Industrial Automation

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1.1 Automation Overview

automación vista general

Automation -vue d'ensemble

Automation - Übersicht

Industrial Automation

Automation Industrielle

Industrielle Automation

Definition

Automation

(automation,

Automation

)

:

1)

2) set of all measures aiming at replacing human work through machines

(e.g. automation is applied science) the technology used for this purpose

(e.g. this company has an automation department)

Automation

(automatisation,

Automatisierung

)

1)

2) replacement of human work through machines

(e.g. the automatisation of the textile factory caused uproar of the workers) replacement of conscious activity by reflexes

(e.g. drill of the sailors allows the automatisation of ship handling) automation and automatisation are often confounded: in English, it is the same word.

(they are related like electricity and electrification)

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 2

5

4

3

2

Automation as a hierarchy of services

Planning, Statistics, Finances

Production planning, orders, purchase administration enterprise

Workflow, order tracking, resources

Supervisory

SCADA =

Supervisory Control

And Data Acquisition

(manufacturing) execution

Group control

Unit control

1

0

Field

Sensors

& actors

Primary technology

Industrial Automation

2013

A V T

Overview 1.1 - 3

Automation and living beings

Industrial Automation

2013

Society

Enterprise

Trends & History = Brain

Display and react = Cortex

Communication networks = Neurons, spine

Controller = Ganglions

Sensors & Actors = Sensory cells & muscles

Physical plant = Skeleton

Automation = the neural system

Overview 1.1 - 4

DB, Historians,

Optimizers, MES

Plant Network

Automation as a computer network

Internet

Operator Workplaces

Control Network

Controller

Fieldbus

HART mux

Instruments

OPC Server

Hart

OPC Server

Profinet

OPC Server

IEC 61850 station bus

Protection &

Control

Process

Instrumentation

Industrial Automation

2013

LV Electrification

Power generation

Substation

Automation

Power Management

Overview 1.1 - 5

Technical necessity of automation

• Processing of the information flow

• Enforcement of safety and availability

• Reduction of labor costs

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 6

Expectations

Process Optimisation

Energy, material and time savings

Quality improvement and stabilisation

Reduction of waste, pollution control

Compliance with regulations and laws, product tracking

Increase availability, safety

Fast response to market

Connection to management and accounting (SAP™)

-

> Acquisition of large number of “process variables”, data mining

Personnel costs reduction

Simplify interface

Assist decision

Require data processing, displays, data base, expert systems

-> Human-Machine-Interface (HMI)

Asset Optimisation

(gestion des moyens de production)

Automation of engineering, commissioning and maintenance

Software configuration, back-up and versioning

Life-cycle control

Maintenance support

-> Engineering Tools

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 7

Data quantity in plants

Power Plant 30 years ago

100 measurement and action variables (called "points") analog controllers, analog instruments one central "process controller" for data monitoring and protocol.

Coal-fired power plant today

10'000 points, comprising

8'000 binary and analog measurement points and

2'000 actuation point

1'000 micro-controllers and logic controllers

Nuclear Power Plant three times more points than in conventional power plants

Electricity distribution network

100’000 - 10’000’000 points information flow to the operators: ~ 5 kbit/s.

human processing capacity: about 25 bit/s without computers, 200 engineers (today: 3)

Data reduction and processing is necessary to operate plants

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 8

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Automation and its importance

Examples of automated processes

Types of plants and controls

1.3.1

1.3.2

1.3.3

Open loop and closed loop control

Continuous processes

Discrete processes

1.3.3

Mixed processes

Automation hierarchy

Control System Architecture

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 9

Plant Automation

All automation systems share a common structure

They differ in the type of plant controlled, quantity of information, geographical distribution

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 10

Automation Systems - World Players

Largest Company Based Major mergers

ABB

Alstom Schneider-Areva

Emerson

General Electric

Hitachi - Yokogawa

Honeywell

Rockwell Automation

Invensys

Siemens

CH-SE Brown Boveri, ASEA, CE, Alfa-Laval, Elsag-Bailey

FR-GB

Alsthom, GEC, CEGELEC, Telemécanique,..

US Fisher, Rosemount

US

JP

US

US

UK

DE

Allen Bradley, Rockwell,..

Foxboro, Siebe, BTR, Triconex, Wonderware…

Plessey, Landis & Gyr, Stäfa Controls, Cerberus,..

€ 80 Mia / year business

(depends on viewpoint), growing 5 % annually

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 11

Terms

plant:

the object of automation

F:

site, usine, centrale (électricité)

D: Prozess, Werk, Fabrik, Kraftwerk

E: planta, fabrica, instalación

general contractor

: organizes the suppliers of the different components.

turnkey factory

: the client only hires consultants to supervise the contractor increasingly, the general contractor has to pay itself by operating the plant.

increasingly, the suppliers are paid on results….

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 12

Four distinct businesses

primary technology

(mechanical, electrical) automation equipment

(control & command) engineering & commissioning maintenance

& disposal

Industrial Automation

2013 offered by different companies

Overview 1.1 - 13

Manufacturers

Equipment Design

( développement,

Entwicklung

)

Equipment Production

(production,

Herstellung

)

Assembler (ensemblier)

Engineering

(bureau d’étude,

Projektierung

)

Commissioning

( mise en service,

Inbetriebnahme

)

Client, Service

Maintenance

(entretien,

Unterhalt

)

Recycling

(Recyclage,

Wiederverwertung

)

Industrial Automation

2013

Life-phases of a Plant (Example: Rail Vehicle)

control air conditioning brakes

Start on service car body design by assembler brakes brakes

Out of service

Sleeping Wagon XL5000 replacement

Overview 1.1 - 14

Research and Development

The components and tools are developped

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 15

Design

From the customer’s requirement specs to the system design

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 16

Programming and engineering

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 17

Factory Acceptance Test

The client verifies that the system is ready

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 18

hard work …

Commissioning on site

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 19

Maintenance…

Industrial Automation

2013

Overview 1.1 - 20

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