Chapter 14 Learning Outcomes Jobs and the Design of Work 1 Differentiate between job and work. 2 Discuss the traditional approaches to job design. 3 Identify and describe alternative approaches to job design. 4 Identify and describe contemporary issues facing organizations in the design of work. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 Learning Outcome Differentiate between job and work. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Job a set of specified work and task activities that engage an individual in an organization © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Ways of Thinking about Jobs • Organizational position – a job in relation to other parts of the organization • Career – a sequence of job experiences over time © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Work mental or physical activity that has productive results Meaning of Work – the way a person interprets and understands the value of work as part of life © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Six Patterns of Work B – provides A – value comes from performance; accountability is important personal affect and identity C – profit accrues to others by work performance Amanda F – activity constrained E – to specific time periods; no positive affect through its performance generally unpleasant physically and mentally strenuous activity D – physical activity directed by others and performed in a workplace 2 Learning Outcome Discuss the traditional approaches to job design. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Scientific Management Job Characteristics Theory Traditional Approaches to Job Design Job Enrichment Job Enlargement/ Job Rotation Scientific Management-Miles Emphasizes work simplification (standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers) - Undervalues the human capacity for thought and ingenuity + Allows diverse groups to work together + Leads to production efficiency and higher profits © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Job Enlargement / Rotation-Miles Job Enlargement – a method of job design that increases the number of activities in a job to overcome the boredom of overspecialized work Job Rotation – a variation of job enlargement in which workers are exposed to a variety of specialized jobs over time Cross-Training – a variation of job enlargement in which workers are trained in different specialized tasks or activities © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Emphasis is on recognition, responsibility, and advancement opportunity © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. JOB ENRICHMENT Designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them Job Characteristics Model a framework for understanding person–job fit through the interaction of core job dimensions with critical psychological states within a person © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) the survey instrument designed to measure the elements in the Job Characteristics Model © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Job Characteristics ModelKaylee Core job dimensions Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Critical psychological states Experienced work’s meaningfulness Experienced responsibility for work’s outcomes Knowledge of work activities’ results Employee growth, need, strength Personal and work outcomes High internal work motivation High-quality work performance High satisfaction with the work Low absenteeism and turnover J.R. Hackman and G.R. Oldham, “The Relationship Among Core Job Dimensions, the Critical Psychological States, and On-the-Job Outcomes,” The Job Diagnostic Survey: An Instrument for the Diagnosis of Jobs and the Evaluation of Job Redesign Projects, 1974. Reprinted by permission of Greg R. Oldham. Five Core Job Characteristics-Kaylee Motivating Potential Score Skill + Task + Task variety identity significance MPS = 3 x [Autonomy] x [Feedback] 3 Learning Outcome Identify and describe alternative approaches to job design. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Social Information Processing (SIP) ModelHillary a model that suggests that the important job factors depend in part on what others tell a person about the job © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Premises of (SIP) ModelHillary Four premises 1) people provide cues to understanding the work environment 2) people help us judge our jobs 3) people tell us how they see our jobs 4) people’s positive and negative feedback help us understand our feelings about our jobs © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Interdisciplinary ApproachKyle M Motivational Mechanistic Biological Perceptual/ motor Ergonomics – The science of adapting work and working conditions to the employee or worker © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches-Kyle M Decreased training time Higher utilization levels Lower error likelihood Less mental overload Lower stress levels Higher job satisfaction Higher motivation Greater job involvement Higher job performance Lower absenteeism + + Mechanistic Approach Motivational Approach Lower job satisfaction Lower motivation Higher absenteeism Increased training time Lower personnel utilization Greater chance of errors Greater chance of mental overload and stress - - Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches-Kyle M Less physical effort Less physical fatigue Fewer health complaints Fewer medical incidents Lower absenteeism Higher job satisfaction Lower error likelihood Lower accident likelihood Less mental stress Decreased training time Higher utilization levels + + Biological Approach - Higher financial costs because of changes in equipment or job environment Perceptual Motor Approach - Lower job satisfaction Lower motivation International Perspectives on the Design of Work The Japanese Approach – Emphasizes strategic level – Encourages collective and cooperative working arrangements lean production production – Emphasizes lean © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Lean Production Using committed employees with everexpanding responsibilities to achieve zero waste, 100% good product, delivered on time, every time © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Beyond the Book: Growth in the Champagne Industry Strict laws regulate the output of France’s grape vineyards, leaving a limited supply to fill the demand for champagne Industry juggernaut LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton stays ahead of the competition by assiduously pursuing grape farmers’ favor LVMH point man Jacques Péters: "The objective is to develop loyalty" © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. International Perspectives on the Design of Work The German Approach – Previously, Technocentric – placing technology and engineering at the center of job design decisions – Recently, Anthropocentric – placing human considerations at the center of job design decisions International Perspectives on the Design of Work The Scandinavian Approach – encourages high degrees of worker control – encourages good social support systems for workers © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Scientific approaches of labor sciences View from natural science Primarily oriented to individuals View from cultural studies Primarily oriented to groups Levels of evaluation of human work Problem areas and assignment to disciplines Technical, Practicability anthropometric, and psychophysical problems Endurability Technical, physiological, and medical problems Economical and Acceptability sociological problems Satisfaction Sociopsychological and economic problems H. Luczak, “’Good Work’ Design: An Ergonomic, Industrial Engineering Perspective,” in J.C. Quick, L.R. Murphy, and J. J. Hurrell, eds. Stress and Well-Being at Work (Washington, D.C.): American Psychological Association. Reprinted by permission. Work Design and Well-Being: To increase control in work organizations-Kellie • Give workers the opportunity to control aspects of work and workplace • Design machines and tasks with optimal response times and/or ranges • Implement performance-monitoring systems as source of worker feedback © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Work Design and Well-Being: To reduce uncertainty-Kellie • Provide employees with timely and complete work information needed • Make clear and unambiguous work assignments • Improve communication at shift change time • Increase employee access to information sources © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Work Design and Well-Being: To manage conflict-Kellie • Use participative decision making to reduce conflict • Use supportive supervisory styles to resolve conflict • Provide sufficient resource availability to meet work demands, thus preventing conflict © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4 Learning Outcome Identify and describe contemporary issues facing organizations in the design of work. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Emerging Issues in Design of WorkXiaohan • Telecommuting – employees work at home or in other locations geographically separate from their company’s main location • Alternative work patterns: Flextime – an alternative work pattern that enables employees to set their own daily work schedules Job Sharing – an alternative work pattern in which there is more than one person occupying a single job © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Beyond the Book: The Work Design Questionnaire The Work Design Questionnaire was created to fill gaps in existing work-characteristics assessments and integrate their data Results from the questionnaire found that both motivational work characteristics and social support played a strong role in predicting job satisfaction © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Performance Consequences of Role Behaviors-Krystle Role Characteristics Standard Role Behavior Extra Role Behavior Counter Role Behavior Correctly Specified Role Ordinary good performance Excellent performance (organizational citizenship and prosocial behavior) Poor performance (deviance, dissent, and grievance) Incorrectly Specified Role Poor performance Very poor performance (bureaucratic zeal) Excellent performance (task revision and redirection, role innovation) Counter-Role Behavior – deviant behavior in either a correctly or incorrectly defined job or role Republished with permission of Academy of Management, PO Box 3020, Briar Cliff Manor, NY 10510-8020. “Task Revision: A Neglected Form of Work Performance,” (Table), R. M. Straw & R. D. Boettger, Academy of Management Journal, 1990, Vol. 33. Reproduced by permission of the publisher via Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.0 Emerging Issues in Design of WorkRich • Technology at work – Virtual Office – a mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and services – Technostress – the stress cause by new and advancing technologies in the workplace • Task Revision – the modification of incorrectly specified roles or jobs • Skill development © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Distinguishing Feature of Job Design in the FutureRich © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.