The Worldwide Graphic Language for Design - Ivy Tech -

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The Worldwide Graphic
Language for Design
Chapter 1
Objectives
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Describe the role of drawings in the
design process
Contrast concurrent versus traditional
design processes
List five professions that use technical
drawings
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
2
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Objectives (cont.)
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Describe four creativity techniques
Explain why standards are important
Identify uses of the graphic language
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
3
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Understanding the Role of
Technical Drawings
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Drawings and specifications control
details of:
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Product manufacture
Assembly
Maintenance
Technical drawings require use of
standards to communicate worldwide
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
4
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Understanding the Role of
Technical Drawings
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Technical drawings can take many
forms including:
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Idea or concept sketches
Computation sketches
Design sketches
Layout drawings
Part drawings
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
5
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Understanding the Role of
Technical Drawings
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Technical drawing forms (cont.)
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Working or construction drawings
Electrical drawings
Installation drawings
Assembly drawings
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
6
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Understanding the Role of
Technical Drawings
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Technical drawings typically serve one
of three purposes:
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Visualization
Communication
Documentation
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
7
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Understanding the Role of
Technical Drawings
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A wide variety of professions use
technical drawings to communicate and
document designs including:
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Civil engineering
Mechanical engineering
Electrical engineering
Landscape design
Landscape architecture
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
8
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Understanding the Role of
Technical Drawings
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Professions that use technical drawings
(cont.)
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Industrial design
Construction engineering and technology
Patternmaking
Project management
Fabrication and manufacturing
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
9
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Artistic & Technical Drawings
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Graphic representation has developed
along two distinct lines:
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Artistic
Technical
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
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© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Artistic & Technical Drawings
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Before other communication methods
developed, people informed themselves
through visual means including pictures
From earliest recorded history, drawings
have been used to represent the design
of objects to be built or constructed
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
11
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Artistic & Technical Drawings
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Personal or cultural expression in design
is often referred to as aesthetic design
Enhancing product development is
considered functional design
Aesthetics and function can work hand
in hand to create appealing and
functional products
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
12
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
The Design Process
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The organized and orderly approach to
solving problems is known as the design
process
The engineering design process
addresses society’s needs, desires, and
problems by applying scientific
principles, experience and creativity
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
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© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
The Design Process
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Different types of technical drawings,
from hand sketches to CAD models,
have specific functions in the
engineering design process
The procedure for designing products
typically follows a process
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
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© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
The Design Process
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Stages of the design process include:
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Problem identification
Ideation
Refinement/analysis
Implementation/documentation
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
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© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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The Design
Process
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
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© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
The Design Process
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Ideally, the design moves through these
stages but it may be necessary to
return to a previous stage and repeat
the process
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
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© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Concurrent Engineering
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Traditionally, design and manufacturing
activities have taken place in sequential
order
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Although this is a logical approach, in
practice it can often be wasteful
Concurrent engineering is a systematic
approach that integrates the design and
manufacture of products with the goal
of optimizing the process
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
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© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Concurrent
Engineering
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
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© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Concurrent Engineering
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Life cycle design means that all aspects
of a product are considered
simultaneously
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These aspects include:
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Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Design
Development
Production
Distribution
Use
Disposal and recycling
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
20
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Concurrent Engineering
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The basic goals of concurrent
engineering are:
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Minimize product design and engineering
changes
Reduce time and cost involved in taking a
product from design concept to production
then introduction to the marketplace
Communication between disciplines is
especially important in this process
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
21
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Computer-Aided Design and
Product Development
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Product design often involves preparing
analytical and physical models of the
product
These models are used to study factors
such as forces, stresses, deflections,
and optimal part shape
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
22
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Computer-Aided Design and
Product Development
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The process of constructing and
studying analytical models can be
simplified by using:
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Computer-aided design (CAD)
Computer-aided engineering (CAE)
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
23
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Designing Quality Into Products
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Quality may be designed into a product
in any number of systematic ways
including:
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DFSS – Design for Six Sigma
DMAIC – Define Measure Analyze Improve
Control
Six Sigma
QFD – Quality Function Deployment
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
24
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
The Digital Database
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All the information to manage, design,
analyze, simulate, package, market and
manufacture a product can be shared
with users through a single complex
digital database
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
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25
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
The Digital Database
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Systems that electronically store the
various types of data associated with
design and manufacturing include:
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PDM – product data management
EDM – enterprise data management
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
26
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
The Digital Database
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Engineering change orders (ECOs),
costs, and product revisions can be
quickly analyzed, tracked, and
implemented using PDM or EDM
systems
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
27
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Engineering Design Stages
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Engineering Design Stage 1
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Engineering Design Stage 2
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Identify the customer and the problem
Generate concepts – this is often called the
ideation stage
Engineering Design Stage 3
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Compromise solutions
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
28
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Engineering Design Stages
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Engineering Design Stage 4
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Models and prototypes
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Parametric, constraint-based, or feature-based
models use dimensions and constraints that
create “intelligent” models
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Rapid prototyping
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Technical Drawing 13th Edition
As designs are modified, the model can be updated
and new models do not have to be created
Allows parts to be created quickly and directly from
3D models
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
29
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Engineering Design Stages
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Engineering Design Stage 5
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Production or Working drawings
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The drawings show:
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Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Necessary views
Material
Dimensions
Required tolerances
Notes
Other information to sufficiently describe a part for
manufacture
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
30
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Drafting Standards
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Standards are necessary to support a
uniform, effective, graphic language
that can be used in industry,
manufacturing, engineering, and
science
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
31
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Drafting Standards
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Groups in the United States who
provide standards include:
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ANSI – the American National Standards
Institute
ASEE – the American Society for
Engineering Education
SAE – the Society of Automotive Engineers
ASME – the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
32
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Drafting Standards
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International standards are often
defined by the following groups:
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ISO – International Standards Organization
ASME
ANSI
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
33
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Creativity Techniques
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Examine manufactured products
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Reverse engineering
Functional decomposition
Study the natural world
Watch the Web
Research patent drawings
Design groups
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
34
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Product Definition
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Product definition is the range of digital
or hard copy documents that specify
the physical function requirements for a
product
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This can range from a 3D CAD model that
specifies manufacturing requirements
within the CAD file to a dimensioned paper
sketch
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
35
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
Product Definition
Technical Drawing 13th Edition
Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill Dygdon, Novak, Lockhart
36
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All Rights Reserved.
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