Biometrics - Texas Crime Prevention Association

Using Biometrics in
Crime Prevention
Presented by
American Crime
Prevention Institute
Biometrics can be defined as “the automated
use of physiological or behavioral
characteristics to determine or verify identity.”
Biometrics can accomplish two goals:
 Tighten or improve security
 Reduce security costs
Biometric Industry Sales
$20 Million in 1995
$200 Million in 2002
Project $6 Billion by 2006
Physiological biometrics are based on
measurements and data derived from direct
measurement of a relatively stable physical
characteristic. Finger-scan, iris-scan, retinascan, hand-scan and facial scan are leading
physiological biometrics. This type of
measurement is basically unchanging and
unalterable without significant duress.
Behavioral biometrics are based on
measurements and data derived from an
action, and indirectly measure characteristics
of the human body. Voice-scan, keystrokescan and signature-scan are leading
behavioral biometric technologies.
Two Basic Functions of Biometrics
Verify a person’s identity (authentication)
- Iris, finger and hand scanners
- Very good authentication tools
Picking someone out of a crowd
- Facial scanners
- Relatively poor identification tools
Identification versus Verification
Identification compares the living sample to
the entire database – example is facial
recognition or AFIS (automated fingerprint
identification systems) – the time, processing
power and cost needed to scan the entire
database can be excessive.
Verification is the process of establishing the validity of a
claimed identity by comparing a verification template to
an enrollment template.
The user’s biometric template is retrieved from storage by
a PIN and compared to a live sample – most frequently
used – hand geometry, iris scan, signature recognition,
Must 1st obtain a “sample”
Samples are converted to digital templates
Enrollment template and live sample are compared and
Types of Biometrics
Fingerprint Recognition
Retinal Scan
Iris Scan
Hand Recognition
Voice Recognition
Facial Scan
Signature Recognition
Three-Factor Security
One factor (ID card) is not enough
Finance and aviation moving toward threefactor security
Three-Factor Security
User presents something he knows –password or
PIN – least secure
User presents something he has – plastic card
Something he is – fingerprint or iris scan
Technologies and the Unique You
Fingerprint Recognition - oldest form of
formal biometrics - has been used for over 100
years - location and direction of ridge endings
and bifurcations on a fingerprint. It is
estimated that the chance of two people,
including twins, having the same print is less
than one in a billion.
Fingerprint scanners are the most commonly
used form of biometrics – and the least
expensive and easiest to deploy – Ridges on
fingers are converted to a digital template that
can be compared with database records or a
Fingerprint scanners can be fooled – use gelatin
to create gummy fingers.
Retinal - vascular pattern (blood vessels) in the
back of the eye is formed after 6 months of age technology available since mid-1980s. Retinal
scans shoot a low-intensity beam of light into the
eyeball and record the pattern of veins in the eye.
Users are required to stand close to the device
and focus on a target, which makes the systems
Iris - composed of striations, filaments and
coronas, - do not change over time – the iris pattern
is on the eye surface.
Iris scanning may become the leading biometric
device of the future because of its accuracy,
permanency and unobtrusiveness.
The iris has more information in the infrastructure of
its organ than any other component of the body.
Iris scanners measure over 200 different
characteristics in a person’s eyeball.
Identification can be made through
eyeglasses and contact lenses.
The system compensates for pupil
dilation or contraction.
Iris scanners can photograph eyes from up to three
feet away.
The verification process takes about 2 seconds.
The iris scan’s major advantage over a retinal scan is
tat it does not require the user to focus on a target,
because the iris pattern is on the eye’s surface (vs.
the blood vessel pattern on the back of the eye –
retinal scan.
Hand Recognition measures the size, shape,
thickness, width and length of
a person’s fingers and hand –
used in day care centers,
hospitals, welfare agencies.
Over 8,000 hand recognition
systems are in use.
Voice Recognition – listens to various
speech patterns to determine identity – pitch,
tone, harmonic vibrations, cadence – is not
one of the most reliable means of biometrics
– is used for access control for mediumsecurity or high-throughput situations such as
offices and labs
Face Recognition (newest & oldest –
picture on driver’s license) – size, shape,
distances between parts of the face – can
change over time – has experienced difficulties
in achieving high level of performance
Signature Recognition – speed, stroke order,
pressure and appearance of signature – the
key in signature dynamics is to differentiate
between the parts of the signature that are
habitual and those that vary with almost every
Keystroke Recognition – keyed sequence,
duration between characters – typing rhythms
Biometric Crime Prevention
Airports – Heathrow in England – using iris
scan for 2,000 frequent flyers.
Iris scan being used for prison identification
Iris scans being used in ATM’s – Wells Fargo
Many banks use thumbprints for identification
It has been recommended that both facial and
fingerprint scanning be used to identify
documents issued to foreigners.
Some semi-tractors require thumbprints to start the
engine – Kenworth.
Some laptop computers require thumbprints for
Kroger supermarkets in Columbus, Ohio ask for
thumbprints on checks
Kroger’s in College Station, Texas - use of fingerprints
to purchase groceries (“SecureTouch-N-Pay”) – scan
fingerprint at checkout counter & enter 7-digit number
Texas is the nation’s leading proponent of
consumer thumbprinting
Disney World – handprint for season
ticket holders
Facial recognition is newest and oldest
(photo ID) form of biometrics.
Facial recognition used by Tampa PD
(terminated) and Virginia Beach PD.
Gaming casinos use facial recognition to
identify card cheats.
Military bases are testing facial recognition
systems (Visionics)
Department of Veterans Affairs is planning to
use fingerprint recognition to combat
entitlement fraud.
Hospitals use fingerprint scanning devices to
identify doctors
Krispy Kreme and Sun-Maid use handgeometry technology when workers clock in
and out.
Experimenting with biometric trigger locks for
electronic gun – shine infrared light into small
section of skin and measure reflection.
Social Security Administration testing biometrics tied to
social security card
Transportation ID cards (“Trusted Traveler”) –
background checks – intended to ease congestion at
airport security checkpoints and reduce security
hassles for registered travelers.
Several large corporations (AT&T, ITT, GM, Texas
Instruments, Martin Marietta) employ voice recognition
to protect computer, officer, lab and vault access.
Can Biometrics Be Defeated?
Absolutely Yes!
Every biometric can be defeated if one allows
sufficient amount of time, money and attempts.
Employing biometrics raises the bar to the
point where the costs of defeating the system
may not justify the rewards.
Good Biometric Information
International Biometrics Group
Thank you
American Crime Prevention Institute is a division
of the AEGIS Protection Group, Inc.