MKTG 4931 - Strauss

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9-1
E-MARKETING 5/E
JUDY STRAUSS AND RAYMOND FROST
Chapter 9: Differentiation and Positioning Strategies
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Chapter 9 Objectives
9-2

After reading Chapter 9, you will be able to:
 Define
differentiation and positioning and explain why
they are important elements of marketing strategy.
 Identify dimensions of differentiation and internetspecific differentiation strategies.
 Discuss how companies can position or reposition
themselves on the basis of attributes, technology,
benefits, user category, relation to competitors,
integrator capabilities, or reverse positioning.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
The J. Peterman Story
9-3

The J. Peterman Company is a classic example of
successfully combining clever differentiation with
powerful positioning.
 The
founder established his company as a breed apart
from ordinary competitors.
 Every item has a description that communicates
nostalgia and romance.

Visit www.jpeterman.com and discuss what makes
their products “unique.”
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Differentiation
9-4


Kotler defines differentiation as the process of
adding meaningful and valued differences to
distinguish the company’s offering from the
competition.
There are a number of differentiation dimensions
and strategies for their accomplishment.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Differentiation Dimensions
9-5

A firm can differentiate along 5 dimensions:
 Product
 Service
 Personnel
 Channel
 Image
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Product Differentiation
9-6
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
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Product line differentiation is an important emarketing strategy.
Differentiation may include customization, bundling,
and attractive pricing of products.
Internet sales may not rely as heavily on product
packaging and displays as do traditional retailers.
Packages shipped to households may require
additional packing materials not required in bulk
case shipments to wholesalers and retailers.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Service Differentiation
9-7



Customer service can be enhanced by 24-hour
customer feedback through e-mail and the ability to
respond more rapidly to customer concerns.
Home delivery of groceries, online banking, and
securities trading are becoming increasingly
popular.
Today such services supplement traditional services,
but may someday replace them.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Personnel Differentiation
9-8

The internet allows companies to deliver products
more efficiently.
 Low-cost
channels
 Automated processes
 Reduced dependence on personnel
 Lower transaction cost
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Channel Differentiation
9-9

The internet:
 Is
a location-free, time-free distribution and
communication channel.
 Functions as a communication channel for companies
that provide product or service information online.
 Serves as a transaction and distribution channel for
companies that conduct online commercial transactions.
 Becomes the entire distribution channel for digital
products.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Image Differentiation
9-10


A company can differentiate itself by creating a
unique experience online, called “experience
branding.”
Through experience branding firms can better
retain customers, target key segments, and enhance
profitability.
 Build-a-Bear
extends its offline experience online.
 Some Web sites invite users to upload content and
comments, which gives them a competitive edge.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Differentiation Strategies
9-11

Trout and Rivkin proposed specific differentiation
strategies common to offline and online businesses:
Being the first to enter the market.
 Owning a product attribute in the mind of the consumer.
 Demonstrating product leadership.
 Utilizing an impressive company history or heritage.
 Supporting and demonstrating the differentiating idea.
 Communicating the difference.

©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Internet-Specific Differentiation Strategies
9-12
Exhibit 9.2
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Internet-Specific Differentiation Strategies
9-13

There are 6 differentiation strategies unique to online
businesses.
 Site Environment/Atmospherics
 Easy downloads, accurate and clear information,
easy navigation.
 Build Trust
 Strong brand recognition.
 Privacy policy.
 Safe and encrypted payment process for
transactions.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Internet-Specific Differentiation Strategies,
cont.
9-14



Efficient and Timely Order Processing
Pricing
 In the early days of the Web, companies offered
discounts as purchase incentives.
 Majority of firms today differentiate themselves in
other ways besides pricing.
Customer Relationship Management
Managing long-term relationships with customers.
Invite User-generated Content
 The key is to trust customers, listen, respond, and
learn.


©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Positioning
9-15


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Positioning is the process of creating a desired
image for a company and its products in the minds
of a chosen user segment.
The e-marketer’s goal is to build a position on one
or more bases that are relevant and important to
the consumer.
Firms can position brands, the company, the CEO, or
individual products.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Bases and Strategies for Positioning
9-16
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Product or service attribute
Technology positioning
Benefit positioning
User category
Competitor positioning
Integrator positioning
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Product or Service Attribute
9-17

May include features such as size, color, ingredients,
speed, etc.
 Amazon’s
1-click checkout process is an example of a
positioning attribute.
 iVillage allows users to build personalized mean menus.
 Tylenol does not sell online, but provides useful one-toone features for pain relief and health information and
Tylenol greeting cards.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Technology Positioning
9-18

Positioning on the basis of technology shows that a
firm is on the cutting edge.
 At
Lands’ End, consumers can build virtual models of
themselves and try on virtual outfits.
 At American Airlines, customers can store seating
preferences and frequent flier account information.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Benefit Positioning
9-19

Benefit positioning is generally a stronger basis for
positioning because it answers the consumer
question: What will this product/service do for me?
 Miller
Lite offers software that can be used as a social
organizer.
 On the Valvoline motor oil site, visitors can send
greeting cards, download racing screensavers, and sign
up for newsletters.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
User Category
9-20

User category positioning relies on customer
segments.
 Kellogg’s
has an interactive site for children.
 Yahoo! Groups hosts forums organized by specific
interests.
 Eons is a social network for baby boomers.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Competitor Positioning
9-21


Many firms position by benefits that provide
advantages over their competitors.
Companies may position themselves against:
 An
entire industry.
 A particular firm.
 Relative industry position.

“I Can’t Believe It’s Not Butter” margarine positions
itself against other margarines.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Integrator positioning
9-22


Integrators provide everything a consumer needs in a
particular product category, industry, or even in
general.
Consumers want convenience and one-stop shopping:
 Martha
Stewart’s Web site brings together business units in
one place.
 TheKnot.com offers everything to do with weddings.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Integrator positioning, cont.
9-23

We can expect to see more integrator positioning in
the real estate, lending, jewelry, and hospitality
industries.
 zipRealty
uses software that reduces the agents' work.
 LendingTree and HomeGain.com help brokers find
clients more cheaply and quickly.
 Blue Nile sells an estimated $129 million of jewelry that
would require 116 retail stores.
 Web travel agencies can move market share to hotels
that give them discounts.
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Repositioning Strategies
9-24


Repositioning is the process of creating a new or
modified brand, company, or product position.
A company may enhance or modify a position,
based on market feedback.
Yahoo! repositioned from online guide to Web portal.
 Amazon repositioned from world’s largest bookstore to
“Earth’s biggest selection.”
 Facebook now hosts many business page profiles and
third-party applications.

©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
25
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retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
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