Sampling Methods and Quality Assurance Plan

Sampling Methods
Quality Assurance Plan
Presented by:
Er. Bhagawan Shrestha
Quality Assurance Plan
Total Quality management (TQM)
• As defined by ISO: “TQM is a management
approach of an organisation, centered on
Quality, based on participation of all its
members of the organisation and aiming at
long-term success through customer
satisfection, and benefits to all the members
of the organisation and the Society”.
Elements of a Quality Assurance
System for Road Project
A. Assessment of Requirements of Road
Project- design criteria/design life/ minimum
acceptable level of riding quality – higher the
standard of road, higher will be the cost.
B. Choice of Quality Materials and Design –
Evaluating pavement thickness and
composition for the assessed traffic and
subgrade conditions to meet the design
riding quality
Elements of a Quality Assurance
C. Development of technical specifications and acceptance
criteriai. Every Government/department own Standard Technical
Specifications consisting of best practices of construction,
selection of materials, use of equipment and acceptable
criteria .
ii. For new items, additional Specifications must be drawn
up, based on practices elsewhere for similar works.
Depending upon the type of road facility and the
minimum acceptable riding quality requirements, related
acceptance criteria for various items of works should be
set forth, based on past experience.
Elements of a Quality Assurance
D. Choice of construction method/equipment/ plant
• Must meet requirement of technical specification as demanded by
design criteria
E. Field supervision and Quality Control of materials, construction
technique, surface finish to desired profiles – Quality control is
the task of :
Inspection and testing of materials, production process and the
end product
Measuring variations from the predetermined standards
Taking corrective action to minimize adverse variations and
Accepting or rejecting the works
Elements of a Quality Assurance
F. Assessment of Quality of finished roaddesired quality of end product has indeed
been achieved
G. Periodic inspection and maintenance
measures – maintenance during defect
liability period. A good quality assurance
system covers entire life cycle period of a
Quality Control System
• Quality control system comprises methods, procedures
and organization for Quality Control of works and is
implemented in following sequences:
i. Compliant testing for materials including laboratory
ii. Compliant testing for methods and equipment prior
to commencement of work, including site trials or
trial sections,
iii. Control testing during construction (process control),
iv. Acceptant testing on completed works or parts of
Quality Control System(contd.)
• Contractor carries out all necessary tests and
reports to the Engineer results of such tests
before submitting materials and/or finished
works or part of works to Engineer for
• For satisfying himself about quality of works,
quality control tests shall be carried out by
Engineer himself or by any other agencies
deemed fit by Engineer.
Quality Control System(contd.)
• Before commencement of works, Contractor
demonstrates a trial run of all construction
equipment for establishing their capability to
achieve requirement of Specifications and
tolerances to satisfaction of Engineer.
• Supply, testing and monitoring shall be in
compliance with a Quality Assurance Plan.
• Quality control is a small part of Quality
• Only quality interested client group, quality
interested engineering group and quality
interested construction group, all of whom
demand quality workmanship in engineering,
procurement and construction can assure
best quality of works.
In road construction, Quality
Control deals with testing
materials and end products at
predetermined intervals, finding
their properties, judging their
Quality Assurance
• Quality assurance (QA) is a system or program
used to monitor and evaluate the aspects of a
project, service or facility to determine if
quality standards are being met.
Quality Assurance(contd.)
Contractor assures Engineer
for Quality of works so he
submits Quality Assurance
Plan (QAP) to Engineer for
Quality Assurance(contd.)
• Quality Assurance Plan
Quality Assurance Plan
Quality Assurance Plan includes the following:
1. The Sequence of works (step by step)
2. Quality Control Schedule
3. List of sources of materials and of manufactured
articles, their main characteristics, their
4. List of tests and quality control procedures to be
implemented by Sub-contractors, if any,
5. Organization for Quality Control
Quality Assurance Plan (contd.)
Quality Control Schedule Comprises of:
• Summary of test schedule and testing programme
detailing list of tests for compliance, laboratory trials,
construction control tests and their frequencies, tests for
acceptance of completed works ( e.g. Load test, Non
destructive tests for bridge construction).
• Summary of list of "critical" acceptance testing
procedures, for equipment or parts of the works which
corresponds to tasks on Critical Path according to
construction Programme.
• Estimate of number of tests to be carried out at outside
lab and mention name of lab proposed to carry out tests.
Quality Assurance Plan (contd.)
• Contractor implements Quality Control in
compliance with approved QAP
• Engineer's approval of QAP not relieve
Contractor from his responsibility of quality of
Works to be performed as per Specifications
• Engineer's approval of QAP not exempt
Contractor of any procedure to inform Engineer
in writing or request for Engineer's approval or
re- approval as specified in Conditions of Contract
and/or in Specifications
• Contractor shall monitor and update QAP
• Sample :
A portion, piece, or segment that is
representative of a whole.
An entity that is representative of a class; a
• Sampling is as important as testing and every
precaution shall be taken to obtain samples that
will show the true nature and condition of the
SAMPLING (contd.)
• Sampling of soils and gravels shall be carried out as
specified or as directed by the Engineer.
• Samples shall be prepared for testing as indicated in IS
2720 part I
shall be carried out as per ASTM–D75 and the samples
shall be prepared in accordance with IS 2386 or
according to sampling procedures specified for the
Standard Methods of testing given in Table 6.5.
SAMPLING (contd.)
• Ordinary and High Strength Portland Cement
(OPC and HSPC), Portland Slag Cement (PSC),
Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) shall be
sampled according to IS 3535 and tested
according to IS 4031.
• Limes shall be sampled and tested in accordance
with BS 890
• Sampling and preparation of samples of lime
treated material shall be carried out as specified
or as instructed by the Engineer
SAMPLING (contd.)
• Sampling and testing on concrete shall be carried
out in accordance with the standard methods
given in the Table 6.9
• Sampling of straight-run and cut-back bitumens
shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D
• Sampling of bitumen emulsion shall be carried
out in accordance with BS 434, Part 1, except that
where a delivery is made in drums or barrels, the
number of samples shall be as indicated in
AASHTO sampling method, T40 para.11.1.
SAMPLING (contd.)
• Sampling of Bituminous Mixtures shall be
carried out in accordance with ASTM Method
D 979.
• The sampling and frequency of testing of
Reinforcing Steel shall be as set out in the NS
84-2042 and NS 191-2045.
• Bricks shall conform to NS-1-2035 with the
exceptions specified in Sub-clause 2502(1).
SAMPLING (contd.)
• Mortar shall comply with IS 2250–1981; Code
of Practice for preparation and use of masonry
• Reinforced concrete pipes shall comply with
the requirements of NS 80-2042/IS 458:1988
• High density polythene pipes shall comply
with the requirements of NS 40-2040
• Paint for road marking shall comply with NS
SAMPLING (contd.)
• Precast concrete channels, kerbs, edging, quadrants
and gutters shall comply with the requirements of IS:
5758 - 1984.
• Manhole covers and frames shall be of cast iron and
shall comply with IS: 1726-1991.
• Cast iron gratings for drainage purposes shall comply
with the requirements of IS: 5961 – 1970.
• All wire used in the fabrication of gabions and wiring
operations during construction shall comply with the
requirements of NS:169-2045. The wires shall be
galvanised with heavy coating of zinc. The coating of
zinc shall comply with NS:163-2045
SAMPLING (contd.)
• If otherwise not specified in the contract, no
separate measurement and payment shall be
made for sampling, samples and testing of
materials, trials and construction
control/process control testing. It shall be
deemed to have included in the rates of the
relevant items for complying with the
requirements of this Section 600.
Project …………………………
Sample number …………..
Sampling material…………………….
Depth ……………
Location …………………………..
Chainage ………………
Date of sampling ………………..
Sample taken by ………………….
Tests to be performed …………………………………………………..
Materials for sampling
Aggregates and Sand
Stones From Quarries
Bituminous Materials
Bituminous Paving Mixtures
Fresh Concrete
Hydraulic Cement
Gabion Wire
Soil (Disturbed)
Soil (Un Disturbed)
Reinforcing Bar
Fresh Mortar
Rock (Un Disturbed)
SAMPLING (contd.)
• The sampling may be done for the following
– Preliminary investigation of the potential sources of
– Control of the product at the source of supply,
– Control of the operations at the site of use, and
– Acceptance or rejection of the material
SAMPLING (contd.)
– To ascertain the maximum variation in characteristics
which the material possesses
– To represent an average of the bituminous mixtures
– To ascertain the periodic variation in characteristics of
the mixtures for the purpose of controlling uniformity,
– To determine compliance with quality
requirements of the specification by performing
– to collect the disturbed samples for the determination of
Characteristics of the materials with indication of changes
in strata.
• Sampling Method for Aggregates and Sand