Customer Relationship Management and

Customer Relationship Management
and Company Performance – the
mediating role of new product
(Ernst, Hoyer, Krafft, and Krieger)
Andang Fazri
• Penelitian-penelitian terdahulu kebanyakan
hanya meneliti hubungan CRM Process dan
Company Performance pada Project Level,
sehingga tidak menggambarkan CRM
perusahaan secara keseluruhan. Kemudian
juga terlalu fokus pada CRM existing
product (hal 291, CRM ignored ....)
• Hasil penelitian-penelitian terdahulu tidak
konsisten menghubungkan CRM Process
dan Company Performance, karena ada
missing link antara kedua variabel tersebut.
• Meneliti hubungan CRM Process dan
gambaran menyeluruh tentang CRM di
level perusahaan, serta juga fokus pada
pengembangan produk.
• Memasukkan New Product Performance
sebagai mediator antara CRM Process dan
menguji model tersebut. Selain itu juga
dimasukkan dan menguji moderating
variabel CRM Technology dan CRM
Rewards, serta variabel kontrol industry
Dasar Pemikiran
• The continuous development and launching of
new products is an important determinant of
sustained company performance (Sorescu and
Spanjol 2008; Zhou et al. 2005).
• One potentially effective strategy for reducing the
failure rate of new products and increasing new
product success is to align the new product
development (NPD) process with market
Szymanski 2001)
Dasar Pemikiran
• CRM involves the evolution and integration of marketing
ideas and newly available data, technologies, and
organizational forms, and it concentrates on establishing,
developing, and maintaining successful long-term
relationships with well-chosen customers (Boulding et al.
2005; Morgan and Hunt 1994; Reinartz et al. 2004)
• Because of its broader and integrated approach for
leveraging customer and market information, CRM should
have a much stronger impact on NPD performance than
single aspects of customer orientation.
CRM (Payne & Frow, 2005)
• define CRM in terms of three perspectives which lie along
a continuum: narrowly and tactically as a particular
technology solution, wide-ranging technology, and
customer centric.
• This CRM continuum reflects a continually changing
understanding in the literature about what constitutes
CRM. Initially, CRM was considered mainly as
information-technology (IT) enabled customer solutions,
such as sales force automation.
• Today, however, CRM is widely seen as a “holistic
approach to managing customer relationships to create
shareholder value” (Payne and Frow 2005, p. 168)
CRM (Payne & Frow, 2005)
• More specifically, this involves developing relationships
with key customers and customer segments. To do so,
CRM combines relationship marketing strategies and
relevant technology to create profitable, long-term
relationships with customers
• By focusing on CRM, companies acquire and use
customer information which aids in both understanding
and co-creating value with them.
CRM (Patvatiyar & Sheth, 2000)
• A critical aspect of CRM is that it involves strategic
processes that take place between an enterprise and its
customers (also Jayachandran, 2005)
• We therefore develop a strategic CRM framework that
focuses on important customer-specific processes,
namely identifying customers, differentiating among them,
and interacting with them (also Peppers et al, 1999)
Subdimensi CRM Process
• However, we extend previous research by
applying each of these three processes to
the context of NPD, thereby introducing a
new interpretation of CRM: (1) Customer
information management, (2) Customer
Segment Value Management, and (3)
Multi-channel management
Dasar Subdimensi CRM Process
• Customer information management - the key activity of identifying
customers and their needs can be accomplished by systematically
collecting and disseminating customer information (Boulding et al.
2005; Jayachandran et al. 2005). This knowledge can be used to
develop new products that are aligned with customer requirements
and create value for the firm (Payne and Frow 2005);
• Customer segment value management - in addition to customer
information management, differentiating CRM activities among
customers based on their preferences and value contribution to the
company is a key concept of CRM (Parvatiyar and Sheth 2000; Ryals
2005). This involves all activities that help to evaluate customers and
integrate information about them in organizational processes (Payne
and Frow 2005). In the context of NPD, this involves segmenting
customers according to the level of value they provide to the NPD
process. This value varies across customer segments.
Dasar Subdimensi CRM Process
• Multi-channel management- offering alternative means of
communication and channels of distribution is also
identified as a key CRM process. This involves the
systematic integration of multiple traditional and new
electronic communication channels to manage the dialog
with customers (Brown 2000; Payne and Frow 2005). In
the case of NPD, multi-channel management offers
various ways to interact with customers for the purpose of
generating and launching new products.
Dasar Var Kontrol Technology dan Rewards
• Not only does successful CRM involve the integration of
processes and technologies, but it also requires the
support of individual members of the organization. In
other words, CRM can fail if only a limited number of
employees are committed to the initiative. Thus,
employee engagement is a critical issue in CRM
implementation (Payne and Frow 2005).
• Reward systems are therefore a key way of incentivizing
employees to effectively implement CRM activities
(Reinartz et al. 2004)
Critical Aspect of Successful CRM
• Boulding et al. (2005) argued that the dual
creation of value (i.e. a win-win situation for
customers and the firm) is a critical aspect of
successful CRM.
• Thus, one could argue that new product
performance is one possible indicator for the
level of dual value creation achieved because
new products can only succeed in the market if
they create value both for customers (in terms of
wanted new products) and the firm (in terms of
sales and profits).
Key Aspect of CRM
• A key aspect of CRM is to differentiate between
customer segments and to customize marketing
activities to these segments (Reinartz et al.
• This is also considered to be a key component of
the dual creation of value process that
characterizes an effective CRM process (Payne
and Frow 2005).
• H1:
The more a firm implements its CRM processes of
customer information management, customer segment
value management, and multi-channel management in an
NPD context, the higher the firm’s new product
• H2:
The greater the use of CRM technology, the stronger the
positive link between CRM processes and new product
• H3:
The greater the level of CRM reward systems, the
stronger the positive link between CRM processes and
new product performance.
• H4:
The higher a firm’s new product performance, the higher
is its overall company performance.
• H5:
New product performance positively mediates the
relationship between CRM processes and overall
company performance.
MODEL penelitian
• Sampel
• Operationalization and Measures
• Analysis plan
• 200 perusahaan terbaik dari segi revenue
dari 6 sektor industri di Jerman, yang
menggambarkan ekonomi nasional. B2B 3
sektor industri, dan B2C juga 3 sektor.
• Kuesioner dikirim via email. Sebelumnya
dikonfirmasi kesediaan ikutserta dalam
berpartisipasi, terdiri dari 115 R&D mgr
dan 122 marketing mgr. Dengan sebaran
sampel merata utk tiap industri.
• Mencakup 3 tipe segmen: lead users,
economically valuable, dan opinion leader
Operationalization & Measure
• Constructs diperlakukan sebagai
indicatiors have an impact on the
single construct and that the
direction of casuality is from
measure to construct)
• 3 constructs baru juga diperlakukan
sebagai formative (CSVM, SIM, NPP)
• Skala pengukuran 1 – 7 (semantec
Analysis Plan
• Hipotesis diuji dengan Partial Least
Squares (PLS), metode analisis path
untuk latent variable dengan formative
• It is distribution free and compares favorably to
structural equation modeling because of its
strengths in prediction (Fornell and Bookstein
• PLS is also quite robust even if the error terms
of indicators or constructs are not normally
distributed, which is regularly the case in
empirical studies that are based on surveys.
• Hasil H1 s/d H5
• Riset menunjukkan efek yang tinggi
terhadap NPP
• CRM reward systems moderate CRM
dan NPP
• NPP memberi strong impact pada CP
Implikasi Akademis
• Key contribution: to conceptualize and
empirically investigate the viability of CRM
process in NPD
• Provide a more comprehensive and
understanding the performance effects of
customer-related activities in NPD at the
organizational level.
• Hypothesize moderating effects between
CRM process and both CRM reward system
and CRM technology on performance.
Implikasi Manajerial
• CRM can be leveraged to provide important
customer information which can be used to
improve NPP.
• Firms need to understand that linking CRM to NPD
is critical for increasing CP
• Penelitian ini memperkuat kesimpulan Reinartz (2005) bahwa CRM tidak hanya melibatkan
teknologi tetapi juga aspek lain terutama SDM.
• CRM teknologi harus direvisi untuk mengakomodir
new products context.
• CRM reward system do facilitate CRM process.
• Construct diukur pada level yang general,
misalnya teknologi, tidak meneliti semua
aplikasi yang spesifik.
• Studi ini cross-sectional, perlu pendekatan
survei yang dinamis.
• Karena dilakukan pada level SBU, tidak
fokus pada level project, padahal ada
memberikan kontribusi yang bagus.
Future Research
• Perlu diteliti apakan CRM mempengaruhi NPD
pada stages yang berbeda, misal lead user
merasa ide diperlukan pada awal, sedangkan
economically valuable merasa di pertengahan atau
akhir product development.
• Riset yang menghubungkan CRM process dengan
faktor sukses NPD klasik seperti proficiency of
NPD processes, top management support, NPD
strategy, corporate culture, etc. (Ernst 2002;
Henard and Szymanski 2001)
• Kesimpulan paling penting adalah, bahwa
NPP merupakan missing link yang
Company Performance.
Terima Kasih