2. KSI

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Chapter 2

C

OMPETING WITH

T

ECHNOLOGY

I

NFORMATION

T

UJUAN

1.

2.

3.

Mengidentifikasi strategi kompetitif dasar dan menjelaskan bagaimana bisnis dapatmenggunakan IT untuk menghadapi kekuatan kompetitif yang dihadapinya.

Mengidentifikasi menggunakan beberapa strategi

TI dan memberikan contoh bagaimana mereka memberikan keunggulan kompetitif untuk bisnis.

Memberikan contoh bagaimana rekayasa ulang proses bisnis sering melibatkan penggunaan strategi TI.

2

T

UJUAN

(

CONT

D

)

4.

5.

Mengidentifikasi nilai bisnis menggunakan teknologi internet untuk menjadi pesaing tangkas atau membentuk perusahaan virtual.

Menjelaskan bagaimana pengetahuan sistem manajemen dapat membantu sebuah bisnis mendapatkan keuntungan strategis.

3

C

ASE

1: F

ED

E

X

UNTUK

C

ORPORATION

: I

NVESTASI

K

EUNGGULAN

K

OMPETITIF

TI

FedEx dan perusahaan lain banyak yang tahu bahwa manajemen yang tepat dan penggunaan teknologi informasi dapat memberikan keunggulan kompetitif.

TI mereka telah menghubungkan 39 hub di seluruh dunia dengan 677 pesawat terbang, lebih dari

90.000 kendaraan, dan lebih dari 200.000 karyawan mengirimkan 6 juta paket per hari di 220 negara.

FedEx menghabiskan lebih dari $1 milyar pada TI setiap tahun.

FedEx lebih memfokuskan pada pendapatan, teknologi kepuasan pelanggan daripada teknologi operasional.

FedEx cenderung sebagai innovator daripada pengikut pada aplikasi TI.

4

P

ERTANYAAN

:

1.

2.

Bagaimana strategi investasi TI dan fokus

FedEx dan pesaing utamanya UPS berdeda?

Perusahaan mana yang mempunyai strategi yang lebih baik? Mengapa?

Apakah strategi TI FedEx’s “move, communicate, and shoot” bagus untuk kompetisi persaingan dengan UPS? Mengapa? Apakah hal tersebut merupakan contoh yang bagus dari strategi kompetisi untuk tipe perusahaan yang lain?

5

P

ERTANYAAN

:

3.

Carter CIO FedEx mengataan bahwa perusahaannya saat ini sedang dalam business of engineering time. Apakah hal tersebut gambaran yang business yang bagus untuk

FedEx? Mengapa? Seberapa penting TI untuk pengertian bisnis dari FedEx? Gunakan contoh kasus untuk menggambarkan jawaban Anda.

6

R

EAL

W

ORLD

I

NTERNET

A

CTIVITY

1.

Gunakan Internet untuk membandingkan status FedEx, UPS, dan

DHL dalam hal pendapatan, profitabilitas, paket dikirimkan, dan ukuran lain kesuksesan bisnis. Siapa yang memenangkan pertempuran kompetitif? Mengapa?

Simak apa yang pe-bisnis komentator dan analis keuangan melaporkan di Web untuk membantuAnda menjawab.

7

R

EAL

W

ORLD

G

ROUP

A

CTIVITY

2.

Gunakan Internet untuk menemukan lebih lanjut tentang bagaimana FedEx terlibat dalam pertempuran perang melawan teror, berdasarkan apa yang dilaporkan dalam kasus ini.

Misalnya, FedEx telah membuat beberapa pengungkapan kontroversial dari informasi pelanggan untuk badan-badan intelijen.

Diskusikan tanggung jawab perusahaan FedEx untuk membantu dalam perang melawan teror sekaligus melindungi privasi pelanggan, serta masalah lain yang ditemukan dalampenelitian Anda.

8

S

TRATEGIC

IT

Teknologi tidak lagi ketinggalan jaman dalam pembentukan strategi bisnis, tetapi sebegai pemicu dan pengendali.

IT dapat merubah cara bersaing dalam bisnis.

Strategi system information adalah

Any kind of information system

That uses IT to help an organization

Gain a competitive advantage

Reduce a competitive disadvantage

Or meet other strategic enterprise objectives

9

C

OMPETITIVE

F

ORCES AND

S

TRATEGIES

10

C

OMPETITIVE

F

ORCES

Jika bisnis yang ingin berhasil harus mengembangkan strategi untuk melawan kekuatan-kekuatan :

Persaingan dari pesaing dalam industri

Ancaman pendatang baru ke dalam industri dan pasarnya

Ancaman yang ditimbulkan oleh produk pengganti yang mungkin merebut pangsa pasar

Kekuatan customer

Kekuatan suppliers

11

F

IVE

C

OMPETITIVE

S

TRATEGIES

Cost Leadership

Become low-cost producers

Help suppliers or customers reduce costs

Increase cost to competitors

Example, Priceline uses online seller bidding so buyer sets the price

Differentiation Strategy

Develop ways to differentiate a firm’s products from its competitors

Can focus on particular segment or niche of market

Example, Moen uses online customer design

12

C

OMPETITIVE

S

TRATEGIES

(

CONT

.)

Innovation Strategy

Find new ways of doing business

Unique products or services

Or unique markets

Radical changes to business processes to alter the fundamental structure of an industry

Example, Amazon uses online full-service customer systems

Growth Strategy

Expand company’s capacity to produce

Expand into global markets

Diversify into new products or services

Example, Wal-Mart uses merchandise ordering by global satellite tracking

13

C

OMPETITIVE STRATEGIES

(

CONT

.)

Alliance Strategy

Establish linkages and alliances with

Customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and other companies

Includes mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, virtual companies

Example, Wal-Mart uses automatic inventory replenishment by supplier

14

U

SING THESE STRATEGIES

The strategies are not mutually exclusive

Organizations use one, some or all

15

U

SING

IT

FOR THESE STRATEGIES

16

O

THER COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES

Lock in customers and suppliers

And lock out competitors

Deter them from switching to competitors

Build in switching costs

Make customers and suppliers dependent on the use of innovative IS

Barriers to entry

Discourage or delay other companies from entering market

Increase the technology or investment needed to enter

17

O

THER COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES

(

CONT

.)

Include IT components in products

Makes substituting competing products more difficult

Leverage investment in IT

Develop new products or services not possible without IT

18

C

USTOMER

-

FOCUSED BUSINESS

What is the business value in being customerfocused?

Keep customers loyal

Anticipate their future needs

Respond to customer concerns

Provide top-quality customer service

Focus on customer value

Quality not price has become primary determinant of value

19

H

OW CAN WE PROVIDE CUSTOMER

VALUE

?

Track individual preferences

Keep up with market trends

Supply products, services and information anytime, anywhere

Provide customer services tailored to individual needs

Use Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems to focus on customer

20

B

UILDING CUSTOMER VALUE USING THE

I

NTERNET

21

V

ALUE

C

HAIN

View the firm as a chain of basic activities that add value to its products and services

Activities are either

Primary processes directly related to manufacturing or delivering products

Support processes help support the day-to-day running of the firm and indirectly contribute to products or services

Use the value chain to highlight where competitive strategies can best be applied to add the most value

22

U

SING

IS

IN THE VALUE CHAIN

23

C

ASE

U

SING

2: GE E

NERGY AND

IT

TO

C

REATE

S

GE H

EALTHCARE

TRATEGIC

C

:

USTOMER

R

ELATIONSHIPS

Networking and data storage & analysis technologies enable companies like GE to gain a competitive advantage by providing unique products and services to their customers.

This strategic investment in IT has a dramatic effect on the profitability of GE’s services.

The strategic business partnership results in a longer-term relationship than traditional methods.

24

C

ASE

S

TUDY

Q

UESTIONS

1.

2.

What are the business benefits of using information technology to build strategic customer relationships for GE Energy and GE

Healthcare? What are the business benefits for their customers?

What strategic uses of information technology discussed in this chapter and summarized in

Figures 2.3 and 2.5 do you see implemented in this case? Explain the reasons for your choices.

25

C

ASE

S

TUDY

Q

UESTIONS

3.

How could other companies benefit from the use of IT to build strategic customer relationships?

Provide or propose several examples of such uses. Explain how each benefits the business and its customers.

26

R

EAL

W

ORLD

I

NTERNET

A

CTIVITY

1.

2.

Use the Internet to discover if GE Energy and

GE Healthcare are expanding or strengthening their uses of IT to build strategic customer relationships. What benefits are they gaining for themselves and claiming for their customers?

Use the Internet to discover other companies whose products are networked, monitored, diagnosed, and managed at customers’ sites like the GE companies in this case. Alternatively, choose other companies you can research on the

Internet and propose several ways they could implement and benefit from similar uses of information technology.

27

R

EAL

W

ORLD

G

ROUP

A

CTIVITY

3.

What business control and security concerns might a business customer have with the extent of its dependency on GE for the use and maintenance of assets that are vital to the operation of the business?

Discuss the rationale for these concerns and what measures both the business and GE could take to reduce any security threats and improve a customer’s secure control of the business assets it obtains from GE.

28

B

USINESS

P

ROCESS

R

EENGINEERING

Called BPR or Reengineering

Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign

Of business processes

To achieve improvements in cost, quality, speed and service

Potential payback high

Risk of failure is also high

29

H

OW

BPR

DIFFERS FROM BUSINESS

IMPROVEMENT

30

A

CROSS

-

FUNCTIONAL PROCESS

31

R

EENGINEERING ORDER MANAGEMENT

32

A

GILITY

Agility

 is the ability of a company to prosper

In a rapidly changing, continually fragmenting

Global market for high-quality, high-performance, customer-configured products and services

An agile company can make a profit with

Broad product ranges

Short model lifetimes

Mass customization

Individual products in large volumes

33

F

OUR STRATEGIES FOR AGILITY

An agile company:

Provides products as solutions to their customers’ individual problems

Cooperates with customers, suppliers and competitors to bring products to market as quickly and cost-effectively as possible

Organizes so that it thrives on change and uncertainty

Leverages the impact of its people and the knowledge they possess

34

H

OW

IT

HELPS A COMPANY BE AGILE

35

V

IRTUAL

C

OMPANY

A virtual company

People,

Organizations,

Assets, uses IT to link

And ideas

Creates interenterprise information systems

 to link customers, suppliers, subcontractors and competitors

36

A

VIRTUAL COMPANY

37

S

TRATEGIES OF VIRTUAL COMPANIES

38

K

NOWLEDGE

C

REATION

Knowledge-creating company organization

 or learning

Consistently creates new business knowledge

Disseminates it throughout the company

And builds in the new knowledge into its products and services

39

T

WO KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE

Explicit knowledge

Data, documents and things written down or stored on computers

Tacit knowledge

The “how-to” knowledge which reside in workers’ minds

A knowledge-creating company makes such tacit knowledge available to others

40

K

NOWLEDGE ISSUES

What is the problem with organizational knowledge being tacit?

Why are incentives to share this knowledge needed?

41

K

NOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

42

Source: Adapted from Marc Rosenberg,

e-Learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age

(New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001), p.70.

K

NOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

(KMS)

KMS manage organizational learning and business know-how

Goal:

Help knowledge workers to create, organize, and make available knowledge

Whenever and wherever it’s needed in an organization

43

C

ASE

3: GE, D

D

EBATING THE

ELL

, I

NTEL

, GM,

AND

O

THERS

:

C

OMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF

IT

Does IT matter?

No:

Nicholas Carr argues that IT is infrastructure like electricity

Too commonplace to get competitive advantage

Yes:

IT is not just networks and computers

The important part is the software and information and how IT is used

For Wal-Mart, GE, Dell, and many other companies,

IT is a huge advantage and will continue to be.

44

C

ASE

S

TUDY

Q

UESTIONS

1.

2.

3.

Do you agree with the argument made by

Nicholas Carr to support his position that IT no longer gives companies a competitive advantage?

Why or why not?

Do you agree with the argument made by the business leaders in this case in support of the competitive advantage that IT can provide to a business? Why or why not?

What are several ways that IT could provide a competitive advantage to a business? Use some of the companies mentioned in this case as examples. Visit their Web sites to gather more information to help you answer.

45

R

EAL

W

ORLD

I

NTERNET

A

CTIVITY

1.

Nicholas Carr’s article created a storm of debate that is still raging. Using the Internet, see if you can find Carr’s original article. Also, try to find some more opinions for and against Carr’s arguments beyond those provided in the case.

46

R

EAL

W

ORLD

G

ROUP

A

CTIVITY

2.

The core of Carr’s arguments has some significant implications for businesses. Discuss your opinion of Carr’s arguments. What are some of the implications of the argument that come to mind? How might they serve to change the way we use computers to support corporate strategy?

47

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