Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Chapter 10
Emotional and Social
Development in Middle Childhood
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Erikson’s Theory:
Industry vs. Inferiority
Industry
Inferiority
 Developing a sense
of competence at
useful skills and
tasks
 School provides
many opportunities
 Pessimism and lack of
confidence in own
ability to do things well
 Negative responses
from family, teachers,
and peers can
contribute to negative
feelings
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Changes in Self-Concept
During Middle Childhood
© Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock
 More balanced, fewer
all-or-none descriptions
 Social comparisons
 Real vs. ideal self
 References social
groups
 Cultural variations
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Hierarchical Structure of
Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood
Figure 10.1
(Photos from left to right: © Mary Kate Denny/PhotoEdit; © Tom Pannell/Corbis; © Mitch Wojnarowicz/The Image Works; Radius
Images/Photolibrary)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Influences on Self-Esteem
 Culture
 Lower for Chinese
and Japanese
 Higher for African
American
© Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock
 Higher if ethnicity and
SES match others
 Gender
 Only slightly higher for
boys.
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Role of Parenting
in Self-Esteem
 Authoritative style is best
 Risks of controlling parenting: low selfesteem, aggression, and antisocial
behavior
 Risks of indulgent parenting:
unrealistically high self-esteem, lashing
out at challenges to overblown selfimages
 Encourage worthwhile goal-setting to
boost self-esteem
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Achievement-Related
Attributions
Reason for
Success
Reason for Failure
Masteryoriented
Ability
Controllable factors that
can be overcome by effort
Learned
helplessness
External
factors
Ability, which cannot
be changed by effort
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Influences on
Learned-Helpless Attributions
 Parents
 believe child incapable
 make trait statements
 Gender differences
 SES, ethnic differences
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Emotional Development
in Middle Childhood
 Self-conscious emotions: governed by
personal responsibility
 Emotional understanding:
 explains emotion using internal states
 understands mixed emotions
 empathy increases
 Emotional self-regulation:
 motivated by self-esteem and peer approval
 emotional self-efficacy
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Coping Strategies
Problem-Centered
Coping
Emotion-Centered
Coping
 Appraise situation
as changeable
 Identify difficulty
 Decide what to do
 Use when problemcentered coping does
not work
 Internal, private, and
aimed at controlling
distress when little can
be done about outcome
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Changes in
Moral Understanding
 Flexible moral rules:
 lying not always bad/truthfulness not
always good
 considers prosocial and antisocial
intentions
 Clarifies link between moral imperatives
and social conventions:
 considers people’s intentions and the
contexts of their actions
 Cultural similarities/differences
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Understanding
Individual Rights
 Challenges adult authority
within personal domain
 Views denials of personal
choice as wrong
 Places limits on personal
choice, typically deciding
in favor of kindness and
fairness
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Understanding
Diversity and Inequality
 By the early school years
 associates power, privilege
with white people
 assigns stereotyped traits to
minorities
 With age, overt prejudice
declines:
© Notte Lourens/Shutterstock
 focuses on inner traits
 subtle prejudice may persist
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Individual Factors
Contributing to Prejudice
© Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock
 Fixed view of
personality traits
 Overly high
self-esteem
 Social world in
which people are
sorted into groups
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Reducing Prejudice
 Long-term intergroup
contact:
 neighborhoods
 schools
 communities
© Monkey Business
Images/Shutterstock
 Fostering belief in
changeability of
human traits
 Volunteering
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Peer Groups
 Organize on basis of
proximity, similarity
 Peer culture:
 vocabulary, dress
code, gathering place
 can involve relational
aggression and
exclusion
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Friendship in
Middle Childhood
 Personal qualities, trust become
important
 More selective in choosing friends:
 tends to select friends similar to self
 Friendships fairly stable, can last several
years
 Type of friends affects development:
 aggressive friends often magnify antisocial
acts
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Categories of
Peer Acceptance
Popular
Rejected




popular-prosocial
popular-antisocial
rejected-aggressive
rejected-withdrawn
Controversial
Neglected
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Bullies and Victims
Bullies
Victims
 Most are boys
 Physically, verbally,
relationally
aggressive
 Socially prominent,
powerful
 Passive when active
behavior expected
 Lack defenders
 Inhibited temperament
 Physically frail
 Overly protective,
controlling parents
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Helping Rejected Children
 Coach positive social
skills.
 Promote perspective
taking and social
problem solving.
 Alter peers’ negative
opinions.
 Intervene in negative
parenting practices.
© Dawn Shearer-Simonetti/Shutterstock
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Gender Typing in
Middle Childhood
 Gender stereotypes:
 extended to include personalities and
school subjects
 more flexible views of what males and
females can do
 Gender identity (third–sixth grade):
 boys’ “masculine” identification strengthens
 girls become more androgynous
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Gender Identity
 Self-evaluations
affect adjustment:
© Elaine Willcock/Shutterstock
 gender typicality
 gender contentedness
 felt pressure to
conform to gender
roles
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Family Relationships
 Parents:
 coregulation
 Siblings:
 rivalry
 companionship
© Andresr/Shutterstock
and assistance
 parental encouragement
of warm sibling ties
is vital
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Only Children
 High in self-esteem,
achievement motivation
 Closer relationships
with parents:
 greater pressure
for mastery
 Peer acceptance tends
to be less favorable:
© tokyoimagegroups/Shutterstock
 lack of practice in conflict
resolution
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
International Divorce Rates
Figure 10.2 (Adapted
from U.S. Census Bureau,
2012b.)
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Consequences of
Parental Divorce
Immediate
Long-Term
 Drop in income
 Improved adjustment
after two years
 Parental stress,
disorganized
 Multiple divorces
home life
associated with greater
adjustment difficulties
 Child reactions
vary with age, sex,  Father’s involvement and
temperament
effective coparenting
improve adjustment
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Helping Families
Through Divorce
 Shield children from conflict.
 Provide continuity in daily life.
 Explain the divorce.
 Emphasize permanence of
situation.
 Sympathize with children’s
feelings.
 Use authoritative parenting.
 Promote relationship with
both parents.
© Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Blended Families
Mother–Stepfather
Father–Stepmother
 Most common
 Boys tend to adjust
quickly
 Girls often adapt less
favorably
 Older children and
adolescents of both
sexes display more
adjustment problems
 Often leads to reduced
father–child contact
 Children in father
custody often react
negatively
 Girls and stepmothers
slow to get along at
first, gradually adapt
favorably
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Maternal Employment and
Child Development
 Benefits:
 higher self-esteem
 positive family and peer
relations
 fewer gender stereotypes
 better grades
 more father involvement
© c12/Shutterstock
 Drawbacks:
 heavy employment demands
associated with ineffective
parenting
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Fears and Anxieties in
Middle Childhood
 Common fears include





poor academic performance
peer rejection
personal harm
threats to parents’ health
frightening media events
 School phobia:
 5–7 years: maternal separation
 11–13: particular aspects of school
 Harsh living conditions promote severe
anxieties
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Ethnic and Political Violence
 Chronically dangerous
environments:




loss of sense of safety
desensitization to violence
impaired moral reasoning
pessimistic view of future
© ZouZou/Shutterstock
 Parents, communities, schools
must provide reassurance,
security, intervention:
 preserve physical, psychological,
educational well-being
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Child Sexual Abuse
 More often girls
Characteristics
 Most cases reported in middle
of victims
childhood
 Usually male
Characteristics  Usually a parent or known by parent
of abusers
 Internet and mobile phones used to
commit abuse
Consequences
 Emotional, physical, and behavioral
reactions
 May persist for years
Prevention and  Prevention: education
treatment
 Treatment: long-term therapy
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Factors Related to Resilience
 Personal characteristics:
 easy temperament
 mastery orientation
© Sascha Burkard/Shutterstock
 Warm parental
relationship
 Supportive adult outside
family
 Community resources
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