ANSI-kebutuhan sistem baru

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Analisis Sistem Informasi – 2
REQUIREMENTS
DETERMINATION
Analisa Desain Sistem Informasi
STMIK AUB Surakarta
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
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Key Ideas
Tujuan utama dari fase analisis adalah
memahami dengan sebenar-benarnya
requirement/kebutuhan dari sistem baru dan
mengembangkan sistem berdasarkan
kebutuhan tadi
Penentuan kebutuhan (Requirement
Determination) merupakan langkah yang
paling kritis pada keseluruhan tahapan SDLC
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
apakah Requirement itu ?
Pernyataan yang berisi apa yang harus
dilakukan system
Pernyataan yang berisi karakteristik dari
sistem baru
Fokus pada business need (System
Request) pada tahapan sebelumnya
Requirement bisa saja berubah pada
tahapan-tahapan ANSI berikutnya
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tipe Requirement
Functional Requirements
Proses-proses yang harus dilakukan sistem
Informasi-informasi yang harus ada dalam sistem
Nonfunctional Requirements
Behavioral properties the system must have
Operational
Performance
Security
Cultural and political
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mendokumentasikan Requirement
Laporan definisi Requirement
Text document listing requirements in
outline form
Priorities may be included
Tujuan Utama adalah menentukan
project scope: apa yang harus ada dan apa
yang tidak
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Contoh penentuan Requirement:
Akan dikembangkan sebuah software
pengolah kata “Wordku software”, suatu
pengolah kata yang mirip dengan MS
word, buatlah system requirementnya!
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
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FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
Printing
User bisa melihat preview dari file
sebelum di cetak
User bisa mengganti margin, paper size
dan orientasi dari page.
User bisa memilih halaman yang akan
diprint
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Spell Checking
User bisa mengecek kesalahan ejaan, yang
beroperasi pada 2 mode
Mode 1: Manual: user akan mengaktifkan spell
checker dan akan mencari kata-kata yang salah eja
Mode 2: Otomatis: saat user menulis jika ada
kesalahan ejaan maka langsung dikoreksi
dll....
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Non Functional Requirement
Operational Requirement
Sistem akan beroperasi pada sistem operasi
Windows
Sistem bisa membaca dan menulis ke dalam format
Word Document, RTF dan HTML
sistem harus bisa mengimpor file GIF, JPEG, dan
BMP
performance requirement
Response time harus kurang dari 7 detik untuk
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Security Requirement
Tidak ada
Cultural and Plitical Requirement
Tidak ada
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
CONTOH SYSTEM REQUIREMENT :
Berikut ini contoh sebuah dokumen
kebutuhan sistem untuk pengembangan
sistem informasi perpustakaan berbasis
komputer :
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sistem harus dapat melakukan entri buku yang
berhubungan dengan pendataan buku:
User bisa memasukkan berbagai jenis buku beserta
dengan kode buku, kategori buku, judul buku,
penerbit, pengarang, jumlah halaman, ISBN buku dan
lain-lain
User bisa menambahkan koleksi buku baru yang akan
keluarkan
User bisa menghitung berapa jumlah koleksi buku
yang ada secara keseluruhan
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
User dapat menampilkan berapa jenis atau kategori koleksi
buku yang ada beserta dengan jumlahnya
User dapat menampilkan jenis buku berdasarkan
ketegori tertentu beserta jumlah bukunya
User dapat mencari koleksi buku berdasarkan
pengarang, penerbit, judul, dan lain-lain
User dapat menampilkan nama buku yang paling
sering di pinjam
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
System harus dapat melakukan
pendataan anggota
User dapat memasukkan data anggota baru dengan
memasukkan kode anggota, nama, alamat, nomor
telepon
User dapat menampilkan biaya pendaftaran
anggota yang harus di bayarkan
User dapat menampilkan print kartu anggota baru
User dapat menampilkan menghitung berapa
jumlah anggota yang ada secara keseluruhan
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
User bisa menambahkan data anggota baru
User bisa merubah data anggota apabila alamat
atau nomor telepon anggota berubah
User dapat menampilkan anggota yang paling
sering meminjam serta kategori buku yang di
pinjam
User dapat menampilkan data peningkatan atau
penurunan anggota baru setiap tahunnya
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sistem harus dapat melakukan transaksi
peminjaman:
User dapat mencatat semua transaksi
peminjaman
User dapat memasukan data-data dari
anggota baik nama, alamat, nomor
telepon dan lain-lain
User dapat memasukkan jumlah buku
yang di pinjam
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
User dapat memasukkan judul buku,
nama pengarang, dan nama penerbit
User dapat menampilkan tanggal kembali
buku yang di pinjam
User dapat mengetahui apakah anggota
sudah mengembalikan buku yang di
pinjam
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
User dapat menampilkan anggota yang
paling sering meminjam
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sistem harus dapat melakukan transaksi pengembalian:
User dapat mencatat semua transaksi
pengembalian
User dapat manampilkan judul buku,
nama pengarang, nama penerbit dari buku
yang di kembalikan
User dapat menampilkan denda yang
harus dibayar oleh peminjam buku (denda
1 buku Rp.100/perhari)
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
User dapat mengetahui total keseluruhan
buku yang di pinjam
User dapat menampilkan tanggal
pengembalian buku
User dapat menampilkan judul buku,
nama pengarang, dan nama penerbit dari
buku apabila peminjam menghilangkan
buku yang di pinjam
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
User dapat menampilkan harga buku yang
harus diganti oleh anggota apabila buku
tersebut hilang
User dapat mengetahui nama buku yang
belum di kembalikan oleh
peminjam/anggota
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
User dapat mengetahui nama anggota
beserta alamat anggota yang belum
mengembalikan buku beserta tanggal
buku tersebut harus di kembalikan
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
NONFUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Operasional
Digunakan pada system operasi Microsoft
Windows XP®, Microsoft Windows®
NT, Microsoft Windows®2000
Spesifikasi computer minimum Pentium
IIIKebutuhan memori 128 MB – 256 MB
RAM
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bisa dilengkapi barcode reader
Printer untuk mencetak kartu anggota
dan laporan keuangan maupun yang lainlain
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Security
Dilengkapi password untuk sistem
aplikasinya maupun databasenya
Dilengkapi dengan kamera untuk
mengawasi anggota yang membaca di
ruang baca dan ruang penyimpanan tas
yang tersambung kekomputer
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Informasi
Digunakan untuk menginformasikan
apabila password yang di masukkan oleh
user salah
Digunakan untuk menampilkan prosedur
pendaftaran anggota baru
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Performance
Waktu untuk transaksi peminjaman buku
dibatasi 2 menit
Waktu untuk transaksi pengembalian
buku di batasi 1 menit
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
REQUIREMENTSGATHERING TECHNIQUES
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
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Interviews
Most commonly used technique
Basic steps:
Selecting Interviewees
Designing Interview Questions
Preparing for the Interview
Conducting the Interview
Post-Interview Follow-up
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Selecting Interviewees
Based on information needs
Best to get different perspectives
Managers
Users
Ideally, all key stakeholders
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of Questions
Types of Questions
Closed-Ended Questions
Examples
*
*
*
Open-Ended Questions
*
*
*
Probing Questions
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*
*
*
How many telephone
orders are received per day?
How do customers place orders?
What additional information
would you like the new system
to provide?
What do you think about the
current system?
What are some of the problems
you face on a daily basis?
How do you decide what types of
marketing campaign to run?
Why?
Can you give me an example?
Can you explain that in a bit
more detail?
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Organizing Interview Questions
Unstructured interview useful early in
information gathering
Goal is broad, roughly defined information
Structured interview useful later in
process
Goal is very specific information
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structuring the Interview
EXAMPLES?
TOP DOWN
High Level:
Very General
Medium-Level:
Moderately
Specific
Low-Level:
Very Specific
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BOTTOM UP
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Interview Preparation Steps
Prepare general interview plan
List of question
Anticipated answers and follow-ups
Confirm areas of knowledge
Set priorities in case of time shortage
Prepare the interviewee
Schedule
Inform of reason for interview
Inform of areas of discussion
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conducting the Interview
Appear professional and unbiased
Record all information
Check on organizational policy regarding tape
recording
Be sure you understand all issues and terms
Separate facts from opinions
Give interviewee time to ask questions
Be sure to thank the interviewee
End on time
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conducting the Interview
Practical Tips
Take time to build rapport
Pay attention
Summarize key points
Be succinct
Be honest
Watch body language
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Post-Interview Follow-Up
Prepare interview notes
Prepare interview report
Have interviewee review and confirm
interview report
Look for gaps and new questions
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
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Joint Application Development
A structured group process focused on
determining requirements
Involves project team, users, and
management working together
May reduce scope creep by 50%
Very useful technique
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JAD Participants
Facilitator
Trained in JAD techniques
Sets agenda and guides group processes
Scribe(s)
Record content of JAD sessions
Users and managers from business area
with broad and detailed knowledge
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
JAD Sessions
Time commitment – ½ day to several
weeks
Strong management support is needed to
release key participants from their usual
responsibilities
Careful planning is essential
e-JAD can help alleviate some problems
inherent with groups
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JAD Meeting Room
JPEG Figure 5-5 Goes Here
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
The JAD Session
Formal agenda and ground rules
Top-down structure most successful
Facilitator activities
Keep session on track
Help with technical terms and jargon
Record group input
Stay neutral, but help resolve issues
Post-session follow-up report
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Managing Problems in JAD
Sessions
Reducing domination
Encouraging non-contributors
Side discussions
Agenda merry-go-round
Violent agreement
Unresolved conflict
True conflict
Use humor
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Questionnaires
A set of written questions, often sent to a large
number of people
May be paper-based or electronic
Select participants using samples of the population
Design the questions for clarity and ease of analysis
Administer the questionnaire and take steps to get a
good response rate
Questionnaire follow-up report
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Good Questionnaire Design
•Begin with non-threatening and interesting questions
•Group items into logically coherent sections
•Do not put important items at the very end of the questionnaire
•Do not crowd a page with too many items
•Avoid abbreviations
•Avoid biased or suggestive items or terms
•Number questions to avoid confusion
•Pretest the questionnaire to identify confusing questions
•Provide anonymity to respondents
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Document Analysis
Study of existing material describing the current
system
Forms, reports, policy manuals, organization charts
describe the formal system
Look for the informal system in user additions to
forms/report and unused form/report elements
User changes to existing forms/reports or non-use of
existing forms/reports suggest the system needs
modification
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Observation
Watch processes being performed
Users/managers often don’t accurately recall
everything they do
Checks validity of information gathered other ways
Be aware that behaviors change when people are
watched
Be unobtrusive
Identify peak and lull periods
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Selecting the Appropriate
Requirements-Gathering Techniques
Type of information
Depth of information
Breadth of information
Integration of information
User involvement
Cost
Combining techniques
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Selecting the Appropriate
Techniques
Interviews
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JAD
Questionnaires
Document
Analysis
Observation
Type of
Information
As-Is
Improve.
To-Be
As-Is
As-Is
Improve. Improve.
To-Be
As-Is
Depth of
Information
High
High
Medium
Low
Low
Breadth of
Information
Low
Medium
High
High
Low
Integration
of Info.
Low
High
Low
Low
Low
User
Medium
Involvement
High
Low
Low
Low
Cost
LowMedium
Medium
Low
Low
As-Is
LowMedium
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary
The analysis process focuses on capturing the
business requirements for the system
Functional and non-functional business
requirements tell what the system must do
Three main requirements analysis techniques
are BPA, BPI, and BPR
These techniques vary in potential business
value, but also in potential cost and risk
4 - 54
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
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Summary, continued
There are five major requirementsgathering techniques that all systems
analysts must be able to use: Interviews,
JAD, Questionnaires, Document
Analysis, and Observation.
Systems analysts must also know how and
when to use each as well as how to
combine methods.
4 - 55
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
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