Sapphire Energy - Algae Biomass Organization

Algae Biomass Summit
DATE: October 1, 2014
1 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Jonathan L. Male
Bioenergy Technologies Office
Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Overview
II. Algae Program Research and Development Portfolio
III. Algae Program Demonstration Portfolio
IV. Recent Awards
V. Upcoming FOAs
2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
The Challenge and The Opportunity
The Challenge
• More than 13 million barrels of petroleum based fuels are required daily for the U.S.
transportation sector – 8.5 million barrels of gasoline for the motor vehicles alone.1
• 67% of U.S. petroleum consumption is in the transportation sector ($350 billion) 2
• 7% of U.S. petroleum consumption is for chemicals and products sector ($255 billion) 2
– Relative value is much higher for chemicals and products.
The Opportunity
• Biomass is the leading renewable resource that can provide drop-in fuel replacements
utilizing existing infrastructure for light and heavy duty vehicles and air transportation1
• More than 1 billion tons of sustainable biomass could be produced in the U.S. which can
provide fuel for vehicles and aviation, make chemicals, and produce power for the grid.
• 30% of U.S. petroleum usage could be displaced using terrestrial biomass by 2030 3
– This does NOT take into account algae which could provide up to 5 billion gallons/year
• High value chemicals and products from biomass can stimulate biofuels production.
1 Energy
Information Administration, 2012 Energy Review, U.S. Department of Energy, 2013
John, Redefining Chemical Manufacture, Industrial Biotechnology, Spring 2005 (numbers are assumed to be annual figures for 2004)
3 Update to the Billion-ton Study, U.S. Department of Energy, 2011
2 Frost,
3 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Mission and Strategic Goal
Develop and transform our renewable biomass resources into commercially
viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower through targeted
research, development, demonstration, and deployment supported through
public and private partnerships.
Develop commercially viable biomass utilization technologies to enable the
sustainable, nationwide production of biofuels that are compatible with today’s
transportation infrastructure and can displace a share of petroleum-derived fuels
to reduce U.S. dependence on oil and encourage the creation of a new domestic
bioenergy industry.
By 2017, validate a $3/GGE hydrocarbon biofuel (with ≥50% reduction in GHG
emissions relative to petroleum-derived fuel) for a mature modeled price for at
least one hydrocarbon technology pathway at pilot scale.
By 2022, validate hydrocarbon biofuels production at >1 ton/day from at least
two additional technology pathways at pilot or demonstration scale.
4 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Benefits of Algal Biofuels
 High productivity relative to terrestrial
 Adds value to unproductive or marginal lands.
 Able to use waste and salt water.
 Able to recycle carbon dioxide.
 Able to provide valuable co-products, such as
protein to meet animal feed needs.
 Produces a range of biofuels including gasoline,
diesel, jet fuel, and ethanol.
 Potential to be a high-impact feedstockincreasing the U.S. domestic biomass feedstock
production potential by 5 billion gallons per year.
Photos Courtesy of Sapphire Energy
Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a
Harmonized Model; ANL, NREL, and PNNL; June 2012.
5 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Significant Commercialization Challenges
There are two overarching challenges to reaching program costs and performance
(1) Reducing costs of production.
(2) Ensuring sustainability and availability of resources.
Affordable and scalable algal biomass production:
Current commercial technologies are designed for production of high-value products rather
than high-yielding commodity-scale products.
Current facilities use high-cost liners, nutrients, and predator controls.
Siting and sustainability of resources:
Nutrient recycle has limited use.
CO2 delivery requirements limit siting decisions.
Cultivation currently requires significant water resources.
Harvesting and preprocessing technologies are not energy efficient.
Competition for CO2 has significantly increased its cost.
6 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Photos Courtesy Sapphire Energy
Algae Program Goals and Objectives
Program Performance Goal
• Develop and demonstrate technologies that make sustainable algal biofuel intermediate
feedstocks that perform reliably in conversion processes to yield renewable diesel, jet,
and gasoline in support of the BETO’s $3/gge biofuel goal in 2022.
Set aggressive productivity targets (1,500 gallons of biofuel intermediate per acre annual average
by 2014 – achieved; 2,500 gallons by 2020; and 5,000 gallons by 2022).
Use techno-economic, life-cycle analysis, and other validated models as tools to direct research and
development; evaluate performance towards goals; and down-select pathways, processes, and
performers as appropriate.
Leverage a strong foundation of ecology, advanced biology, and physiology to improve yield and
Incorporate engineering solutions to reduce operating costs.
Photo Courtesy of ATP3
7 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Photo Courtesy of Texas A&M
Courtesy Sapphire Energy, LLC
Program Approach: Integrated Research and Development
To achieve program goals, the Algae Program funds research and
development across technology readiness levels (TRL 2-6) within a
broad portfolio of disciplines across the production and logistics chain,
while interfacing with the Conversion, and Demonstration and Market
Transformation Programs.
8 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
BETO’s Current Algae Funding Profiles
Funding By Recipient Group
Funding By Technical Area
9 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Benchmarking Progress: Technology Pathway Baselines
High Priority Pathways
• Advanced algal lipid extraction and upgrading (ALU).
• Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading (AHTL).
Pathways analysis will result in national laboratory-led design case studies
for the BETO to benchmark progress towards $3/gge algal biofuel.
Nutrient Recycle
1: ALU
Solvent Extraction
Harvest Water Recycle
Nutrient Recycle
10 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Consortia Successes
National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB)
$50M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds; led by the Donald
Danforth Plant Sciences Center and included 38 partners.
o New production strains isolated as well as genetically engineered (productivity greater than 20 g/m 2/d)
o New low-energy, temperature regulating, open pond cultivation system (Algae Raceway Integrated
Design - ARID)
o Electrocoagulation harvesting technology improved energy return on investment
o Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) for intermediate oil production demonstrated at
continuous operation at Pacific Northwest National Lab with the continuous plug flow reactor.
o HTL can produce renewable diesel from low-lipid, wet algae and captures > 60% of the biogenic
o Analysis shows combined innovations can reduce the cost of algal biofuel to $5 per gallon.
Consortium for Algal Biofuels Commercialization (CAB-Comm)
$9M in FY10-appropriated funds, $2M in FY14 funds; led by University of California, San Diego.
o Genetic engineering breakthroughs allowed for insertion and expression of desirable genes.
o Recent metabolic engineering of algae (diatom) demonstrated the ability to improve lipid yield without
inhibiting growth.
11 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Next Steps: Scaling-up Algae Research and Development
Managing Applied Algae R&D in Commercially Relevant Scales
• Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership and Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed Partnership
(FY12 $15 million, FY13 $8 million)
Long-term, synchronized cultivation trials and user-facilities across the country to help scale lab
work to production environments and provide data for Program analyses, reducing risk to startup companies and smaller algae entities.
• Advancements in Algal Biomass Yield Projects (FY13 $16.5 million, FY14 $3.5 million)
Projects are integrating R&D on increased biological productivity, efficient harvest and
preprocessing, and decreased capital and operating costs in order to achieve the target of
demonstrating a biofuel intermediate yield of greater than 2,500 gallons per acre by 2020.
o Hawaii Bioenergy, Sapphire Energy, California Polytechnic State University, New Mexico State
University, and Cellana, LLC.
NMSU Containment Basin
Sapphire Energy’s Green
Crude Farm
Sapphire Energy
Hawaii Bioenergy’s Algae Farm
Cellana’s Demonstration Facility
12 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
CalPoly’s Delhi WWT plant site
Demonstration and Market Transformation Portfolio – Overview
The Demonstration and
Deployment Program manages
a diverse portfolio of projects
focused on the scale-up of
biofuel production
technologies from pilot- to
demonstration- to pioneerscale.
Of the 33 biorefineries that
have received funding through
BETO, 3 have been completed,
5 are in close-out, and 5 have
been either terminated or
The remaining 20 biorefineries
are considered active and
utilize a broad spectrum of
feedstocks and conversion
There are 4 algae projects:
Sapphire, Solazyme, Algenol,
and BioProcess Algae.
13 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Map of BETO-funded Projects
Note: Bioprocess is the only I-Pilot Project that appears on
this map.
For more information visit:
Demonstration Portfolio
• Algenol’s technology utilizes blue-green algae to directly produce
ethanol; hydrothermal liquefaction can also be used to produce
hydrocarbon fuels from wet algae. Marine blue-green algae is also
cultivated in vertical photobioreactors (PBRs) in salt water.
• Recent progress includes continuous operation for 6 months of a 40
block unit (40 PBRs); and continuous operation for an extended
period of a 4,000 block unit (4,000 PBRs in 1 acre).
• Goal for full capacity is 100,000 gallons/year; the project is scheduled
for completion in December 2014.
• Solazyme’s technology utilizes sucrose and cellulosic-derived sugars
fed into a heterotrophic algae system to produce jet fuel and diesel.
Dark fermentation is used to accelerate the microalgae’s oil
• Solazyme works with Chevron, UOP Honeywell, and other industry
refining partners to produce renewable diesel for vehicles and ships,
and renewable jet fuel for both military and commercial application
• Performance tests utilizing cellulosic-derived sugars was completed
in January 2014; the completed facility is expected to have a capacity
of 300,000 gallons/year.
14 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Demonstration Portfolio
Sapphire Energy
• Sapphire’s algae is cultivated in open raceway ponds; “green
crude” is converted into jet fuel and diesel.
• Sapphire has completed continuous operation of at least 22
acres of ponds exceeding 15 months.
• Sapphire repaid its USDA Loan Guarantee ahead of schedule,
and has signed a joint development agreement with Phillips
66, and partnered with the Linde Group and Tesoro Refining.
• The completed facility is expected to have a biofuel capacity of
1,000,000 gallons/year.
BioProcess Algae
• BioProcess produces kilogram quantities of heterotrophic
lipids using a mixo-trophic algal system co-located at an
ethanol plant ready for refining into on-spec military fuels (F76, JP-5 and JP-8).
• The project comprises 9 greenhouses, on 14 acres, and is
designed to process 2.5 tons per day.
• This project is a new start, the project was selected in FY13,
and validation is expected in FY14.
15 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Recent BETO Award Announcements
Algal Biofuels Research
Following a 2013 FOA, DOE announced $3.5M in additional funding to support the
Department’s goal of producing 2,500 gallons of algal biofuel feedstock per acre per year
by 2018, an important milestone toward reducing the cost of algal biofuels to costcompetitive levels of 5,000 gallons per acre per year by 2022.
• Cellana, LLC, in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, was selected to receive $3.5M to develop a fully
integrated, high-yield algae feedstock production system by integrating the most
advanced strain improvement, cultivation, and processing technologies into their
operations at Kona Demonstration Facility.
Carbon, Hydrogen and Separation Efficiencies
Following a 2013 FOA, DOE announced $6.3M in additional funding to support lowering
production costs by maximizing the renewable carbon and hydrogen from biomass that
can be converted to fuels and improving the separation processes in bio-oil production to
remove non-fuel components. One of these awards is:
• SRI International of Menlo Park, California will receive $3.2M to produce a bio-crude oil
from algal biomass that will maximize the amount of renewable carbon recovered for
use in fuel and reduce the nitrogen content of the product in order to meet fuel quality
16 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
New Funding Opportunity
• GOAL: The Targeted Algal Biofuels and Bioproducts (TABB) FOA seeks to
reduce the cost of algal biofuels from $7 per gallon – the current
projected state of technology for 2019 without this FOA – to less than $5
per gallon algal biofuel by 2019, through non-integrated bench and
process development scale technology improvements.
• CHALLENGES: Algae Program funded work has highlighted barriers to
broad commercialization must be overcome with both higher yields in
scalable cultivation systems and higher value of the algal biomass.
• FOA OBJECTIVES: The FOA selection process will identify projects in two
topic areas:
1. Multi-disciplinary consortia that bring together upstream and downstream
expertise to develop algae cultures that produce valuable bioproduct
precursors, alongside fuel components, to increase the overall value of the
2. Single investigator or small team technology development projects focused
on developing crop protection and CO2 utilization technologies to increase
• ADDITION TO PORTFOLIO: This FOA builds on the existing advances
towards productivity goals, but is unique from all prior efforts in that the
FOA outcome will be a finished fuel rather than a biofuel intermediate.
This FOA is the first from the Algae Program to explicitly fund bioproducts
R&D in addition to biofuels.
• Concept papers due: 10/30/2014
• Full applications due: 12/15/2014
17 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Photo credits NREL and Arizona State University
Additional Slides
18 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
EERE Organization Chart
Assistant Secretary
David Danielson
Principal Deputy
Assistant Secretary
Michael Carr
Office of
Office of
Renewable Power
Office of Energy
Operations &Strategic
Innovation Office
Office (VTO)
Solar Energy
Office (SETO)
Office (BTO)
Office (BETO)
Office (GTO)
Federal Energy
Mgmt. Program
Fuel Cell
Office (FCTO)
Wind & Water
Office (WPTO)
Office (AMO)
Weatherization &
Programs Office
Office (SPO)
Office of Strategic
Programs (SP)
Legislative Affairs
Services Office
Office (PMCO)
Technology to
Office (WMO)
Policy & Analysis
Golden Service
Center (GSC)
19 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Office of Business
Operations (BO)
Office of Financial
Management (FM)
Budget Office
R&D Breakthroughs
Texas A&M, Pecos Site
The following R&D breakthroughs have high-impact commercial applications:
NAABB has screened over 1,500 strains and identified 30
promising algae that show marked improvement over
baseline production.
High-yield strains have been shared with partners for
testing in their outdoor cultivation facilities.
Development of “Rainbow Algae,” the result of stacking multiple traits
localized throughout genome with robust expression and targeted
protein localization.
This has resulted in high-impact demonstration of genetic engineering
breakthroughs to allow for the insertion and expression of genes as
well as the tagging of proteins throughout the algal cell.
Researchers at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography made
a significant breakthrough in the metabolic engineering of
algae to improve yield of lipids (the energy-storing fat
molecules that can be used in biofuel production) without
inhibiting growth.
20 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Texas A&M, Pecos Site
A scanning electron microscope image of the diatom
Thalassiosira pseudonana
R&D Breakthroughs
• Molecular toolboxes developed for 5
production strains coupled with climatesimulating PBRs.
• High-throughput pipeline of genomes
and transcriptomes to target genes of
interest and evaluate biomass
potential in simulated production
• Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction
demonstrated at continuous operation including
separations, upgrading, and carbon recovery
from waste-water for multiple algal feedstocks.
• Design basis allows for production of advanced
renewable diesel from fast-growing, low-lipid
algae and captures > 60% of the biogenic carbon
in the biofuel.
21 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Baseline and Projections: HTL Pathway
• A major NAABB Consortium breakthrough
is a new technology pathway which
implements the hydrothermal liquefaction
(HTL) of whole wet algae biomass.
• HTL avoids the steps of biomass drying
and solvent extraction of lipids, and is
ideal for lower lipid content strains as well
as algae cultures of more than one strain.
• The Pacific Northwest National Lab HTL
Design Case shows pathway to highimpact algal biofuel, projecting a $4.49
per gallon gasoline equivalent price by
Whole Algae HTL
• 40-70%
of the carbon
Algae in
in oil.
• 57 - 70%
of the carbon in
in oil
• Carbon
• Carbon retained
hydrotreating (70-90 wt%)
• Waste-water cleanup captures
• Aqueous carbon capture as
additional carbon as biogas.
HT Fuel
Algae Slurry
Photo courtesy of PNNL
Source: Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and
Upgrading, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, March 2014.
22 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Baseline and Projections: ALU Pathway
Algae Production and Logistics Minimum Fuel Selling Price for
Lipid Extraction Pathway
Projected Minimum Fuel Selling Price $/gge
Anaerobic Digestion
• The greatest opportunity area
for reducing costs is
production systems
o Improved biomass yield
o Reduced cultivation
capital costs (e.g.,
eliminating plastic pond
• Significant cost improvements
are also projected in feedstock
harvest and preprocessing.
BETO Multiyear Program Plan: Baseline and Projections
23 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Algal Biomass Yield (ABY) FOA Selections
ABY Goal: Through integrated R&D on algal biology and
downstream processing, demonstrate biofuel
intermediate yield of greater than 2,500 gallons per
acre by 2018.
• Hawaii Bioenergy: The project will develop a costeffective photosynthetic open-pond system to
extract algal oil.
• Sapphire Energy: The project will work on improving
algae strains and increasing yield through cultivation
improvements and thermal processing of whole
• New Mexico State University: The project will
genetically engineer improved productivity of a
microalgae and develop a 2-stage thermal
processing system.
• California Polytechnic State University: The project
will be based at a municipal wastewater treatment
plant in Delhi, California, that has six acres of algae
24 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Photograph of the 8 acre Hawaii Bioenergy Algae Farm
Google Maps image of the Sapphire Energy field site image of Delhi WWT Plant in central California
Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership (ATP3)
DOE investment of $15M over a 5 year performance period
Collaborative Open Testbeds
Establish a network of testing facilities for the algal research community and
increase stakeholder access to real-world conditions for algal biomass
Through facility infrastructure, enable the acceleration of applied algae
research, development, investment, and commercial applications for biofuel
feedstock production.
High Impact Data from Long Term Algal Cultivation Trials
Design and implement a unified experimental program across different
regional, seasonal, environmental and operational conditions comparing
promising production strains at meaningful scales.
Feedstock trial data will be made widely available to economic and
greenhouse gas models and overall research community allowing for a
robust analysis of the state of technology.
Regional testbed facilities for the partnership are physically located in
Arizona, Hawaii, California, Ohio, Georgia, and Florida.
Completed the Go/No Go Review on January 29, 2014 and was
recommended to proceed forward.
ATP3 has successfully increased its industry participation by adding
four additional stakeholders.
25 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Photos courtesy of ATP3
Regional Algal Feedstock Testbeds (RAFT) Partnership
DOE Investment of $8M over a 4 year performance period
FY13 CR allowed for an additional selection of a down-scoped award.
RAFT leverages work and partnerships formed during the National
Alliance of Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) Consortia (ARRA
RAFT is coordinating feedstock trials with ATP3 to improve laboratory
standards and collect data from geographically diverse sites.
Obtain long term algal cultivation data in outdoor pond systems to
determine how much biomass and lipid can be obtained from algae
growing year round at pilot scale.
Optimize biomass and lipid content for production of biofuel using
impaired waters.
Develop real time sensors and control strategies for efficient cultivation.
Improve and refine cultivation models, as well as system technoeconomic models and life cycle assessments.
Testbeds located in Tucson, AZ; Pecos, TX; Las Cruces, NM, and the
Pacific Northwest.
RAFT had a successful kick-off in December 2013.
RAFT has initiated unified production experiments with ATP3.
26 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Photos courtesy of RAFT
Defense Production Act (DPA) Initiative
In July 2011, the Secretaries of Agriculture, Energy, and Navy signed a Memorandum of Understanding
to commit $510 M ($170 M from each agency) to produce hydrocarbon jet and diesel biofuels in the
near term. This initiative sought to achieve:
Multiple, commercial-scale integrated biorefineries
Cost-competitive biofuel with conventional petroleum
(without subsidies).
Domestically produced fuels from non-food feedstocks.
Drop-in, fully compatible, MILSPEC fuels (F-76, JP-5, JP8).
Help meet the Navy’s demand for 1.26 billion gallons of fuel per year.
Contribute to the Navy’s goal of launching the “Great Green Fleet” in
Demonstration of the production and use of more than 100 million
gallons per year will dramatically reduce risk for drop-in biofuels
production and adoption.
On September 19th, three projects were selected for
construction and commissioning:
27 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Conversion Pathway
Capacity (MMgpy)
Gulf Coast
Fats, Oils, and
Hydroprocessed Esters and
Fatty Acids (HEFA)
McCarran, NV
Solid Waste
Gasification – Fischer
Tröpsch (FT)
Lakeview, OR
Gasification – Fischer
Tröpsch (FT)
Aviation Biofuels: Accomplishments/Milestones
The Commercial Alternative Aviation Fuels Initiative (CAAFI) has set a goal of 1 billion gallons
per year of alternative jet fuel by 2018 (the commercial aviation market currently 20 billion
gallons per year), and DOE is playing an active role by providing technical expertise in various
high-level aviation activities, including:
• Becoming the latest partner agency for Farm to Fly 2.0, joining the
aviation sector as well as Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) in an agreement to enable commercially
viable and sustainable jet fuels in the U.S.
• Serving on CAAFI Steering Group and as a co-host with the FAA for the
Aviation Biofuels Techno-Economic Analysis Workshop, November 2012.
• Working with FAA to develop a National Alternative Jet
Fuels Strategy Roadmap (December 2014).
• Supporting FAA’s newly established Center of
Excellence in alternative jet fuels led by Washington
State University/MIT, and supported by National
Renewable Energy Laboratory and Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory.
• Increasing technical work at National Laboratories to
enable achievement of alternative jet fuel goals.
28 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Significant Program Progress
• Significant progress has been made as a result of DOE investment over the
past 3 years in advancing the baseline described in the BETO Multi-Year
Program Plan
• Innovative work across the value chain is showing promise in reducing costs:
• Increased productivity achieved through new strains, strain engineering,
breeding, and application of polycultures
• Advances in sustained outdoor cultivation through crop protection, nutrient
management, and pond design and managements
• Process engineering leading to highly efficient biomass to biofuel intermediate
yields in the 60-70% range. (Demonstrated by Bioprocess Algae and the National
Alliance of Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts Consortium)
• Higher yields lead to greater than 50% reductions in land and water requirements
in order to achieve 5 billion gallons per year production scenario.
29 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Algae R&D Sites
PNNL & New Mexico State University
California Polytechnic State University
Cal Poly San Luis Obispo Test Bed
Sapphire Energy
University of Arizona
Georgia Institute of Technology Test Bed
New Mexico State University
Texas A&M University
Hawaii Bioenergy
Cellana, LLC
30 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Test Bed Facilities
Regional Algae Feedstock Trials
ABY Selections
BETO’s Core Focus Areas
Program Portfolio Management
• Planning • Systems-Level Analysis • Performance Validation and Assessment
• MYPP • Peer Review • Merit Review • Quarterly Portfolio Review
• Competitive • Non-competitive • Lab Capabilities Matrix
Research, Development, Demonstration, & Market Transformation
Supply &
Logistics R&D
Logistics Preprocessing
Conversion R&D
& Market Transformation
• Integrated
• Biofuels
Cross Cutting
• Sustainability
• Sustainable
31 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Strategic Analysis
• Technology and
• Market and
Impact Analysis
• Model Development & Data
Strategic Communications
• New Communications
Vehicles & Outlets
• Awareness and Support of
• Benefits of
Key Challenge for Innovation Involves Lowering Risks
De-risking technologies is central to R&D through demonstration
that addresses greater integration and scale:
• BETO is focusing on advancing renewable gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels technologies.
• Technical, construction, operational and financial/market risks.
Key Challenges
• Reliable supply
• Consistent quality
• Affordable delivery
32 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
• Biomass feeding, sizing
and moisture
• Solids handling
• Construction materials
Products Yields
Construction materials
Fermentation organisms
• Separations
• Catalytic upgrading
• Recycle loops
Replacing the Whole Barrel
Greater focus is needed on RD&D
for a range of technologies to
displace the entire barrel of
petroleum crude.
• U.S. spends about $1 Billion each day on
crude oil imports.*
• Only about 40% of a barrel of crude oil is
used to produce petroleum gasoline.
• Cellulosic ethanol can only displace the
portion of the barrel that is made into
• Reducing our dependence on oil also
requires replacing diesel, jet fuel, heavy
distillates, and a range of other chemicals
and products that are currently derived
from crude oil.
*American Petroleum Institute
33 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
A 42-gallon (U.S.) barrel of crude oil yields about 45 gallons of petroleum products.
Demonstration Portfolio – Key Algae Projects: Algenol (Pilot-Scale)
• Overexpression of fermentation pathway enzymes in blue-green algae to directly produce ethanol,
as well as hydrothermal liquefaction of wet algae to hydrocarbon fuels.
• Cultivation of marine blue-green algae in vertical photobioreactors (salt water).
• 40 Block (40 PBRs) operated continuously for over 6 months.
• 4,000 Block (4,000 PBRs in 1 acre) operated successfully and continuously for extended period.
• Downstream processing unit operations in place and in various stages of shakedown,
commissioning, and operation.
• Successfully generating an average of 6,000 gallons/acre/year of ethanol.
• 31 issued patents and 63 pending applications.
• Goal for full capacity is 100,000 gallons/year.
• Project is scheduled for completion in December 2014.
34 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Membrane Dehydration Skid
Hydrothermal Liquefaction Unit
Photos courtesy of Algenol
Solazyme, Inc.: Pilot-Scale
Industrial fermentation
• Sucrose and cellulosic-derived sugar fed heterotrophic
algae system to produce renewable jet fuel and diesel.
• Utilizes dark fermentation to accelerate the micralgae‘s
natural oil production.
• Capicity of facility is for 500,000 L of oil.
• Works with Chevron, UOP Honeywell, and other
industry refining partners to produce renewable diesel,
renewable diesel for ships, and renewable jet fuel for
both military and commercial application testing.
• Mechanical completion mid-year 2012.
• Sucrose optimization runs complete.
• Performance test utilizing cellulosic-derived sugars
completed January 2014.
• Biofuel capacity of 300,000 gallons/year.
35 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Photos courtesy of Solazyme
BioProcess Algae: Pilot-Scale
• Produce kilogram quantities of heterotrophic lipids using a mixo-trophic algal
system co-located at an ethanol plant ready for refining into on-spec military
fuels (F-76, JP-5 and JP-8).
• Project comprises 9 greenhouses, on 14 acres, and is designed to process
2.5 tons per day.
• This project is a new start this year. Project was selected in FY13, validation is
expected in FY14.
• Long-lead bench equipment in operation.
• On-spec biomass production complete, extraction and refining complete.
• Hydroprocessing of bio-oils and crude extracted oil complete.
Photos courtesy of BioProcess Algae
36 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
Sapphire Energy, Inc.: Demonstration-Scale
• Cultivation in open raceway ponds.
• Convert to a “Green Crude” for conversion into jet fuel and diesel.
Continuous operation of at least 22 acres of ponds exceeding 15 months.
Repaid USDA Loan Guarantee ahead of schedule, project self-financed.
Signed joint development agreement with Phillips 66.
Expanded partnership with Linde Group to commercialize its downstream conversion technology.
Entered a commercial agreement with Tesoro Refining for the purchase of Sapphire’s Green Crude.
Biofuel capacity of 1,000,000 gallons/year.
Photos courtesy of Sapphire Energy
37 | Bioenergy Technologies Office
May Contain Business Sensitive and Proprietary Information
Upcoming Event
Waste to Energy Roadmapping Workshop
• BETO is organizing a Workshop on Waste-to-Energy, which is
scheduled to take place November 5, 2014 in Washington, DC.
• Identify and address technical barriers in the Waste to Energy space
presently limiting commercial operations
• Topics of Specific Interest:
Wastewater residuals and biosolids
Foodstuffs and other wet, organic municipal solid waste
Anaerobic digestion
Hydrothermal liquefaction
• If you are interested in attending or for more information please
38 | Bioenergy Technologies Office