Protecting Our Food Supply: Safety, Security,and Defense

Protecting Our Food Supply:
Safety Security Defense
Dr. Ray Burden, Associate Director
Center for Agriculture & Food Security &
University of Tennessee
 Varied, complex, & changing industry
 Global in scope
 Why are we concerned?
The Food Processing Industry
 Prepare raw food products for
 Processing procedures may be:
 Simple
 Washing produce
 Complex
 Producing cheese
Major Determinants of Processing
 Type of food
 Regulatory requirements
 Market place/ forces
 Available technology
Farm to Fork
Pre-harvest Food
Post-harvest Food
Farm Production
Retail Markets
Global Food Production
 Intensive production centers
produce food which provides:
 High-quality
 Infinite selection
 Low-priced
Valuing Agriculture and the Food Systems
 Five states (CA, IL, IA, NE, and TX) produce
one-third of total U.S. food & agricultural
 Agriculture of vital importance to economy of
most States
Food Supply Chain
 Food distributed and shipped globally
 Food travels 1200 or more miles from
production to consumption
 In a day one may easily consume food
from over 10 countries
 Globalization led to increases in:
– Trade of food products between nations
– Vulnerabilities of food system
Your Average American Hot Dog with Chili
and Onions…
White Pepper - Cambodia
Tomato Sauce - CA
Yeast - France
Wheat - KS
Beef - CO
Pork - Canada
Chili Powder - India
Paprika - Thailand
Diced Onions - Mexico
Packaging and
 Food products may be moved between
facilities where different processing may occur
 Example: Citrus Grower → Transport → Citrus
concentrate → Transport → Final citrus
product processed and packaged for sale →
Transport → Distributors → Transport
→Retail Sale
Imported Products and Ingredients
 Approximately 11 million
cargo containers enter
the United States every
 Only a small percentage
are inspected (3-5%)
Imported Products
and Ingredients
 US trades with over 150 countries/ territories
with products coming into over 300 ports
 ~ 15% of US food supply by volume imported
 Increases to 60% if include fresh fruits and
vegetables when US production out of season
 75% for seafood products
Agricultural and Food Supply Systems
Agriculture and food
systems are an “extensive,
open, interconnected,
diverse, and complex
structure…vulnerable to
(HSPD 9)
Tommy Thompson
Former Secretary of U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services (2004)
“For the life of me, I cannot
understand why the
terrorists have not
attacked our food supply,
because it is so easy to do.”
Why are we
 Intelligence has shown terrorists have planned
to attack agriculture and the food sector
 Manuals for intentional contamination of food
widely available
 Agriculture and food system “soft targets”
Food Terrorism
 Food or water can carry pathogens,
chemicals, and toxins to people to cause
illness or death
 Any incident would cause significant
psychological impact
2003 WHO Report
 Urged governments to create contingency
plans to protect against food terrorism
 Cited foodborne disease outbreaks to show
 “If an unintentional outbreak from one food, such
as clams, can affect 300,000 individuals, a
concerted, deliberate attack could be devastating,
especially if a more dangerous chemical,
biological or radionuclear agent was used.”
Use of Chemical and Biological
Weapons against the Food Supply
 1984- Contamination of salad bar in Oregon
with Salmonella. 751 persons ill
 2003- Contamination of ground beef with
nicotine in Michigan. 111 sick, 45 hospitalized
 2002- Snack food contaminated with rat
poison in China. 300 sick, 40 child deaths
Food Threat Agents
 CDC Category A agents
 B. anthracis and Clostridium botulinum toxin
 CDC Category B agents
 Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens
 Salmonella species, Escherichia coli O157:H7,
 Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor
 Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B
Food Vulnerabilities in Transport
FSIS food chain assessments highlighted key
 Personnel handling/transporting food
 Failure to report suspect issues
 Communication between public and private sector
 Lack of standard use of seals
 Food at rest is at risk
Transport Issues
 Meat & poultry products smuggled into U.S.
by ship, truck, air, automobile, mail, &
passenger luggage
 Transport by sea container extremely
vulnerable and major mode of transport of
illegal drugs into U.S.
Transport Issues
 Container documentation typically provides
only limited details about contents, sender,
and ultimate recipient.
 Goods transported by truck or rail highly
vulnerable since difficult to thoroughly
Transport Issues
 Port employees may participate in an act of
intentional adulteration.
 GAO has estimated that at port facilities,
over 80 percent of cargo theft is perpetrated
by personnel whose employment gives them
direct access to the cargo.
 Trucking major form of transporting food
both in foreign countries and within U.S
 Many trucks not sealed with tamper-proof or
tamper-evident locks or seals
 Trucks may make multiple stops to pick up
and unload products
 Recently, in two separate incidents, cocaine
found inside packages of ground beef
destined for school lunch program.
 Highlights vulnerability of truck
Food Terrorism
Direct Effects
 Human illness or death
 Mental anguish / Generate fear
 Decreased productivity or death in animals or
 Product recalls and destruction of product
 Losses associated with clean up efforts
Food Terrorism Indirect Effects
 Loss of consumer
 Loss of jobs
 Trade restrictions
 Market destabilization
 Undermine confidence
in government
2005 – E. coli O157:H7 outbreak
associated with pre-packaged
lettuce caused drop in sales
Why should we
be concerned?
 Numerous possibilities for contamination
exist from processing to shipping
 Can impact the safety of the food supply
 Contamination at one point in the system can
spread globally with a resulting huge impact
in terms of human illness and/or death
Plastics chemical can make feed appear
more protein-rich
Updated 8:50 p.m. ET, Fri., April. 20, 2007
Melamine- Case Study
 Chemical used in a variety of industrial
manufacturing processes
 Not approved for addition to human or
animal foods in the U.S.
 When added to food products, it elevates
the protein content of the product
 Used as an adulterant for economic benefit
in China
Melamine- Case Study
 Contamination of US pet food (wheat gluten)
in 2007
 Dogs and cats that consumed adulterated pet
food developed kidney failure and many died
 Contaminated infant formula in China in
 More than 47,000 infants and young children
hospitalized for urinary problems, possible renal
tube blockages and kidney stones.
 Four infant deaths confirmed.
FDA Advisories- Possible melamine
 Topaz Wafer Rolls with
Various Cream Fillings
G&J Hot Cocoa Stuffer Item
G&J Cocoa items
Wonderfarm Variety Assorted
Sweet Time Christmas Dressy
Bear with Chocolate Bar Fresh
and Crispy Jacobina Biscuits
 Koala’s March Crème filled
White Rabbit Candies
Mr. Brown Various Blends
Instant Coffee
Mr. Brown Milk Tea (3-in-1)
YILI Brand Milk Drinks
Blue Cat Flavored Drinks
Infant formula
manufactured in China
Hydrolyzed leather protein
Center for Agriculture & Food Security &
Preparedness- University of Tennessee
 Opened October 16, 2006
 Primary focus to assist the
nation to protect its critical
infrastructure, including
agriculture and food supply
 ~8 million in funded projects
 Funded projects: DHS, USDA,
FDA, TN Dept of Ag, state
Homeland Security
National Training Programs
 Agriculture and Food Vulnerability Assessment
 Importation and Transportation of Food
 Credentialing of Animal Emergency
Geared towards frontline officials and
responders- Adult Learners
Agriculture and Food Vulnerability
Assessment Training Program
MGT 332
MGT 337
 2 ½ days
 1 ½ days
 Case studies on crops,
 Subset of MGT 332
animal facilities and
food processing
 Focus on food
Sharing of Information & Intelligence on
the Importation & Transportation of Food
 Food transportation consistently ranked as
one of the most vulnerable links in our food
 3 components:
 Web-based course
 Instructor-led course- 1 day
 Video for Transportation Industry
 ILT available January 2011
Food Safety Modernization Act
 Integrated Food Safety System (IFSS)
 Multiple focus points
 transportation and importation
 Increase training for food inspectors at all levels
 Food defense
 Emphasis on training food inspectors at all
 Food Safety during disasters
 Partner with NMSU and U of HI
 Focus on importation and ethnic foods
 Central and South America
 Pacific Rim
 Cultural competency for inspectors
 Training for food inspectors during disasters
 Concerns over the potential for intentional
contamination of food are valid
 Food Protection
Safety Security Defense
[email protected]