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The
“Knowledge Sharing Challenge”
for Partners in
European Space Projects
Serge Valera
European Space Agency
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 1
The
“Knowledge Sharing Challenge”
for Partners in
European Space Projects
Serge Valera - ESA
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 2
Article 2 of the ESA Convention
“To provide for and promote, for
exclusively peaceful purposes,
cooperation among European
states in space research and
technology and their space
applications.”
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 3
19 ESA Member States
Norway
Luxembourg
Finland
Sweden
Denmark
Ireland
The Netherlands
United Kingdom
Germany
Belgium
Czech Republic
France
Austria
Romania
Portugal
Switzerland
Spain
Greece
Italy
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 4
ESA’s presence worldwide
EAC
ESTEC
(Noordwijk) (Cologne)
Salmijaervi
(Kiruna)
Harwell
ESA HQ
(Paris)
Establishments
Offices
ESOC
(Darmstadt)
Brussels
Redu
Toulouse
Oberpfaffenhofen
Cebreros
(Villafranca)
Ground stations
ESAC
(Villanueva de
la Cañada)
ESRIN
(Frascati)
Moscow
Santa Maria
Washington
Houston
Kourou
Maspalomas
New Norcia
Perth
Malargüe
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 5
ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 6
ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Principal responsibilities

Studies, preparation and management of ESA space programmes:










Launchers
Science
Earth observation
Telecommunication
Navigation
Human spaceflight
Deep space exploration
Technical support to ESA project teams, including preparation and
coordination of ESA space technology R&D programme
Product assurance and safety for ESA space programmes
Management of ESTEC Test Centre and coordination with other
test centres in Europe
Employs
Approx. 2000 staff
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 7
Knowledge Sharing: the Problem
 Space system development partners usually differ from
project to project
 Partners are geographically dispersed
 Different partners participate at different points in time in the
project schedule
 Mother tongues differ (English and French are ESA’s
“official” languages)
 Legacy/proprietary systems are often deployed
 Development processes and procedures are standardised
but their application and interpretation vary
Exchange of Information between
partners is frequently misinterpreted
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 8
Typical ESA Project - EarthCARE
Cloud Profiling Radar: JAXA
Satellite Prime Contractor: Astrium GmbH
Base Platform: Astrium Limited
Onboard Computer: RUAG Aerospace
Star Tracker: Jena-Optronik GmbH
Backscatter Lidar: Astrium-SAS
Multispectral Imager: SSTL
Broadband Radiometer: SEA Ltd.
Launcher Russian
Soyuz (Kourou or Baikonour)
Zenit (Baikonour)
ESA Kiruna Ground Station
Flight Operation Segment: ESOC
Payload Data Segments:
ESRIN
JAXA for CPR
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 9
Knowledge exchange: Towards a solution
 Standardise the space system development and operation
processes and their inputs & outputs
E CSS
European Cooperation for Space Standardisation
 Established in 1993
 Members are European Space Agencies, National Space
Agencies and European Industry
 Objective is to develop standards that address the “WHAT”
of space system development and operation (not the
“HOW”)
 More than 100 standards have been developed across 3
branches and 19 disciplines
 See www.ecss.nl for more details
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 10
E CSS
Customer – Supplier Network
Usually ESA
Top-level
Customer
Business Agreement
PC
Satellite Prime Contractor
Specifications
Supplier
Customer
Network of
Customer-Supplier
relationships
PSC 1
SSC
SSC 2…
SSC 1
SSC
SSC 2…
Subsystem
Subcontractor
Subsystem
SubsystemSubcontractor
Subcontractor
Business Agreements
PayloadSubcontractor
Payload
PayloadSubcontractor
Subcontractor
Supplier
Supplier
Customer
Customer
ES 1
ES 2
Equipment
ES... Supplier
Equipment Supplier
Equipment Supplier
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
US 1
US 2
Unit Supplier
US...
Unit Supplier
Unit Supplier
Business Agreements
Products and
associated
information
Slide 11
E CSS
ECSS Document Architecture
ECSS System
Project Management
Product Assurance
Engineering
Project planning
and implementation
Product assurance
management
System engineering
Configuration and
information management
Quality assurance
Electrical and
optical engineering
Cost and schedule
management
Dependability
Mechanical
engineering
Integrated
logistic support
Safety
Branches
Disciplines
Software
engineering
EEE components
Risk management
Communications
Materials, mechanical
parts and processes
Control engineering
Software
product assurance
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Ground systems
and operations
Slide 12
E CSS Applying ECSS Standards to a Project
 The full set of ECSS documents constitutes the ECSS
Universe of Discourse (UoD)
 A space project “tailors” the ECSS standards to create its
Project Universe of Discourse. Tailoring means:
 selecting which ECSS standards are applicable
 de-selecting those requirements from each standard that
are not applicable to the project
 exceptionally, modifying existing ECSS requirements
 adding project-specific requirements
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 13
E CSS
Products within a Space Project
 For each product developed for and integrated in a Space Project,
a Statement of Work (SoW) is generated containing:
 the product specification;
 Its interface specifications with the rest of the system.
 In the course of generating the SoW, the Project Universe of
Discourse is further tailored to create a Product Universe of
Discourse by:
 selecting which project-tailored ECSS standards are applicable
 de-selecting requirements that are not applicable to the product
 adding product-specific requirements
 assessing the compliance of the product to the project requirements
and justifying deviations
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 14
European Space knowledge sharing – The needs
E CSS
= “Working Together” and exploiting
“Knowledge” for consistent development and
utilisation of the “Overall System”
Promoted approach: Modelling at “GLOBAL” level
The Overall System
Need: Global Conceptual Modelling Language
Need: “Engineering” methods and tools to
develop “LOCALs” The Products
Need: “Re-Engineering” methods and tools to reengineer existing facilities for compliance with
Global
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 15
Toward Semantic Interoperability
Exchanging Knowledge:
Supplier
Customer
Requirements
System/User Specification
Meta-Data
Proposal & Compliance
Preliminary Design
Detailed Design
Critical Design
Qualification
Delivery & Acceptance
Developments
Meta-Data
Verification
At acceptance, Validation
Utilisation
Data
Data
Transformation
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 16
Toward Semantic Interoperability - Engineering
A Formal Language for
Conceptual Modelling, rich
enough to model GLOBAL
including all LOCAL views
Model at global level
to ensure semantic
interoperability
A formal language
for
Transformation
algorithm
Supplier
specifying
the conceptual
from “Specification”
to
models
”Architecture”
 Fact-Based Modelling
A formal language
for
Transformation
algorithm
specifying
the conceptual
from “Architecture”
to
”Detailedmodels
Design/Coding”
 Fact-Based Modelling
Customer
Conceptual
layer
Conceptual
layer
Technology
specifics
Logical
layer
Logical
layer
Implementation
specifics
Physical
layer
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Physical
layer
Slide 17
Toward Semantic Interoperability – Re-Engineering
Supplier
Assess the semantic
compatibility
between the two
schemas
Conceptual
layer
Conceptual
layer
Remove
Technology
specifics
Logical
layer
AAformal
language
specifying
common
formal for
language
for
the conceptual
conceptual
modelling,models
rich enough

Fact-Based
Modelling
to support
compatibility
assessment
A formal
language
for
A transformation
algorithm
Customer
specifying
the conceptual
to re-engineer
to
models
”Conceptual
Models”
 Fact-Based Modelling
A formal language
for
A transformation
algorithm
specifying
the conceptual
to re-engineer
to ”logical
models
Models”
 Fact-Based Modelling
Logical
layer
Remove
Implementation
specifics
Physical
layer
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Physical
layer
Slide 18
European Space knowledge sharing – A solution
A Fact Based Modelling Architecture Ecosystem
from an Overall System Perspective
FAMOUS = Fact based Modelling Unifying System
 Standardising the development of Database Systems by:
 Providing methods and tools for data modelling at
conceptual, logical and physical level
 Integrating data modelling with software engineering
(including development of new systems, re-engineering of
existing systems)
 Enabling knowledge exchange by:
 Providing the means to formally specify the Global Universe
of Discourse
 Providing the means to view the Local Universes of
Discourse i.e. managing all Locals at Global level
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 19
FAMOUS
Database Software Engineering - 1
Validation
√
Conceptual Data
Model
User /System
Requirements
Logical
Data Models
Software
Requirements
Verification
√
Physical
Data Models
Architectural
Engineering
SWRR
Coding
Software
Design
PDR
DDR
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Delivery &
Acceptance
Testing
CDR
QR
Operation &
Maintenance
AR
Slide 20
FAMOUS
Database Software Engineering - 2
Logical Models
Relational
S
Q
L
X
S
D
M
M
I
…
Hierarchical
X
S
D
M
M
I
…
Object Oriented
X
M
I
…
..
For Re-engineering
Conceptual Model
..
Physical Models
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Slide 21
FAMOUS
Fact Based Conceptual Modelling
Fact Based
Conceptual Model
•
•
At Global Level
– Model the UoD for the System
– Validate the global conceptual
model
At Local Level
– Tailor the UoD
– Extract the conceptual
definitions for the local
application
– Validate the local conceptual
model
– Produce the logical and
physical models
EV
Events
ER
Exchange rules
DR
Derivation rules
VR
Validation rules
FF
Fact type forms
FT
Fact types
CD
Concept definitions
Facts
EV
ER
DR
VR
The
FF
Knowledge
FT
Triangle
CD
The
Knowledge
Triangle
Generic Component
Conceptual Schema
EV
ER
DR
VR
FF
FT
CD
THE
KNOWLEDGE
TRIANGLE
ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 Berlin 2012
Domain-specific
Component
Ground Facts
Slide 22
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