories and
warehouses, to the end customers.
 Supply chain management (SCM) is the
function of planning, organizing and
optimizing the supply chain’s activities.
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Chapter 8
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SCM Systems (Continued)
 Interorganizational information system
(IOS) involves information flows among two
or more organizations.
 Global information systems are
interorganizational information systems that
connect companies located in two or more
countries.
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Issues in Global IOS Design
 Cultural differences
 Localization
 Economic and Political Differences
 Legal issues
 Cross-border data transfer which refers to
the flow of corporate data across nations’
borders.
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The Structure & Components of
Supply Chains
 A supply chain involves three segments:

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Upstream, where sourcing or procurement from
external suppliers occurs;
Internal, where packaging, assembly or
manufacturing takes place;
Downstream, where distribution takes place,
frequently by external distributors.
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The Structure & Components of
Supply Chains (Continued)
 Tiers of suppliers, a supplier may have one
or more subsuppliers, and the subsupplier
may have its own subsupplier(s) and so on.
 Material flows are the physical products, raw
materials, supplies and so forth that flow
along the chain.

Reverse flows – returned products, recycled
products and disposal of materials or products.
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The Flows in the Supply Chain
(Continued)
 Information flows are all data related to
demand, shipments, orders, returns and
schedules as well as changes in any of these
data.
 Financial flows are all transfers of money,
payments and credit-related data.
 A supply chain involves a product life cycle
approach, from “dirt to dust”.
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Problems along the Supply Chain
 Poor customer service – not delivering
products or services when and where the
customers need them.
 Poor quality product
 High inventory costs
 Loss of revenues
 New technologies
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Problems along the Supply Chain
(Continued)
 Problems stem mainly from two sources:


Uncertainties due to demand forecast, delivery
times, quality problems in materials and parts
that can create production delays;
The need to coordinate several activities, internal
units and business partners.
 Bullwhip effect refers to erratic shifts in
orders up and down the supply chain.
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8.6 Electronic Data Interchange
and Extranets
 Electronic data interchange (EDI) is a
communication standard that enables
business partners to exchange routine
documents, such as purchase orders,
electronically.
 EDI translator converts data into a standard
format before it is transmitted.
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EDI (Continued)
 Business transactions messages include
repetitive business transactions such as
purchase orders, invoices, credit approvals,
shipping notices and confirmations.
 Data formatting standards are used.
 EDI serves as a catalyst and a stimulus to
improve the standard of information that
flows between and among organizations.
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EDI Benefits
 Minimize data entry errors
 Length of messages are shorter
 Messages are secured
 Reduces cycle time
 Increases productivity
 Enhances customer service
 Minimizes paper usage and storage
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EDI Limitations
 Significant initial investment to implement
 Ongoing operating costs are high due to the
use of expensive, private VANs
 Traditional EDI system is inflexible
 Long startup period
 Multiple EDI standards exist
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Extranets
 Extranets link business partners to one another
over the Internet by providing access to certain
areas of each other’s corporate intranets.
 The main goal of extranets is to foster
collaboration between business partners.
 An extranet is open to selected B2B suppliers,
customers and other business partners.
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Types of Extranets
 A company and its dealers, customers or
suppliers – centers around one company.
 An industry’s extranet – major players in
an industry team up to create an extranet.
 Joint ventures and other business
partnerships – partners in a joint venture
use extranet as a vehicle for communications
and collaboration.
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